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- ItemA shuttle vector system for the rapid detection of recombination in murine cells.(Oxford University Press, 1993-11-25) Fanning, Liam J.; McCarthy, Tommie V.
- ItemThe Irish paradigm on the natural progression of hepatitis C virus infection: an investigation in a homogeneous patient population infected with HCV 1b (Review)(Spandidos Publications, 2002-02-01) Fanning, Liam J.The aetiological agent of chronic hepatitis C is the hepatitis C virus. The hepatitis C virus is spread by parenteral transmission of body fluids, primarily blood or blood products. In 1989, after more than a decade of research, HCV was isolated and characterised. The hepatitis C viral genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule approximately 9.4 kb in length, which encodes a polyprotein of about 3100 amino acids. There are 6 main genotypes of HCV, each further stratified by subtype. In 1994, a cohort of women was identified in Ireland as having been iatrogenically exposed to the hepatitis C virus. The women were all young and exposed as a consequence of the receipt of HCV 1b contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. The source of the infection was identified as an acutely infected female. As part of a voluntary serological screening programme involving 62,667 people, 704 individuals were identified as seropositive for exposure to the hepatitis C virus; 55.4% were found to be positive for the viral genome 17 years after exposure. Of these women 98% had evidence of inflammation, but suprisingly, a remarkable 49% showed no evidence of fibrosis. Clinicopathology and virological analysis has identified associations between viral load and the histological activity index for inflammation, and, between inflammation and levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase. Infection at a younger age appears to protect individuals from progression to advanced liver disease. Molecular analyses of host immunogenetic elements shows that particular class II human leukocyte associated antigen alleles are associated with clearance of the hepatitis C virus. Additional class II alleles have been identified that are associated with stable viraemia over an extended period of patient follow-up. Although, investigation of large untreated homogeneous cohorts is likely to become more difficult, as the efficacy of anti-viral therapy improves, further investigation of host and viral factors that influence disease progression will help provide an evidence based approach were realistic expectations regarding patient prognosis can be ascertained.
- ItemMechanisms of adherence of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain during and after in vivo assessment in ulcerative colitis patients(Co-Action Publishing, 2004-07) Dunne, Colum P.; Kelly, Peter; O'Halloran, Sile; Soden, Declan; Bennett, Mary; von Wright, Atte; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; Kiely, Barry; O'Mahony, Liam; Collins, J. Kevin; O'Sullivan, Gerald C.; Shanahan, Fergus; European Regional Development Fund; Department of Agriculture and Food, Ireland; Health Research Board; Science Foundation Ireland; European Commission; Higher Education AuthorityIn a pilot-scale, open-label study to determine the ability of well-characterized probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 cells to adhere to human epithelial cells in situ , the bacterial strain was administered to ulcerative colitis patients at approximately 109 CFU/day for 12 days. Microbiological analysis of biopsy specimens demonstrated that the ingested bacteria effectively adhered to both inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of the large bowel in significant numbers. In previous reports, we have described the ability of the lactobacilli to adhere to enterocytic epithelial cells in vitro. In this study, we found that the bacteria adhered at higher levels to differentiated rather than undifferentiated epithelial monolayers; and that stationary phase lactobacilli were found to adhere to eukaryotic HT-29 and Caco-2 epithelial cells at greater levels than log phase bacterial cells. Pretreatment of the Lactobacillus cells with proteolytic enzymes abolished attachment, indicating the potential involvement of surface/exposed protein(s) as bacterial adhesin(s). SDS-PAGE (denaturing) techniques determined that the proteolytic treatment resulted in degradation of a cell wall-associated protein of approximately 84 kDa. The proteinaceous factor was purified by both anion-exchange chromatography and by gel extraction after SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and under in vitro assay conditions proved capable of adherence and significant inhibition of bacterial attachment to enterocytic epithelial cells. Key words: probiotic, Lactobacillus, adhesin, cell-borne, proteinaceous.
- ItemCase records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 7-2005. A 59-year-old woman with an incidentally discovered adrenal nodule.(Massachusetts Medical Society, 2005-03-10) Dluhy, R. G.; Maher, Michael M.; Wu, C. L.
- ItemDivergent and convergent evolution after a common-source outbreak of hepatitis C virus.(© 2005 Rockefeller University Press, 2005-06) Ray, Stuart C.; Fanning, Liam J.; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Netski, Dale M.; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Thomas, David L.; Health Research BoardThe genomic sequences of viruses that are highly mutable and cause chronic infection tend to diverge over time. We report that these changes represent both immune-driven selection and, in the absence of immune pressure, reversion toward an ancestral consensus. Sequence changes in hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural and nonstructural genes were studied in a cohort of women accidentally infected with HCV in a rare common-source outbreak. We compared sequences present in serum obtained 18–22 yr after infection to sequences present in the shared inoculum and found that HCV evolved along a distinct path in each woman. Amino acid substitutions in known epitopes were directed away from consensus in persons having the HLA allele associated with that epitope (immune selection), and toward consensus in those lacking the allele (reversion). These data suggest that vaccines for genetically diverse viruses may be more effective if they represent consensus sequence, rather than a human isolate.
- ItemThe incidence of postoperative venous thrombosis among patients with ulcerative colitis(Springer, 2005-07) O'Connor, Owen J.; Cahill, Ronan A.; Kirwan, William O.; Redmond, H. PaulBackground: Patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have inherent prothrombotic tendencies. It is unknown whether this necessitates the use of additional perioperative anti-thrombotic prophylaxis when such patients require major surgery. Methods: The postoperative courses of 79 patients with UC undergoing 180 major abdominal and pelvic operations were examined for clinical and radiological evidence of venous thrombosis. Eighteen patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) having surgery (35 operations) of similar magnitude were also studied. Standard anti-thrombosis prophylaxis was utilised in all patients. Results: Nine patients with UC were clinically suspected of developing postoperative venous thrombosis, but only three (3.8%) had their diagnosis confirmed radiologically (all had a pulmonary embolus). Therefore, the overall postoperative thrombosis rate, on an intention to treat basis, was 1.7% (3/180). No patient with FAP developed significant venous thrombosis. Conclusion: Standard perioperative antithrombotic modalities are sufficient to maintain any potential increase in postoperative thrombotic risk at an acceptable level in patients with UC undergoing operative intervention.
- ItemGastric electrical stimulation: a report of two cases(Irish Medical Organisation, 2005-12) Sibartie, Vikrant; Quigley, Eamonn M.; O'Donnell, Aonghus P.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Science Foundation IrelandGastroparesis refractory to prokinetic agents poses a major challenge to the physician and patient, alike. In the past 5 years, electrical methods to treat gastroparesis have emerged from animal and human experiments to a potentially valuable tool in clinical gastroenterology. One of these methods, known as gastric electrical stimulation (GES), is being increasingly used in specialized centres worldwide, but had never been tried in Ireland. We describe here our experience with the first two implantations of gastric neurostimulators performed in Ireland and the outcome with these 2 patients. Our results at 6 months show reduction in symptoms and improvement in quality of life, which is encouraging and should prompt further evaluation of GES for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy.
- ItemCase records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 3-2006. A 63-year-old woman with jaundice and a pancreatic mass.(Massachusetts Medical Society, 2006-01-26) Schapiro, R. H.; Maher, Michael M.; Misdraji, J.
- ItemFas ligand expression in human and mouse cancer cell lines; a caveat on over-reliance on mRNA data(Medknow Publications, 2006-02-02) Ryan, Aideen E.; Lane, Sinead; Shanahan, Fergus; O'Connell, Joe; Houston, Aileen M.; Science Foundation Ireland; Enterprise Ireland; Wellcome Trust; Health Research Board; Higher Education AuthorityBackground: During carcinogenesis, tumors develop multiple mechanisms for evading the immune response, including upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) expression. Expression of FasL may help to maintain tumor cells in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of antitumor immune effector cells. Recently this idea has been challenged by studies reporting that tumor cells of varying origin do not express FasL. In the present study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize FasL expression in tumors of both murine and human origin over a 72 hour time period. Methods: RNA and protein was extracted from six human (SW620, HT29, SW480, KM12SM,HCT116, Jurkat) and three mouse (CMT93, CT26, B16F10) cancer cell lines at regular time intervals over a 72 hour time period. FasL expression was detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR, using intron spanning primers, and at the protein level by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal FasL- specific antibody. Results: Expression of FasL mRNA and protein was observed in all cell lines analysed. However, expression of FasL mRNA varied dramatically over time, with cells negative for FasL mRNA at many time points. In contrast, 8 of the 9 cell lines constitutively expressed FasL protein. Thus, cells can abundantly express FasL protein at times when FasL mRNA is absent. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the importance of complete analysis of FasL expression by tumor cells in order to fully characterize its biological function and may help to resolve the discrepancies present in the literature regarding FasL expression and tumor immune privilege.
- ItemSerendipitous identification of natural intergenotypic recombinants of hepatitis C in Ireland(BioMed Central, 2006-06) Moreau, Isabelle; Hegarty, Susan; Levis, John; Sheehy, Patrick; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Fanning, Liam J.Background: Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been reported. Diagnostically recombinants represent an intriguing challenge. Hepatitis C genotype is defined by interrogation of the sequence composition of the 5' untranslated region [5' UTR]. Occasionally, ambiguous specimens require further investigation of the genome, usually by interrogation of the NS5B region. The original purpose of this study was to confirm the existence of a suspected mixed genotype infection of genotypes 2 and 4 by clonal analysis at the NS5B region of the genome in two specimens from two separate individuals. This initial identification of genotype was based on analysis of the 5' UTR of the genome by reverse line probe hybridisation [RLPH].Results: The original diagnosis of a mixed genotype infection was not confirmed by clonal analysis of the NS5B region of the genome. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both specimens were natural intergenotypic recombinant forms of HCV. The recombination was between genotypes 2k and 1b for both specimens. The recombination break point was identified as occurring within the NS2 region of the genome. Conclusion: The viral recombinants identified here resemble the recombinant form originally identified in Russia. The RLPH pattern observed in this study may be a signature indicative of this particular type of intergenotype recombinant of hepatitis C meriting clonal analysis of NS2.
- ItemTreatment of bronchial airway obstruction using a rotating tip microdebrider: a case report.(BMC. Part of Springer Nature, 2007-03-26) Kennedy, Marcus P.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Eapen, George A.Background: Central airway obstruction is a common complication of lung cancer. The microdebrider is a new device available for treatment of central airway obstruction. Case Description: We report a case a 59-yr-old male with T3N2M1 non-small cell lung cancer with malignant distal left mainstem obstruction treated successfully with a novel elongated rotating tip microdebrider via rigid bronchoscopy with sufficient length to reach distal bronchial lesions. Discussion and Conclusion: The microdebrider is an excellent addition to the spectrum of interventions available for the management of central airway obstruction with advantages including accuracy and immediate removal of debris without a need for separate suctioning or limitation in oxygenation.
- ItemHuman methanogen diversity and incidence in healthy and diseased colonic groups using mcrA gene analysis(BioMed Central, 2008) Scanlan, Pauline D.; Shanahan, Fergus; Marchesi, Julian R.; Health Research BoardBackground: The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results: DNA faecal extracts (207 in total) from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45-50%). Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94%) retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion: The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further investigation.
- ItemClinical implications of granulomatous inflammation detected by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration in patients with suspected cancer recurrence in the mediastinum.(BMC. Part of Springer Nature, 2008-02-25) Kennedy, Marcus P.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Mhatre, Ashwini D.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Eapen, George A.Background: Granulomatous inflammation has been previously reported in association with cancer. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new minimally invasive test for investigating mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The identification of granulomatous inflammation by EBUS-TBNA and the clinical implications of such detection in a series of patients with previously treated cancer and new mediastinal lymphadenopathy has not previously been performed. Methods: All 153 consecutive patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA in an academic cancer institution for suspected cancer in the mediastinum (mediastinal lymphadenopathy by CT imaging) were reviewed. Patients with non-caseating granuloma identified by EBUS-TBNA were included. Results: EBUS-TBNA identified non-caseating granuloma in 17/153 (11%) patients. A subset of 8/153 (5.2%) had sarcoid like lymphadenopathy mimicking cancer recurrence (5/5 PET positive). Another 8/153 (5.2%) patients with new mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no prior history of cancer had a clinical syndrome consistent with sarcoidosis. One other patient with a history of breast cancer was diagnosed with non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection. No patient required mediastinoscopy and there were no complications. Conclusion: In an academic cancer institute, at least 5% of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA have sarcoid-like lymphadenopathy mimicking cancer recurrence. Further studies to define the precise etiology, natural history and prognosis of this phenomenon are warranted.
- ItemCorrelation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a(Biomed Central, 2008-07-09) Moreau, Isabelle; Levis, John; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Fanning, Liam J.; Roche Pharmaceuticals, IrelandPre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated alpha 2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20-30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF).Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be used to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis.
- ItemSeparation of Hepatitis C genotype 4a into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions reveals a unique quasispecies profile(BioMed Central, 2008-08) Moreau, Isabelle; O'Sullivan, Hilary; Murray, Caroline; Levis, John; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Fanning, Liam J.; Health Research BoardBackground: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates in an infected individual as a heterogeneous mixture of closely related viruses called quasispecies. The E1/E2 region of the HCV genome is hypervariable (HVR1) and is targeted by the humoral immune system. Hepatitis C virions are found in two forms: antibody associated or antibody free. The objective of this study was to investigate if separation of Hepatitis C virions into antibody enriched and antibody depleted fractions segregates quasispecies populations into distinctive swarms. Results: A HCV genotype 4a specimen was fractionated into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions by use of Albumin/IgG depletion spin column. Clonal analysis of these two fractions was performed and then compared to an unfractionated sample. Following sequence analysis it was evident that the antibody depleted fraction was significantly more heterogeneous than the antibody enriched fraction, revealing a unique quasispecies profile. An in-frame 3 nt insertion was observed in 26% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 64% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. In addition, an in-frame 3 nt indel event was observed in 10% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 9% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. Neither of these latter events, which are rare occurrences in genotype 4a, was identified in the IgG-enriched fraction.Conclusion: In conclusion, the homogeneity of the IgG-enriched species is postulated to represent a sequence that was strongly recognised by the humoral immune system at the time the sample was obtained. The heterogeneous nature of the IgG-depleted fraction is discussed in the context of humoral escape.
- ItemCommensal-induced regulatory T cells mediate protection against pathogen-stimulated NF-κB activation(PLOS, 2008-08-01) O'Mahony, Caitlin; Scully, Paul; O'Mahony, David; Murphy, Sharon; O'Brien, Frances; Lyons, Anne; Sherlock, Graham; MacSharry, John; Kiely, Barry; Shanahan, Fergus; O'Mahony, Liam; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board; Higher Education Authority; Alimentary HealthHost defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kB activation associated with infection. Mice consumed the commensal microbe Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 followed by infection with Salmonella typhimurium or injection with LPS. In vivo NF-kB activation was quantified using biophotonic imaging. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell phenotypes and cytokine levels were assessed using flow cytometry while CD4+ T cells were isolated using magnetic beads for adoptive transfer to naı¨ve animals. In vivo imaging revealed profound inhibition of infection and LPS induced NF-kB activity that preceded a reduction in S. typhimurium numbers and murine sickness behaviour scores in B. infantis–fed mice. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, T cell proliferation, and dendritic cell co-stimulatory molecule expression were significantly reduced. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers were significantly increased in the mucosa and spleen of mice fed B. infantis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells transferred the NF-kB inhibitory activity. Consumption of a single commensal micro-organism drives the generation and function of Treg cells which control excessive NF-kB activation in vivo. These cellular interactions provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the commensal-host-pathogen trilogue that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms underpinning protection against aberrant activation of the innate immune system in response to a translocating pathogen or systemic LPS.
- ItemProstaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells(Springer Nature, 2008-08-05) O'Callagan, Grace; Kelly, Jacquie; Shanahan, Fergus; Houston, Aileen M.; Health Research Board; Science Foundation IrelandFas ligand (FasL/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE2 increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E2-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE2 positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE2.
- ItemInappropriate prescribing and adverse drug events in older people(BioMed Central, 2009-01-28) Hamilton, Hilary J.; Gallagher, Paul F.; O'Mahony, DenisInappropriate prescribing (IP) in older patients is highly prevalent and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs), morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. Consequently, IP is a major safety concern and with changing population demographics, it is likely to become even more prevalent in the future. IP can be detected using explicit or implicit prescribing indicators. Theoretically, the routine clinical application of these IP criteria could represent an inexpensive and time efficient method to optimise prescribing practice. However, IP criteria must be sensitive, specific, have good inter-rater reliability and incorporate those medications most commonly associated with ADEs in older people. To be clinically relevant, use of prescribing appropriateness tools must translate into positive patient outcomes, such as reduced rates of ADEs. To accurately measure these outcomes, a reliable method of assessing the relationship between the administration of a drug and an adverse clinical event is required. The Naranjo criteria are the most widely used tool for assessing ADE causality, however, they are often difficult to interpret in the context of older patients. ADE causality criteria that allow for the multiple co-morbidities and prescribed medications in older people are required. Ultimately, the current high prevalence of IP and ADEs is unacceptable. IP screening criteria need to be tested as an intervention to assess their impact on the incidence of ADEs in vulnerable older patients. There is a role for IP screening tools in everyday clinical practice. These should enhance, not replace good clinical judgement, which in turn should be based on sound pharmacogeriatric training.
- ItemThe role of imaging in the investigation of painless hematuria in adults(Elsevier, 2009-07-10) O'Regan, Kevin N.; O'Connor, Owen J.; McLoughlin, Patrick; Maher, Michael M.The radiologic investigation of asymptomatic hematuria has changed significantly due to the introduction of new imaging modalities and innovative techniques, such as computed tomography urogaphy, which allows a comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract in a single study. There is still a role for “older” imaging modalities, such as intravenous urography and ultrasound, and their use is still advocated in younger patients with a lower risk of malignancy to minimize radiation dose. Combined modality imaging can also be useful for characterization of lesions. Guidelines have recently been published for the radiologic investigation of hematuria; these are discussed in this article.
- ItemMolecular epidemiology of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus in a self referred group of women in Ireland(Biomed Central, 2009-07-23) Menton, John F.; Cremin, Suzanne M.; Canier, Lydie; Horgan, Mary; Fanning, Liam J.Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. Results: Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18.Conclusion: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.