Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Doctoral Theses
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/581
2015-11-30T13:25:40ZA microscopic study of structural and electronic properties of functionalized silicon surfaces based on first-principles
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1879
A microscopic study of structural and electronic properties of functionalized silicon surfaces based on first-principles
Arefi, Hadi Hassanian
Surface modification of silicon with organic monolayers tethered to the surface by different linkers is an important process in realizing future (opto-)electronic devices. Understanding the role played by the nature of the linking group and the chain length on the adsorption structures and electronic properties of these assemblies is vital to advance this technology. This Thesis is a study of such properties and contributes in particular to a microscopic understanding of induced changes in the work function of experimentally studied functionalized silicon surfaces. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), at the first step, we provide predictions for chemical trends in the work function of hydrogenated silicon (111) surfaces modified with various terminations. For nonpolar terminating atomic species such as F, Cl, Br, and I, the change in the work function is directly proportional to the amount of charge transferred from the surface, thus relating to the difference in electronegativity of the adsorbate and silicon atoms. The change is a monotonic function of coverage in this case, and the work function increases with increasing electronegativity. Polar species such as −TeH, −SeH, −SH, −OH, −NH2, −CH3, and −BH2 do not follow this trend due to the interaction of their dipole with the induced electric field at the surface. In this case, the magnitude and sign of the surface dipole moment need to be considered in addition to the bond dipole to generally describe the change in work function. Compared to hydrogenated surfaces, there is slight increase in the work function of H:Si(111)-XH, where X = Te, Se, and S, whereas reduction is observed for surfaces covered with −OH, −CH3, and −NH2. Next, we study the hydrogen passivated Si(111) surface modified with alkyl chains of the general formula H:Si–(CH2)n–CH2 and H:Si–X–(CH2)n–CH3, where X = NH, O, S and n = (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11), at half coverage. For (X)–Hexyl and (X)–Dodecyl functionalization, we also examined various coverages up to full monolayer grafting in order to validate the result of half covered surface and the linker effect on the coverage. We find that it is necessary to take into account the van der Waals interaction between the alkyl chains. The strongest binding is for the oxygen linker, followed by S, N, and C, irrespective of chain length. The result revealed that the sequence of the stability is independent of coverage; however, linkers other than carbon can shift the optimum coverage considerably and allow further packing density. For all linkers apart from sulfur, structural properties, in particular, surface-linker-chain angles, saturate to a single value once n > 3. For sulfur, we identify three regimes, namely, n = 0–3, n = 5–7, and n = 9–11, each with its own characteristic adsorption structures. Where possible, our computational results are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data and show how the fundamental structural properties of modified Si surfaces can be controlled by the choice of linking group and chain length. Later we continue by examining the work function tuning of H:Si(111) over a range of 1.73 eV through adsorption of alkyl monolayers with general formula -[Xhead-group]-(CnH2n)-[Xtail-group], X = O(H), S(H), NH(2). The work function is practically converged at 4 carbons (8 for oxygen), for head-group functionalization. For tail-group functionalization and with both head- and tail-groups, there is an odd-even effect in the behavior of the work function, with peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 1.7 eV in the oscillations. This behavior is explained through the orientation of the terminal-group's dipole. The shift in the work function is largest for NH2-linked and smallest for SH-linked chains and is rationalized in terms of interface dipoles. Our study reveals that the choice of the head- and/or tail-groups effectively changes the impact of the alkyl chain length on the work function tuning using self-assembled monolayers and this is an important advance in utilizing hybrid functionalized Si surfaces. Bringing together the understanding gained from studying single type functionalization of H:Si(111) with different alkyl chains and bearing in mind how to utilize head-group, tail-group or both as well as monolayer coverage, in the final part of this Thesis we study functionalized H:Si(111) with binary SAMs. Aiming at enhancing work function adjustment together with SAM stability and coverage we choose a range of terminations and linker-chains denoted as –X–(Alkyl) with X = CH3, O(H), S(H), NH(2) and investigate the stability and work function of various binary components grafted onto H:Si(111) surface. Using binary functionalization with -[NH(2)/O(H)/S(H)]-[Hexyl/Dodecyl] we show that work function can be tuned within the interval of 3.65-4.94 eV and furthermore, enhance the SAM’s stability. Although direct Si-C grafted SAMs are less favourable compared to their counterparts with O, N or S linkage, regardless of the ratio, binary functionalized alkyl monolayers with X-alkyl (X = NH, O) is always more stable than single type alkyl functionalization with the same coverage. Our results indicate that it is possible to go beyond the optimum coverage of pure alkyl functionalized SAMs (50%) by adding a linker with the correct choice of the linker. This is very important since dense packed monolayers have fewer defects and deliver higher efficiency. Our results indicate that binary anchoring can modify the charge injection and therefore bond stability while preserving the interface electronic structure.
2015-01-01T00:00:00ZAnalysing energy detector diversity receivers for spectrum sensing
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1425
Analysing energy detector diversity receivers for spectrum sensing
Horgan, Donagh
The analysis of energy detector systems is a well studied topic in the literature: numerous models have been derived describing the behaviour of single and multiple antenna architectures operating in a variety of radio environments. However, in many cases of interest, these models are not in a closed form and so their evaluation requires the use of numerical methods. In general, these are computationally expensive, which can cause difficulties in certain scenarios, such as in the optimisation of device parameters on low cost hardware. The problem becomes acute in situations where the signal to noise ratio is small and reliable detection is to be ensured or where the number of samples of the received signal is large. Furthermore, due to the analytic complexity of the models, further insight into the behaviour of various system parameters of interest is not readily apparent. In this thesis, an approximation based approach is taken towards the analysis of such systems. By focusing on the situations where exact analyses become complicated, and making a small number of astute simplifications to the underlying mathematical models, it is possible to derive novel, accurate and compact descriptions of system behaviour. Approximations are derived for the analysis of energy detectors with single and multiple antennae operating on additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and independent and identically distributed Rayleigh, Nakagami-m and Rice channels; in the multiple antenna case, approximations are derived for systems with maximal ratio combiner (MRC), equal gain combiner (EGC) and square law combiner (SLC) diversity. In each case, error bounds are derived describing the maximum error resulting from the use of the approximations. In addition, it is demonstrated that the derived approximations require fewer computations of simple functions than any of the exact models available in the literature. Consequently, the regions of applicability of the approximations directly complement the regions of applicability of the available exact models. Further novel approximations for other system parameters of interest, such as sample complexity, minimum detectable signal to noise ratio and diversity gain, are also derived. In the course of the analysis, a novel theorem describing the convergence of the chi square, noncentral chi square and gamma distributions towards the normal distribution is derived. The theorem describes a tight upper bound on the error resulting from the application of the central limit theorem to random variables of the aforementioned distributions and gives a much better description of the resulting error than existing Berry-Esseen type bounds. A second novel theorem, providing an upper bound on the maximum error resulting from the use of the central limit theorem to approximate the noncentral chi square distribution where the noncentrality parameter is a multiple of the number of degrees of freedom, is also derived.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZEnergy harvesting system design and optimization for wireless sensor networks
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1410
Energy harvesting system design and optimization for wireless sensor networks
Wang, Wensi
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming widely adopted for many applications including complicated tasks like building energy management. However, one major concern for WSN technologies is the short lifetime and high maintenance cost due to the limited battery energy. One of the solutions is to scavenge ambient energy, which is then rectified to power the WSN. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of an ultra-low energy consumption power management system suitable for harvesting sub-mW photovoltaic and thermoelectric energy to power WSNs. To achieve this goal, energy harvesting system architectures have been analyzed. Detailed analysis of energy storage units (ESU) have led to an innovative ESU solution for the target applications. Battery-less, long-lifetime ESU and its associated power management circuitry, including fast-charge circuit, self-start circuit, output voltage regulation circuit and hybrid ESU, using a combination of super-capacitor and thin film battery, were developed to achieve continuous operation of energy harvester. Low start-up voltage DC/DC converters have been developed for 1mW level thermoelectric energy harvesting. The novel method of altering thermoelectric generator (TEG) configuration in order to match impedance has been verified in this work. Novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits, exploring the fractional open circuit voltage method, were particularly developed to suit the sub-1mW photovoltaic energy harvesting applications. The MPPT energy model has been developed and verified against both SPICE simulation and implemented prototypes. Both indoor light and thermoelectric energy harvesting methods proposed in this thesis have been implemented into prototype devices. The improved indoor light energy harvester prototype demonstrates 81% MPPT conversion efficiency with 0.5mW input power. This important improvement makes light energy harvesting from small energy sources (i.e. credit card size solar panel in 500lux indoor lighting conditions) a feasible approach. The 50mm × 54mm thermoelectric energy harvester prototype generates 0.95mW when placed on a 60oC heat source with 28% conversion efficiency. Both prototypes can be used to continuously power WSN for building energy management applications in typical office building environment. In addition to the hardware development, a comprehensive system energy model has been developed. This system energy model not only can be used to predict the available and consumed energy based on real-world ambient conditions, but also can be employed to optimize the system design and configuration. This energy model has been verified by indoor photovoltaic energy harvesting system prototypes in long-term deployed experiments.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZResearch and design of high-speed advanced analogue front-ends for fibre-optic transmission systems
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1767
Research and design of high-speed advanced analogue front-ends for fibre-optic transmission systems
Quadir, Nasir Abdul
In the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of large, warehouse-scale data centres which have enabled new internet-based software applications such as cloud computing, search engines, social media, e-government etc. Such data centres consist of large collections of servers interconnected using short-reach (reach up to a few hundred meters) optical interconnect. Today, transceivers for these applications achieve up to 100Gb/s by multiplexing 10x 10Gb/s or 4x 25Gb/s channels. In the near future however, data centre operators have expressed a need for optical links which can support 400Gb/s up to 1Tb/s. The crucial challenge is to achieve this in the same footprint (same transceiver module) and with similar power consumption as today’s technology. Straightforward scaling of the currently used space or wavelength division multiplexing may be difficult to achieve: indeed a 1Tb/s transceiver would require integration of 40 VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode, widely used for short‐reach optical interconnect), 40 photodiodes and the electronics operating at 25Gb/s in the same module as today’s 100Gb/s transceiver. Pushing the bit rate on such links beyond today’s commercially available 100Gb/s/fibre will require new generations of VCSELs and their driver and receiver electronics. This work looks into a number of state‐of-the-art technologies and investigates their performance restraints and recommends different set of designs, specifically targeting multilevel modulation formats. Several methods to extend the bandwidth using deep submicron (65nm and 28nm) CMOS technology are explored in this work, while also maintaining a focus upon reducing power consumption and chip area. The techniques used were pre-emphasis in rising and falling edges of the signal and bandwidth extensions by inductive peaking and different local feedback techniques. These techniques have been applied to a transmitter and receiver developed for advanced modulation formats such as PAM-4 (4 level pulse amplitude modulation). Such modulation format can increase the throughput per individual channel, which helps to overcome the challenges mentioned above to realize 400Gb/s to 1Tb/s transceivers.
2014-01-01T00:00:00Z