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- ItemPolice accountability in Ireland: an analysis of the problems posed by the legal, constitutional and political dimensions and how they might be addressed(University College Cork, 1992) Walsh, Dermot P. J.; O'Connor, JohnThe concept of police accountability is not susceptible to a universal or concise definition. In the context of this thesis it is treated as embracing two fundamental components. First, it entails an arrangement whereby an individual, a minority and the whole community have the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the formulation of the principles and policies governing police operations. Second, it presupposes that those who have suffered as victims of unacceptable police behaviour should have an effective remedy. These ingredients, however, cannot operate in a vacuum. They must find an accommodation with the equally vital requirement that the burden of accountability should not be so demanding that the delivery of an effective police service is fatally impaired. While much of the current debate on police accountability in Britain and the USA revolves around the issue of where the balance should be struck in this accommodation, Ireland lacks the very foundation for such a debate as it suffers from a serious deficit in research and writing on police generally. This thesis aims to fill that gap by laying the foundations for an informed debate on police accountability and related aspects of police in Ireland. Broadly speaking the thesis contains three major interrelated components. The first is concerned with the concept of police in Ireland and the legal, constitutional and political context in which it operates. This reveals that although the Garda Siochana is established as a national force the legal prescriptions concerning its role and governance are very vague. Although a similar legislative format in Britain, and elsewhere, have been interpreted as conferring operational autonomy on the police it has not stopped successive Irish governments from exercising close control over the police. The second component analyses the structure and operation of the traditional police accountability mechanisms in Ireland; namely the law and the democratic process. It concludes that some basic aspects of the peculiar legal, constitutional and political structures of policing seriously undermine their capacity to deliver effective police accountability. In the case of the law, for example, the status of, and the broad discretion vested in, each individual member of the force ensure that the traditional legal actions cannot always provide redress where individuals or collective groups feel victimised. In the case of the democratic process the integration of the police into the excessively centralised system of executive government, coupled with the refusal of the Minister for Justice to accept responsibility for operational matters, project a barrier between the police and their accountability to the public. The third component details proposals on how the current structures of police accountability in Ireland can be strengthened without interfering with the fundamentals of the law, the democratic process or the legal and constitutional status of the police. The key elements in these proposals are the establishment of an independent administrative procedure for handling citizen complaints against the police and the establishment of a network of local police-community liaison councils throughout the country coupled with a centralised parliamentary committee on the police. While these proposals are analysed from the perspective of maximising the degree of police accountability to the public they also take into account the need to ensure that the police capacity to deliver an effective police service is not unduly impaired as a result.
- ItemThe object binary interface: C++ objects for evolvable shared class libraries(USENIX Association Berkeley, CA, USA, 1994-04) Goldstein, Theodore C.; Sloane, AlanObject-oriented design and object-oriented languages support the development of independent software components such as class libraries. When using such components, versioning becomes a key issue. While various ad-hoc techniques and coding idioms have been used to provide versioning, all of these techniques have deficiencies - ambiguity, the necessity of recompilation or re-coding, or the loss of binary compatibility of programs. Components from different software vendors are versioned at different times. Maintaining compatibility between versions must be consciously engineered. New technologies such as distributed objects further complicate libraries by requiring multiple implementations of a type simultaneously in a program. This paper describes a new C++ object model called the Shared Object Model for C++ users and a new implementation model called the Object Binary Interface for C++ implementors. These techniques provide a mechanism for allowing multiple implementations of an object in a program. Early analysis of this approach has shown it to have performance broadly comparable to conventional implementations.
- ItemThe senior female international managerial career move: a qualitative study in a European context(University College Cork, 1998-08) Linehan, Margaret; Walsh, James S.Research investigating the position of women in management has, largely, been confined within national boundaries. Over the last fifteen years, empirical studies of women in international management have been undertaken, predominantly in North America. In this research field, many questions remain unanswered or have been only partially addressed. The particular focus of this study is on the senior female international managerial career move in Europe — a relatively unexplored area. Fifty senior female expatriate managers were interviewed, representing a wide range of industry and service sectors. The study, for the first time, assesses an exclusively senior sample of female managers who have made at least one international career move. This study of senior females in international management makes a theoretical contribution, not only to the analysis of gender and international human resource management, but also to wider debates within the contemporary women in management and career theory literatures. The aims of the study were to develop an understanding of the senior female international career move in a European context in order to more fully understand both the covert and overt barriers that may limit women’s international career opportunities. The results of the study show that the senior international career move has largely been developed along a linear male model of career progression, a development which, taken together with gender disparity both in organisations and family responsibilities, frequently prevents women employees from reaching senior managerial positions. The study proposes a model of the senior female international managerial career move, thereby contributing primarily to the international human resource management literature. The implications of the study for research literatures in women in management and career theory are also explored and a future research agenda developed.
- ItemThe impact of new public management on the roles of elected councillors, management and the community sector in Irish local government: a case study of Cork County Council(University College Cork, 2000) Quinlivan, Aodh; Collins, NeilThe fundamental aim of this thesis is to examine the effect of New Public Management (NPM) on the traditional roles of elected representatives, management and community activists in Irish local government. This will be achieved through a case study analysis of one local authority, Cork County Council. NPM promises greater democracy in decision-making. Therefore, one can hypothesise that the roles of the three key groupings identified will become more influenced by principles of participatory decision-making. Thus, a number of related questions will be addressed by this work, such as, have the local elected representatives been empowered by NPM? Has a managerial revolution taken place? Has local democracy been enhanced by more effective community participation? It will be seen in chapter 2 that these questions have not been adequately addressed to date in NPM literature. The three groups identified can be regarded as stakeholders although the researcher is cautious in using this term because of its value-laden nature. Essentially, in terms of Cork County Council, stakeholders can be defined as decision-makers and people within the organization and its environment who are interested in or could be affected directly or indirectly by organizational performance. This is an all-embracing definition and includes all citizens, residents, community groups and client organizations. It is in this context that the term 'stakeholder' should be understood when it is occasionally used in this thesis. In this case, the perceptions of elected councilors, management and community representatives with regard to their changing roles are as significant as the changes themselves. The chapter begins with a brief account of the background to this research. This is followed by an explanation of the methodology which is used and then concludes with short statements about the remaining chapters in the thesis.
- ItemThe status of the information systems field: historical perspective and practical orientation(University of Borås, 2000) Adam, Frédéric; Fitzgerald, BrianThis paper provides a detailed assessment of the current status of the Information Systems (IS) field by tracing its historical evolution. It uses lessons drawn from the history of another social science, sociology, to highlight some of the fundamental choices now facing IS researchers. Firstly, the paper identifies the most important tensions and forces that shaped the evolution of the IS field in the 40 or so years of its history. Secondly, it draw a comparison between IS and sociology and uses some selected fundamental patterns of the history of the latter to explain the main aspects of the evolution of IS. Finally, noting that IS researchers do not seem to have succeeded in developing a core of concepts and definitions to enable the accumulation of knowledge in IS and to significantly contribute to the improvement of the business application of information systems, the paper calls for a debate on the future orientations of the field and identifies some of the choices that can be made at this stage of the evolution of the field.
- ItemA framework analysis of the open source software development paradigm(Association for Information Systems (AIS), 2000-12) Feller, Joseph; Fitzgerald, BrianOpen Source Software (OSS) has become the subject of much commercial interest of late. Certainly, OSS seems to hold much promise in addressing the core issues of the software crisis, namely that of software taking too long to develop, exceeding its budget, and not working very well. Indeed, there have been several examples of significant OSS success stories—the Linux operating system, the Apache web server, the BIND domain name resolution utility, to name but a few. However, little by way of rigorous academic research on OSS has been conducted to date. In this study, a framework was derived from two previous frameworks which have been very influential in the IS field, namely that of Zachman’s IS architecture (ISA) and Checkland’s CATWOE framework from Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The resulting framework is used to analyze the OSS approach in detail. The potential future of OSS research is also discussed.
- ItemCommunicating the co-operative message: a case study of the Irish credit union movement.(International Co-operative Alliance (ICA), 2001) McCarthy, Olive; Ward, Michael
- ItemThe culture of decision-making: a case for judicial defiance through evidence and fact-finding(Judicial Studies Institute, 2002) Fennell, Caroline
- ItemSensemaking, safety, and situated communities in (con)temporary networks(Elsevier, 2002-07) Kavanagh, Donncha; Kelly, Séamus; British CouncilThis paper discusses the difficulties involved in managing knowledge-intensive, multinational, multiorganisational, and multifunctional project networks. The study is based on a 2-year quasi-ethnography of one such network engaged in the design and development of a complex new process control system for an existing pharmaceutical plant in Ireland. The case describes how, drawing upon the organisational heritage of the corporations involved and the logic implicit within their global partnership arrangements, the project was initially structured in an aspatial manner that underestimated the complexity of the development process and the social relations required to support it. Following dissatisfaction with initial progress, a number of critical management interventions were made, which appeared to contribute to a recasting of the network ontology that facilitated the cultivation and protection of more appropriate communicative spaces. The case emphasises the need to move away from rationalistic assumptions about communication processes within projects of this nature, towards a richer conceptualisation of such enterprises as involving collective sensemaking activities within and between situated ‘communities’ of actors. Contrary to much contemporary writing, the paper argues that space and location are of crucial importance to our understanding of network forms of organising.
- ItemStocks and bonds: eggs in the same or different baskets. A cointegration analysis(Centre for Investment Research, University College Cork, 2002-08) O'Sullivan, NiallThe Johansen cointegration testing and estimation procedure is applied to examine the relationships among the stock markets, government bond markets and credit bond markets of the US, UK, Europe and Japan over the period 1985M1:2002M4. Asset class relationships are examined with returns denominated in dollars, sterling, euro and yen to determine whether long run diversification gains were achievable by international investors with these as base currencies. Cointegrating relations among currency hedged returns are also investigated. Cointegration findings, and by inference long run diversification opportunities, are found to be highly sensitive to the choice of currency in which returns are denominated and to whether currency risk is hedged, revealing the important role of exchange rates in international portfolio diversification.
- ItemA values perspective of the Irish credit union movement(UK Society for Co-operative Studies, 2002-08) McCarthy, OliveIt is important for all co-operatives, including credit unions to continue to energise and re-energise their core values, particularly in the context of a rapidly changing environment. This article firstly identifies briefly the values inherent in co operatives such as credit unions and then explores how some of these operate in practice, drawing mainly on co-operative theory and on the author's experience as a practitioner within the Irish credit union movement. Some lessons are then drawn up that might be learned by credit unions in the UK and elsewhere from the successes and difficulties of the Irish credit union movement.
- ItemIntegrating theory and practice in education with business games(Informing Science Institute, 2003) Neville, Karen; Adam, FrédéricThe meaningful integration of theoretical knowledge and industrial practice in Masters level programmes is now more than ever vital to ensure that graduates have the required competence in IT and that they are ready to contribute to the organisations that hired them within a short timeframe. It is also crucial in ensuring ongoing industrial support for academia because Information technology (IT) is regarded as a fundamental component in the success of organisations. This has led to a growing demand for IT specialists, sometimes with hybrid skills, to design, develop, implement, and support IT infrastructures in both the public and private sectors. However, in recent years there has been a shortfall of IT graduates, with essential experience entering the job market. In order to keep up with demand, educational institutions must adopt innovative programmes to increase the skill-set and knowledge base of their IT graduates. One such programme, under the auspices of University College Cork, is a Masters course in Management Information and Managerial Accounting Systems (MIMAS). The programme focuses on IT to suit the needs of industry while also combining IT with other theoretical subjects like managerial accounting and the design of management control systems. One key element of the teaching experience is a business simulation where students create software companies and bid for a large scale development project. As part of this, they experience of broad range of tasks and problems inherent in commercial software development. The business game is designed to encourage students to make use of as much of the theoretical elements taught in the degree as possible and is mediated by the teaching staff through the intermediary of a purpose-designed computer system. Our experience indicates the immense value of such practical components in an IT oriented degree programme. It also shows that the application of new technology in training and education will only truly benefit students when it is associated with high quality material and a high degree of student motivation.
- ItemUnderstanding the work of the city manager(2003-01) Griffin, Quincy; Kavanagh, DonnchaThe managerial behaviour approach to understanding managerial work has developed from research over the course of fifty years. The approach represents a marked departure from mainstream (and still prevalent) management approaches that depict management as a set of general composite functions. The managerial behaviour approach is distinctive in its empirical research background, object, focus and methodology. Its objective is to provide the simple answer to the complex question: what do managers do? However, the emphasis in the studies on managerial behaviour represents a limitation in so far as a context for locating and judging that behaviour is largely absent (Hales, 1986). This paper presents the results of initial research into managers operating in a different and largely neglected context - city councils. The research uses Mintzberg’s (1973) concept of behavioural roles as an analytical tool to explain and understand what city managers do. This study assesses whether these roles adequately capture the important features of managerial work in the city council. It is argued that while Mintzberg’s role framework is useful, structured observation alone does not adequately address the complexities of environments and styles of managers or the cognitive processes of managers. However, by integrating this approach with an appreciation of context and cognitive processes and how they can influence or affect managerial behaviour, we develop a more realistic description of what managers actually do and why they do it.
- ItemDoes attendance affect grade? An analysis of first year economics students in Ireland(Economic & Social Research Institute, 2003-01) Kirby, Ann; McElroy, Brendan; University College CorkThis paper examines the relationship between attendance and grade, controlling for other factors, in first year economics courses in University College Cork. Determinants of both class attendance and grade are specified and estimated. We find that attendance is low, at least by comparison with US evidence. Hours worked and travel time are among the factors affecting class attendance. Class attendance, and especially tutorial attendance has a positive and diminishing marginal effect on grade, while hours worked in a part-time job have a significant negative effect on grade.
- ItemBenefit realisation through ERP: the re-emergence of data warehousing(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2003-01) Carton, Fergal; Sammon, David; Adam, FrédéricThe need for an integrated enterprise-wide set of management information pronounced Data Warehousing the ‘hot topic’ of the early-to-mid 1990’s, however, it became unfashionable through the mid-to-late 1990s, with the approach of Y2K and with it the widespread implementation of ERP systems. However, in recent times, the re-emergence of Data Warehousing, to address the limitations and unrealised benefits of ERP systems implementation, provides researchers with a new challenge in understanding the ‘double learning curve’ for an organisation, undertaking in quick succession both an ERP systems project and a Data Warehousing project, in an attempt to finally achieve the benefits expected but never realised.
- ItemIs open source revolutionising the software industry?(Association for Information Systems (AIS), 2003-06) Feller, Joseph; Fitzgerald, BrianThe need for rigorous academic investigation into open source software (OSS) is pronounced. If the media hype surrounding the topic since 1998 has a kernel of truth, then OSS promises to revolutionise the ways in which organizations build, sell, buy, use and exploit software systems. Needless to say, that’s a big “if”. This panel, which takes the form of a debate, will provide audience members with an up-to-date understanding of OSS built upon the emerging research literature, and detailed arguments both for and against the assertion that open source is revolutionising the software industry.
- ItemAnalysing the impact of enterprise resource planning systems roll-outs in multi-national companies(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2003-06) Carton, Fergal; Adam, FrédéricLarge organisations, in particular multi-national corporations, have been at the forefront of the ERP movement since its origins. They have used these highly integrated systems as a way to achieve greater levels of standardisation of business processes across sites and greater centralisation of IT resources. The most common scenario for an ERP implementation in a large multi-national firm is the phased roll-out, whereby the modules of the application are implemented in all the sites in a series of waves. A standard implementation, as designed by Headquarters, is replicated in each site. This standard implementation uses a base configuration, sometimes referred to as a template or blueprint, which cannot be deviated from in any of the sites. These monolithic implementations can be quite traumatic for individual sites where local practices, sometimes quite well established and rich in organizational learning, must be abandoned. This may lead to large scale organisational problems, which must be ironed out if the full potential of the enterprise-wide system is to be obtained. In an attempt to tease out the issues in the global implementation of ERP systems, we carried out a number of case studies at Irish manufacturing sites of multinational firms where management sought ways to defend their hard won local reputation for excellence and efficiency in the face of changes to the organisation due to a corporate ERP implementation. Our study indicates that local managers are given too little scope and time to adequately adapt the template to their site and that the risk of productivity loss is quite high, at least in the short term. We conclude that mechanisms must be put in place to better understand how to accommodate local specificities whilst enforcing the required level of standardisation.
- ItemTalk and silence: instantiations and articulations(University of Leicester, 2003-11) Kuhling, Carmen; Keohane, Kieran; Kavanagh, DonnchaThis paper considers the desire for unity, reconciliation and consensus underpinning three models of talking – namely, 'the meeting', 'the dyadic love relationship', and 'the psychoanalytic session'. We highlight the three domains’ shared intellectual and historical heritage wherein talk is seen as a mode of achieving unity (of the group, of the dyad, or of the self) and conversely 'silence' is seen as pathology. Through looking at the role of silence in the works of Lacan, Joyce, and Beckett, we then examine how conversations with a collective, an Other, the self, etc. can all be enriched by ambivalence, antagonism and, in particular, silence. In contrast to the conventional understanding, silence is not the 'end' of understanding, but rather a new beginning. From this perspective, silence can be the basis upon which we can begin to imagine a principled relationship with the Other.