Browsing Food Business and Development - Journal Articles by Issue Date
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- ItemCommunicating the co-operative message: a case study of the Irish credit union movement.(International Co-operative Alliance (ICA), 2001) McCarthy, Olive; Ward, Michael
- ItemA values perspective of the Irish credit union movement(UK Society for Co-operative Studies, 2002-08) McCarthy, OliveIt is important for all co-operatives, including credit unions to continue to energise and re-energise their core values, particularly in the context of a rapidly changing environment. This article firstly identifies briefly the values inherent in co operatives such as credit unions and then explores how some of these operate in practice, drawing mainly on co-operative theory and on the author's experience as a practitioner within the Irish credit union movement. Some lessons are then drawn up that might be learned by credit unions in the UK and elsewhere from the successes and difficulties of the Irish credit union movement.
- ItemAustralian wines in the British wine market: A hedonic price analysis(Wiley Periodicals, 2004) Steiner, Bodo E.The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail level.
- ItemFrench wines on the decline? Econometric evidence from Britain(Agricultural Economics Society, 2004-07-01) Steiner, Bodo E.French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French wines in Britain in 1994. Results from a parametric hedonic approach indicate that both the lack of a consistently positive valuation of varietal wines and the low valuation of wines with geographical appellation help to explain the overall decline of France's role in the British wine market.
- ItemAn analysis of the credit union's use of Craig's commitment building measures(UK Society for Co-operative Studies, 2005-04) Byrne, Noreen; McCarthy, Olive
- ItemRisk management in Lithuanian and Irish credit unions: Trends and impacts on credit union development(Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2006-10) Kaupelyte, Dalia; McCarthy, OliveThe aim of this article is to examine the Irish and Lithuanian credit union movements in terms of risk management and risk performance, and to discuss credit union risk regulation. Risk management in credit unions often closely relates to credit union development stages so that as credit unions mature, higher standards of risk management should be implemented. In some cases these changes are accompanied by shifts in the regulatory framework. A comparison of the situations in Lithuania and Ireland offers some interesting and sometimes unexpected contrasts in the levels of credit union regulation. Despite the comparatively advanced stage of development of the Irish movement, key aspects of risk regulation are considerably more lenient than in Lithuania, where the credit union movement is far smaller and less developed, yet at the same time, more tightly regulated. This comparison demonstrates that the regulatory regime is not always aligned with the stage of credit union development and may, indeed, reflect the economic policies of the country in which they operate.
- ItemOngoing research issues. Governance, identity and ethics in education(New Harmony Press Ltd., 2006-12) McCarthy, OliveSummaries of papers from abstracts selected of papers the XXI International Co-operative Alliance, Cooperatives Research Conference, held in University College Cork, 2005 for readers of the journal.
- ItemAn alternative approach to oversight: the case of the supervisory committee in Irish credit unions(New Harmony Press Ltd., 2007-11) Byrne, Noreen; McCarthy, Olive; Ward, MichaelThe credit union supervisory committee, as a distinct model of organisational oversight, is very much invisible within corporate governance research. The focus is almost entirely on its corporate counterpart, the audit committee. This means that best practice is based almost entirely on audit committee experience, even though the audit committee model has not always prevented large-scale corporate losses. Audit committee and corporate and co-operative governance literature may benefit from the perspective of alternative models, such as that of the credit union supervisory committee. This paper explores the role of the supervisory committee in credit union governance and the structure of supervision, oversight and regulation within the Irish credit union movement. It reports the findings of a survey of credit union supervisory committees and qualitative interviews with key players in credit union supervision and development in Ireland, including the regulators of the credit union movement. A profile of the composition, activities and skills levels of supervisory committees is examined. The findings show that it is the high level of activity of the supervisory committee and its clear-cut independence that set it apart from other organisational oversight models.
- ItemThe potential of the co-operative form for farmers' markets in Ireland: Some lessons from the USA and UK(UK Society for Co-operative Studies, 2009-04) Moroney, Aisling; Briscoe, Robert; McCarthy, Olive; O'Shaughnessy, Mary; Ward, MichaelOne of the most important developments in small-scale agriculture and in local food retailing in the last decade has been the emergence of a new generation of farmers’ markets in countries such as Ireland, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and Australia. Farmers’ markets are now a significant alternative source of sales, distribution and marketing for many small scale producers and a valuable source of fresh, local and specialist produce for growing numbers of consumers. This paper presents findings from the initial stages of a large-scale study which seeks to establish how farmers’ markets in Ireland can best be structured and organised to increase the competitiveness and sustainability of small farmers and to strengthen farmer influence and control in the marketplace. The research is particularly concerned with examining the potential of formal co-operative structures, which though relatively common in farmers’ markets in the US and the UK, remain largely unexplored in an Irish context. While ongoing extensive quantitative and qualitative research on all Irish farmers’ markets is the primary focus of the research, field visits to markets and key informants in the US and UK have also been conducted and completed. The findings from the latter research – and more specifically, their potential relevance to Irish farmers’ markets at their current stage of development – are the subject of this paper.
- ItemThe Centre for Co-operative Studies in co-operative education and research(UK Society for Co-operative Studies, 2009-04) McCarthy, OliveThe Centre for Co-operative Studies is a university research centre which promotes education, training, independent research and consultancy in all aspects of co-operative organisation, social enterprise and local development. It is the only third level centre or department in Ireland focusing on co-operatives. Co-operative research and education in the Centre aims to have both an academic and practical relevance. It takes an interdisciplinary, problem-centred approach and is conducted with a multi-disciplinary perspective, focusing on the practical solution of key problems in the real world. This paper examines the role of the Centre in co-operative education and research and explores the impact this has had on the co-operative movement.
- ItemAlberta consumers' valuation of extrinsic and intrinsic red meat attributes: A choice experimental approach(Wiley-Blackwell, 2010-06) Steiner, Bodo E.; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim; Diversified Livestock Fund of Alberta, CanadaThis paper analyzes Alberta consumers' perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle, this study provides a post-BSE assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings of earlier beef studies that have employed different methodological approaches. The results also suggest that consumers are willing to pay significant premiums for bison steaks that are certified as being produced without genetically modified organisms, an attribute that has so far been unexplored in previous published bison studies.
- ItemHow do U.S. and Canadian consumers value credence attributes associated with beef labels after the North American BSE crisis of 2003?(Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2010-07) Steiner, Bodo E.; Yang, Jun; Consumer and Market Demand Network, CanadaA consumer survey conducted in 2006 (n = 419), and therefore after the first confirmed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases in North America in 2003, employs attribute-based choice experiments for a cross-country comparison of consumers' valuation of credence attributes associated with beef steak labels; specifically a guarantee that beef was tested for BSE, a guarantee that the steaks were produced without genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a guarantee that beef steaks were produced without growth hormones and antibiotics. Considering consumers' socio-economic characteristics, the results suggest that consumers in Montana (U.S.) and Alberta (Canada) are significantly heterogeneous in their valuation of the above attributes, although consumers' relative valuation of these process attributes does not appear to have changed since the 2003 BSE crisis in each region. Alberta consumers place a significant valuation on beef tested for BSE, which is striking because Canada's current legal environment does not permit testing and labelling of such beef by private industry participants. Montana consumers' valuation was found highest for a guarantee that the steaks were produced without GMO. Effective supply-chain responses to consumers' valuation of credence attributes, for example, in the form of labelling, should therefore take consumers' heterogeneity into account.
- ItemGovernment support for the development of regional food clusters: evidence from Alberta, Canada(Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2011-03) Steiner, Bodo E.; Ali, JoleneThis paper analyses government support for networking and regional cluster growth in the food sector. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper to provide a literature review of studies on regional food clusters, focusing on key features that characterise successful regional food clusters. The review compares key characteristics of such clusters with characteristics of clusters from other industrial sectors. The insights from these studies on clustering success and the role of government are contrasted with empirical evidence on government support for clustering in the Canadian food sector, specifically in the province of Alberta. The empirical evidence is based on two small industry surveys, one conducted in March 2005, and the second in August 2009. Considering this empirical evidence, we have little support for an emerging food (innovation) cluster in Alberta, and little evidence for effective government support toward food cluster development in Alberta.
- ItemNigeria's Seven-Point agenda and the financial crisis: Implications for growth and development(African Studies Center, Boston University, 2011-12) Onakuse, StephenUsing empirical data, this paper argues that achieving the 'Seven-Point Agenda' would be nearly impossible taking into consideration the current global economic crisis, Nigeria's looming budget deficits and the volatility of international oil prices. The paper suggests that there is always the risk of failure to Nigeria's reform programs given the country's unending political corruption - a problem that cannot be expected to improve given the high levels of uncertainty that have been brought on by the global economic crisis, budget deficits, inflation and the volatility of both the stock market and international oil prices. The paper argues that the sometimes wild inconsistency of government policies hampers the success of reform programs and that, if anything, the only consistency in Nigerian governance seems to be corruption. Accordingly, today, amidst structural corruption, poor budgetary controls, and other challenges to policy implementation, reform programs are often viewed as a thing of the past. For the Seven-Point Agenda to succeed, it is therefore imperative that the corrupt political machinations and the lack of budgetary discipline be thoroughly considered and openly discussed by all stakeholders involved in the process. This is particularly true given the aforementioned economic challenges with which Nigeria is now faced.
- ItemCredit union restructuring: don't forget the member!(New Harmony Press Ltd., 2012-10) Byrne, Noreen; McCarthy, Olive; Ward, Michael; McMurtry, J. J.It is recognised in the marketing literature that services consist of core and relational dimensions, and in a long term customer relationship, the relational dimension can give competitive advantage to a business. One of the gaps in the credit union literature is a discussion on the impact of credit unions mergers on this key competitive advantage. And when member value is discussed, it tends to be confined to the core product aspect such as increased range of services and better rates rather than relational aspects. The focus of this paper is on the interplay between core product and relational dimensions in the member preferences around the future restructuring of the movement. It was found that credit union members clearly value their relationship with the credit union and are not willing to trade the local nature of the credit union as they know it, for increased services.
- ItemCredit unions and community in Ireland: Towards optimising the principle of social responsibility(New Harmony Press Ltd., 2012-10) Power, Carol; O'Connor, Ray; McCarthy, Olive; Ward, MichaelIn Ireland, credit unions appeal to a broad socio-economic spectrum and have become integrated into the mainstream financial services market. As many credit unions seek to provide services comparable to conventional banking institutions, they risk eroding their distinctive co-operative ethos. A key differentiating characteristic of credit unions is concern for community and social responsibility. In a business climate where many consumers question the societal and/or environmental impact of businesses, credit unions enjoy a distinct competitive advantage. Despite this, the role of credit unions in promoting societal wellbeing has received limited attention in academic literature. In order to capitalise on its unique competitive advantage, and fulfil its objective of social responsibility, the credit union movement must develop approaches to optimising and assessing how it impacts on communities. Based on research conducted in 40 credit unions, this paper explores the key benefits accruing to communities through intentional and incidental societal impacts. It offers some suggestions for the range of instruments that credit unions can use to optimise the principle of social responsibility. It argues that the impact of credit unions on their communities cannot be left to chance but requires management through the identification and definition of social goals and through periodic assessment of the credit union's success in meeting its targets.
- ItemReflexive resilience and community supported agriculture: the case that emerged from a place(New Leaf Associates, Inc., 2014-06) Moore, Oliver; McCarthy, Olive; Byrne, Noreen; Ward, Michael.While some aspects of what has broadly been called alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs) are relatively prominent in Ireland, including farmers' markets, garden plots (or allotments), and the GIY, or the Grow it Yourself home gardening phenomenon, community supported agriculture (CSA) initiatives are still rare in Ireland. One of the few, earliest, and most prominent CSAs in Ireland is the subject matter of this article. This paper first contextualizes the study with some of the relevant literature on AAFNs, including a 'civic turn' in the European literature on AAFNs, toward civic food networks (Renting, Schermer, & Rossi, 2012). Key developments in this literature, including equity, governance, place, and empowerment, are unpacked and demarked as especially important. The studied CSA's organizational restructuring in the face of productivity pressures is examined in detail. While CSAs specifically involve sharing risks and rewards, and while this is described as an acceptable uncertainty, when pushed to its limits the actualized risk of not enough produce became in fact unacceptable for this CSA initiative. The process through which this member-owned and -operated CSA critically self-assessed and restructured in the face of challenges is a core part of what is termed here as a 'reflexive resilience.' The implications of reflexive resilience are then analyzed to draw out research implications. 'Reflexive' refers here to being critically self-aware and willing to change, and then changing. 'Resilience' refers to being prepared for shocks and responding accordingly to said shocks if and when they occur. Taken together, the term 'reflexive resilience' describes a CSA's adaptive awareness. That this reflexive resilience emerged in a member-owned and -operated CSA may make this CSA more a model for communities to use, if the aim is to have a truly civic agriculture (Lyson, 2000) as part of a more civic rural space. Implications for more fruitful interactions between research and practice are also suggested.
- ItemValue proposition preferences of credit union members and patronage activity(Emerald, 2014-07) Byrne, Noreen; McCarthy, OlivePurpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical and relational value proposition preferences of credit union members and to examine the relationship between their preference and patronage activity. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 800 members of credit unions were surveyed. Exploratory factor analysis was used and four factors were extracted incorporating technical and relational dimensions of the credit union service. Member value proposition preferences are examined and the relationship to patronage activity of the credit union was explored. Findings – The majority of members express a higher or equal preference for a relational rather than a technical value proposition. Those that express a greater or equal preference for relational value are more likely to have a higher level of patronage activity. Research limitations/implications – Credit unions are member-owned financial institutions and hence the study is context dependent. Credit unions are member-owned financial institutions and hence relational value may be more significant than in the case of non-member owned entities. Practical implications – The research highlights the importance of consideration of relational value in financial services entities whose competitive advantage lies in the relational. In terms of the credit union, the impact on the relational value proposition of the credit union must be considered in the design and implementation of industry restructuring. Originality/value – This paper extends the emotional value and interactive quality construct to incorporate a greater relational focus which the paper suggests is of greater relevance to high-contact financial services. The research in this paper also extends beyond the criticised static focus of consumer perceived scales (consumer perceived value) and the episode focused service quality scales. Hence, it has a more longitudinal and holistic focus. The paper also incorporates a preference between benefits approach rather than an evaluative or trade-off between benefits and costs framework.
- ItemMerging into the mainstream? An empirically based discussion of the potential erosion of competitive advantage in a restructured Irish credit union movement(Elsevier, 2014-10-06) Power, Carol; O'Connor, Ray; McCarthy, Olive; Ward, MichaelCredit unions are key constituents of the financial services landscape in Ireland. Currently, the movement comprises mostly small-medium, local, autonomous credit unions. Restructuring is viewed as a means to ensuring viability and achieving economies of scale and scope. Debate has focused on the advantages of restructuring without due concern for its negative consequences. We argue that the competitive advantage of community-based credit unions is inextricably linked to their geographical scale and the implications of restructuring for competitive advantage must be considered. Using qualitative data obtained through interviews with borrowers in seventeen community-based credit unions, we construct a typology of factors influencing members’ decisions to borrow from credit unions during a time when credit was widely available and marketed aggressively by the conventional banking sector. We conclude that non-bureaucratic, member-centred systems and relational factors tend to outweigh material considerations in members’ decisions to borrow from credit unions. Moreover, both sets of factors relate not only to the movement's ethos but also to the ‘connectedness’ or sense of ‘the local’ experienced by credit union members. In the context of a restructuring agenda dominated by mergers and amalgamations, there is a need to guard against the erosion of the movement's unique, community-embedded competitive advantage.
- ItemDeconstructing consumer discipline How self-management is experienced in the marketplace(Emerald, 2015-11-09) Cronin, James Martin; McCarthy, Mary; Delaney, Mary; Health Research Board; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Department of agriculPurpose - The purpose of this paper is to build an understanding of what we term "consumer discipline" by unpacking the practices and strategies by which people manage and exert control over what they consume. This is facilitated by looking at the context of food, an everyday necessity imbued with sizeable importance in terms of its impact on personal well-being, and how it is experienced by individuals who must manage the constraints of a chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach - Drawing on the Foucauldian concept of governmentality and theories surrounding the social facilitation of self-management, this paper analyses interviews with 17 consumers diagnosed with diabetes or coronary heart disease. Findings - By exploring how the chronically ill generate different strategies in managing what they eat and how they think about it, this paper outlines four analytical areas to continue the discussion of how consumption is disciplined and its conceptualisation in marketing and health-related research: "the Individual", "the Other", "the Market" and "the Object". Practical implications - The results signal to policymakers the aspects of health promotion that can be enhanced to improve self-management amongst consumers in the pursuit of well-being. Originality/value - This paper makes two contributions: it conceptualises consumer discipline as a practice that involves self-control but also comprises the capabilities to self-manage one's identity and relationships through leveraging personal and social strategies across various contexts; and it identifies macro influences such as the market as negotiable powers that can be contested or resisted to help assist in one's self-management.