Browsing INFANT Research Centre by Author "Ahearne, Caroline E."
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- ItemMicrocytosis is associated with low cognitive outcomes in healthy 2-year-olds in a high-resource setting(Cambridge University Press, 2017-09-13) McCarthy, Elaine K.; Kiely, Mairead E.; Hannon, Geraldine; Ahearne, Caroline E.; Kenny, Louise C.; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Irvine, Alan D.; Murray, Deirdre M.; Health Research Board; Science Foundation Ireland; Danone; National Children’s Research Centre, Ireland; Food Standards AgencyFe deficiency in early childhood is associated with long-term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development; however explorations in healthy children from low risk, high-resource settings have been limited. We aimed to explore associations between Fe status and neurodevelopmental outcomes in low risk, healthy 2-year-olds. This study was a secondary analysis of a nested case–control subgroup from the prospective, maternal-infant Cork Babies after Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE) Birth Cohort Study. At 2 years, serum ferritin, Hb and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured and neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (n 87). Five children had Fe deficiency (ferritin <12 µg/l) and no child had Fe deficiency anaemia (Hb<110 g/l+ferritin<12 µg/l). Children with microcytosis (MCV<74 fl, n 13) had significantly lower mean cognitive composite scores (88·5 (sd 13·3) v. 97·0 (sd 7·8), P=0·04, Cohen’s d effect size=0·8) than those without microcytosis. The ferritin concentration which best predicted microcytosis was calculated as 18·4 µg/l (AUC=0·87 (95% CI 0·75, 0·98), P<0·0001, sensitivity 92 %, specificity 75 %). Using 18·5 µg/l as a threshold, children with concentrations <18·5 µg/l had significantly lower mean cognitive composite scores (92·3 (sd 10·5) v. 97·8 (sd 8·1), P=0·012, Cohen’s d effect size=0·6) compared with those with ferritin ≥18·5 µg/l. All associations were robust after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Despite a low prevalence of Fe deficiency using current diagnostic criteria in this healthy cohort, microcytosis was associated with lower cognitive outcomes at 2 years. This exploratory study emphasises the need for re-evaluation of the diagnostic criteria for Fe deficiency in young children, with further research in adequately powered studies warranted.
- ItemSeizure burden and neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.(John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press, 2016-09) Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Livingstone, Vicki; Murray, Deirdre M.; Murphy, Brendan P.; Ahearne, Caroline E.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Science Foundation Ireland; Wellcome Trust, United KingdomAim: To examine the relationship between electrographic seizures and long-term outcome in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Method: Full-term neonates with HIE born in Cork University Maternity Hospital from 2003 to 2006 (pre-hypothermia era) and 2009 to 2012 (hypothermia era) were included in this observational study. All had early continuous electroencephalography monitoring. All electrographic seizures were annotated. The total seizure burden and hourly seizure burden were calculated. Outcome (normal/abnormal) was assessed at 24 to 48 months in surviving neonates using either the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the Griffiths Mental Development Scales; a diagnosis of cerebral palsy or epilepsy was also considered an abnormal outcome. Results: Continuous electroencephalography was recorded for a median of 57.1 hours (interquartile range 33.5-80.5h) in 47 neonates (31 males, 16 females); 29 out of 47 (62%) had electrographic seizures and 25 out of 47 (53%) had an abnormal outcome. The presence of seizures per se was not associated with abnormal outcome (p=0.126); however, the odds of an abnormal outcome increased over ninefold (odds ratio [OR] 9.56; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.43-37.67) if a neonate had a total seizure burden of more than 40 minutes (p=0.001), and eightfold (OR: 8.00; 95% CI: 2.06-31.07) if a neonate had a maximum hourly seizure burden of more than 13 minutes per hour (p=0.003). Controlling for electrographic HIE grade or treatment with hypothermia did not change the direction of the relationship between seizure burden and outcome. Interpretation: In HIE, a high electrographic seizure burden is significantly associated with abnormal outcome, independent of HIE severity or treatment with hypothermia.