Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Doctoral Theseshttp://hdl.handle.net/10468/5812014-07-29T04:38:27Z2014-07-29T04:38:27ZEnergy harvesting system design and optimization for wireless sensor networksWang, Wensihttp://hdl.handle.net/10468/14102014-02-25T13:33:19Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZEnergy harvesting system design and optimization for wireless sensor networks
Wang, Wensi
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming widely adopted for many applications including complicated tasks like building energy management. However, one major concern for WSN technologies is the short lifetime and high maintenance cost due to the limited battery energy. One of the solutions is to scavenge ambient energy, which is then rectified to power the WSN. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of an ultra-low energy consumption power management system suitable for harvesting sub-mW photovoltaic and thermoelectric energy to power WSNs. To achieve this goal, energy harvesting system architectures have been analyzed. Detailed analysis of energy storage units (ESU) have led to an innovative ESU solution for the target applications. Battery-less, long-lifetime ESU and its associated power management circuitry, including fast-charge circuit, self-start circuit, output voltage regulation circuit and hybrid ESU, using a combination of super-capacitor and thin film battery, were developed to achieve continuous operation of energy harvester. Low start-up voltage DC/DC converters have been developed for 1mW level thermoelectric energy harvesting. The novel method of altering thermoelectric generator (TEG) configuration in order to match impedance has been verified in this work. Novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits, exploring the fractional open circuit voltage method, were particularly developed to suit the sub-1mW photovoltaic energy harvesting applications. The MPPT energy model has been developed and verified against both SPICE simulation and implemented prototypes. Both indoor light and thermoelectric energy harvesting methods proposed in this thesis have been implemented into prototype devices. The improved indoor light energy harvester prototype demonstrates 81% MPPT conversion efficiency with 0.5mW input power. This important improvement makes light energy harvesting from small energy sources (i.e. credit card size solar panel in 500lux indoor lighting conditions) a feasible approach. The 50mm × 54mm thermoelectric energy harvester prototype generates 0.95mW when placed on a 60oC heat source with 28% conversion efficiency. Both prototypes can be used to continuously power WSN for building energy management applications in typical office building environment. In addition to the hardware development, a comprehensive system energy model has been developed. This system energy model not only can be used to predict the available and consumed energy based on real-world ambient conditions, but also can be employed to optimize the system design and configuration. This energy model has been verified by indoor photovoltaic energy harvesting system prototypes in long-term deployed experiments.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZAnalysing energy detector diversity receivers for spectrum sensingHorgan, Donaghhttp://hdl.handle.net/10468/14252014-03-04T03:00:17Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZAnalysing energy detector diversity receivers for spectrum sensing
Horgan, Donagh
The analysis of energy detector systems is a well studied topic in the literature: numerous models have been derived describing the behaviour of single and multiple antenna architectures operating in a variety of radio environments. However, in many cases of interest, these models are not in a closed form and so their evaluation requires the use of numerical methods. In general, these are computationally expensive, which can cause difficulties in certain scenarios, such as in the optimisation of device parameters on low cost hardware. The problem becomes acute in situations where the signal to noise ratio is small and reliable detection is to be ensured or where the number of samples of the received signal is large. Furthermore, due to the analytic complexity of the models, further insight into the behaviour of various system parameters of interest is not readily apparent. In this thesis, an approximation based approach is taken towards the analysis of such systems. By focusing on the situations where exact analyses become complicated, and making a small number of astute simplifications to the underlying mathematical models, it is possible to derive novel, accurate and compact descriptions of system behaviour. Approximations are derived for the analysis of energy detectors with single and multiple antennae operating on additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and independent and identically distributed Rayleigh, Nakagami-m and Rice channels; in the multiple antenna case, approximations are derived for systems with maximal ratio combiner (MRC), equal gain combiner (EGC) and square law combiner (SLC) diversity. In each case, error bounds are derived describing the maximum error resulting from the use of the approximations. In addition, it is demonstrated that the derived approximations require fewer computations of simple functions than any of the exact models available in the literature. Consequently, the regions of applicability of the approximations directly complement the regions of applicability of the available exact models. Further novel approximations for other system parameters of interest, such as sample complexity, minimum detectable signal to noise ratio and diversity gain, are also derived. In the course of the analysis, a novel theorem describing the convergence of the chi square, noncentral chi square and gamma distributions towards the normal distribution is derived. The theorem describes a tight upper bound on the error resulting from the application of the central limit theorem to random variables of the aforementioned distributions and gives a much better description of the resulting error than existing Berry-Esseen type bounds. A second novel theorem, providing an upper bound on the maximum error resulting from the use of the central limit theorem to approximate the noncentral chi square distribution where the noncentrality parameter is a multiple of the number of degrees of freedom, is also derived.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZHardware design of cryptographic acceleratorsBaldwin, Brian Johnhttp://hdl.handle.net/10468/11122014-02-17T17:44:14Z2013-01-01T00:00:00ZHardware design of cryptographic accelerators
Baldwin, Brian John
With the rapid growth of the Internet and digital communications, the volume of sensitive electronic transactions being transferred and stored over and on insecure media has increased dramatically in recent years. The growing demand for cryptographic systems to secure this data, across a multitude of platforms, ranging from large servers to small mobile devices and smart cards, has necessitated research into low cost, flexible and secure solutions. As constraints on architectures such as area, speed and power become key factors in choosing a cryptosystem, methods for speeding up the development and evaluation process are necessary. This thesis investigates flexible hardware architectures for the main components of a cryptographic system. Dedicated hardware accelerators can provide significant performance improvements when compared to implementations on general purpose processors. Each of the designs proposed are analysed in terms of speed, area, power, energy and efficiency. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are chosen as the development platform due to their fast development time and reconfigurable nature. Firstly, a reconfigurable architecture for performing elliptic curve point scalar multiplication on an FPGA is presented. Elliptic curve cryptography is one such method to secure data, offering similar security levels to traditional systems, such as RSA, but with smaller key sizes, translating into lower memory and bandwidth requirements. The architecture is implemented using different underlying algorithms and coordinates for dedicated Double-and-Add algorithms, twisted Edwards algorithms and SPA secure algorithms, and its power consumption and energy on an FPGA measured. Hardware implementation results for these new algorithms are compared against their software counterparts and the best choices for minimum area-time and area-energy circuits are then identified and examined for larger key and field sizes. Secondly, implementation methods for another component of a cryptographic system, namely hash functions, developed in the recently concluded SHA-3 hash competition are presented. Various designs from the three rounds of the NIST run competition are implemented on FPGA along with an interface to allow fair comparison of the different hash functions when operating in a standardised and constrained environment. Different methods of implementation for the designs and their subsequent performance is examined in terms of throughput, area and energy costs using various constraint metrics. Comparing many different implementation methods and algorithms is nontrivial. Another aim of this thesis is the development of generic interfaces used both to reduce implementation and test time and also to enable fair baseline comparisons of different algorithms when operating in a standardised and constrained environment. Finally, a hardware-software co-design cryptographic architecture is presented. This architecture is capable of supporting multiple types of cryptographic algorithms and is described through an application for performing public key cryptography, namely the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). This architecture makes use of the elliptic curve architecture and the hash functions described previously. These components, along with a random number generator, provide hardware acceleration for a Microblaze based cryptographic system. The trade-off in terms of performance for flexibility is discussed using dedicated software, and hardware-software co-design implementations of the elliptic curve point scalar multiplication block. Results are then presented in terms of the overall cryptographic system.
2013-01-01T00:00:00ZSystematic delay-driven power optimisation and power-driven delay optimisation of combinational circuitsMehrotra, Rashmihttp://hdl.handle.net/10468/11112014-05-08T04:00:05Z2013-01-01T00:00:00ZSystematic delay-driven power optimisation and power-driven delay optimisation of combinational circuits
Mehrotra, Rashmi
With the proliferation of mobile wireless communication and embedded systems, the energy efficiency becomes a major design constraint. The dissipated energy is often referred as the product of power dissipation and the input-output delay. Most of electronic design automation techniques focus on optimising only one of these parameters either power or delay. Industry standard design flows integrate systematic methods of optimising either area or timing while for power consumption optimisation one often employs heuristics which are characteristic to a specific design. In this work we answer three questions in our quest to provide a systematic approach to joint power and delay Optimisation. The first question of our research is: How to build a design flow which incorporates academic and industry standard design flows for power optimisation? To address this question, we use a reference design flow provided by Synopsys and integrate in this flow academic tools and methodologies. The proposed design flow is used as a platform for analysing some novel algorithms and methodologies for optimisation in the context of digital circuits. The second question we answer is: Is possible to apply a systematic approach for power optimisation in the context of combinational digital circuits? The starting point is a selection of a suitable data structure which can easily incorporate information about delay, power, area and which then allows optimisation algorithms to be applied. In particular we address the implications of a systematic power optimisation methodologies and the potential degradation of other (often conflicting) parameters such as area or the delay of implementation. Finally, the third question which this thesis attempts to answer is: Is there a systematic approach for multi-objective optimisation of delay and power? A delay-driven power and power-driven delay optimisation is proposed in order to have balanced delay and power values. This implies that each power optimisation step is not only constrained by the decrease in power but also the increase in delay. Similarly, each delay optimisation step is not only governed with the decrease in delay but also the increase in power. The goal is to obtain multi-objective optimisation of digital circuits where the two conflicting objectives are power and delay. The logic synthesis and optimisation methodology is based on AND-Inverter Graphs (AIGs) which represent the functionality of the circuit. The switching activities and arrival times of circuit nodes are annotated onto an AND-Inverter Graph under the zero and a non-zero-delay model. We introduce then several reordering rules which are applied on the AIG nodes to minimise switching power or longest path delay of the circuit at the pre-technology mapping level. The academic Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool ABC is used for the manipulation of AND-Inverter Graphs. We have implemented various combinatorial optimisation algorithms often used in Electronic Design Automation such as Simulated Annealing and Uniform Cost Search Algorithm. Simulated Annealing (SMA) is a probabilistic meta heuristic for the global optimization problem of locating a good approximation to the global optimum of a given function in a large search space. We used SMA to probabilistically decide between moving from one optimised solution to another such that the dynamic power is optimised under given delay constraints and the delay is optimised under given power constraints. A good approximation to the global optimum solution of energy constraint is obtained. Uniform Cost Search (UCS) is a tree search algorithm used for traversing or searching a weighted tree, tree structure, or graph. We have used Uniform Cost Search Algorithm to search within the AIG network, a specific AIG node order for the reordering rules application. After the reordering rules application, the AIG network is mapped to an AIG netlist using specific library cells. Our approach combines network re-structuring, AIG nodes reordering, dynamic power and longest path delay estimation and optimisation and finally technology mapping to an AIG netlist. A set of MCNC Benchmark circuits and large combinational circuits up to 100,000 gates have been used to validate our methodology. Comparisons for power and delay optimisation are made with the best synthesis scripts used in ABC. Reduction of 23% in power and 15% in delay with minimal overhead is achieved, compared to the best known ABC results. Also, our approach is also implemented on a number of processors with combinational and sequential components and significant savings are achieved.
2013-01-01T00:00:00Z