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- ItemLeaf galls in our native trees and shrubs(University College Cork, 1945) Walsh, Eileen G.; Renouf, Louis P. W.Plant galls constitute a branch of study and research which has been to me a subject of much interest for some time. At the start of this work, it was intended to include Plant galls in general, but after some months this was found to be too comprehensive a field and would in fact take a great many years to study fully. Even leaf galls alone, both of herbs and trees provide so large a field of investigation that ultimately I decided to confine my attention to those or our native trees and shrubs. Upon looking up the literature on this subject, it will be found that in nearly all cases, either the gall is described fully and mere mention made or the agent concerned in its production, or vice versa. This state of things is most unsatisfactory, as in studying galls, both the gall-maker and the gall formation must be examined in detail before it is safe to apply nomenclature. This work, therefore, sets out to give accurate and scientific descriptions of both galls and gall-makers. The difficulties encountered are manifold; firstly, our trees are all deciduous, hence, the collecting period is necessarily restricted to that time of the year between the appearance of the buds and the fall of the leaf. Secondly, the rearing of imagines is always difficult, especially in the case or the autumn gall; more will be said on this matter later. Lastly, due to war-time conditions much trouble was experienced in obtaining suitable literature and many invaluable books on this subject were unprocurable. The Plates at the back have all been copied from original material except in the case or the Phytoptid mites which have been sketched with the help of illustrations, the reason for this being the difficulty of making suitable mounts of these minute creatures, Where possible all stages or at least larva and imago have been sketched, together with the host plant and the type of gall-formation produced. Slides have also been made of most larvae and the imagines attached to cards and pinned on to pith or cork in the usual manner.
- ItemThe purification and characterization of the high and low molecular weight forms of rabbit intestinal adenosine deaminase(University College Cork, 1972) Piggott, Charles O.; Brady, T. G.
- ItemA study of the oxygen electrochemistry of ruthenium and iridium(University College Cork, 1975) Buckley, D. Noel; Burke, L. D.This thesis is concerned with an investigation of the anodic behaviour of ruthenium and iridium in aqueous solution and particularly of oxygen evolution on these metals. The latter process is of major interest in the large-scale production of hydrogen gas by the electrolysis of water. The presence of low levels of ruthenium trichloride ca. 10-4 mol dm-3 in acid solution give a considerable increase in the rate of oxygen evolution from platinum and gold, but not graphite, anodes. The mechanism of this catalytic effect was investigated using potential step and a.c. impedance technique. Earlier suggestions that the effect is due to catalysis by metal ions in solution were proved to be incorrect and it was shown that ruthenium species were incorporated into the surface oxide film. Changes in the oxidation state of these ruthenium species is probably responsible for the lowering of the oxygen overvoltage. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the reaction were complicated by the fact that at constant potential the rates of both the catalysed and the uncatalysed oxygen evolution processes exhibit an appreciable, continuous decrease with either time or degree of oxidation of the substrate. The anodic behaviour of iridium in the oxide layer region has been investigated using conventional electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry. Applying a triangular voltage sweep at 10 Hz, 0.01 to 1.50V increases the amount of electric charge which the surface can store in the oxide region. This activation effect and the mechanism of charge storage is discussed in terms of both an expanded lattice theory for oxide growth on noble metals and a more recent theory of irreversible oxide formation with subsequent stoichiometry changes. The lack of hysteresis between the anodic and cathodic peaks at ca. 0.9 V suggests that the process involved here is proton migration in a relatively thick surface layer, i.e. that the reaction involved is some type of oxide-hydroxide transition. Lack of chloride ion inhibition in the anodic region also supports the irreversible oxide formation theory; however, to account for the hydrogen region of the potential sweep a compromise theory involving partial reduction of the outer regions of iridium oxide film is proposed. The loss of charge storage capacity when the activated iridium surface is anodized for a short time above ca. 1.60 V is attributed to loss by corrosion of the outer active layer from the metal surface. The behaviour of iridium at higher anodic potentials in acid solution was investigated. Current-time curves at constant potential and Tafel plots suggested that a change in the mechanism of the oxygen evolution reaction occurs at ca. 1.8 V. Above this potential, corrosion of the metal occurred, giving rise to an absorbance in the visible spectrum of the electrolyte (λ max = 455 nm). It is suggested that the species involved was Ir(O2)2+. A similar investigation in the case of alkaline electrolyte gave no evidence for a change in mechanism at 1.8 V and corrosion of the iridium was not observed. Oxygen evolution overpotentials were much lower for iridium than for platinum in both acidic and alkaline solutions.
- ItemFractionation and compositional studies of rabbit skeletal muscle membranes(University College Cork, 1975) Barrett, Edward John; Headon, D. R.The observations of Hooke (1665), Schleiden & Schwann (1839) and Virchow (1855) led to the identification of the cell as the basic structural unit of living material. In the intervening years, it has been firmly established that the chemical processes which underlie the proper functioning, development and reproduction of the organism are cellular activities. The development of the electron microscope has enabled cell structure to be studied in detail. A picture of the cell as an entity with a complex and highly organised internal structure has emerged from the work of Palade, Porter, Fernandez-Moran and many others. Although cells from different tissues and organisms differ in aspects of their structure and consequently in function, they have several features in common. A retentive membrane encloses a number of cell constituents, which include membrane-enclosed subcellular structures known as organelles. The cells of most tissues also contain a reticulum or system of branching tubules. The interplay of the biochemical activities of these structures enables the cell to function. Almost thirty years ago, Claude, Palade, Schneider, Hogeboom, de Duve and others set out to analytically fractionate the subcellular components obtained after the fragmentation of liver cells. This approach has become known as subcellular fractionation, and signalled a major conceptual breakthrough in biochemistry (reviewed by de Duve, 1964, 1967, 1971). The significance of this breakthrough has been underlined by the award of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine to de Duve, Palade and Claude. This thesis is concerned with the application of subcellular fractionation techniques to the separation and characterisation of the membrane systems of the rabbit skeletal muscle cell.
- ItemStudies on Formica lugubris Zetterstedt in Ireland (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)(University College Cork, 1976) Breen, John A. G.; O'Rourke, Fergus J.This thesis is based on studies of Formica lugubris from 1972-1975. While this species' range is diminishing in Ireland, the nests are quite common in the State plantations of South Tipperary. It is not certain that the species is indigenous. Above-ground activity occurs from late-February to the end of October; foraging begins in April. Two territorial "spring-battles" between neighbouring nests are described. Most active nests produced alatae of both sexes and flights were observed on successive June mornings above l7.5°C air temperature. Both polygyny and polycaly seem to be rare. Where the nests occur commonly, the recorded densities are similar to those reported from the continent. Most nests persisted at the same site since 1973. The nest-sites are described by recording an array of nest, soil, tree, vegetation and location variables at each site. Pinus sylvestris is the most important overhead tree. Nests seem to be the same age as their surrounding plantation and reach a maximum of c. 30 years. Nearest-neighbour analysis suggests the sites are overdispersed. Forager route-fidelity was studied and long-term absence from the route, anaesthetization and "removal" of an aphid tree had little effect on this fidelity. There were no identifiable groups of workers specifically honeydew or prey-carriers. Size-duty relationships of workers participating in adult transport are described. Foraging rhythms were studied on representative days: the numbers foraging were linearly related to temperature. Route-traffic passed randomly and an average foraging trip lasted c. four hours. Annual food intake to a nest with 25 000 foragers was estimated at approximately 75 kg honeydew and 2 million prey-items. Forager-numbers and colony-size were estimated using the capture-mark - recapture method: paint marking was used for the forager estimate and an interval radiophosphorus mark, detected by autoradiography, was used for the colony-size estimate. The aphids attended by lugubris and the nest myrmecophiles are recorded.
- ItemOn classical and other methods of discriminant analysis and estimation of log-odds(University College Cork, 1981) Murphy, Brendan J.; Moran, M. A.For two multinormal populations with equal covariance matrices the likelihood ratio discriminant function, an alternative allocation rule to the sample linear discriminant function when n1 ≠ n2 ,is studied analytically. With the assumption of a known covariance matrix its distribution is derived and the expectation of its actual and apparent error rates evaluated and compared with those of the sample linear discriminant function. This comparison indicates that the likelihood ratio allocation rule is robust to unequal sample sizes. The quadratic discriminant function is studied, its distribution reviewed and evaluation of its probabilities of misclassification discussed. For known covariance matrices the distribution of the sample quadratic discriminant function is derived. When the known covariance matrices are proportional exact expressions for the expectation of its actual and apparent error rates are obtained and evaluated. The effectiveness of the sample linear discriminant function for this case is also considered. Estimation of true log-odds for two multinormal populations with equal or unequal covariance matrices is studied. The estimative, Bayesian predictive and a kernel method are compared by evaluating their biases and mean square errors. Some algebraic expressions for these quantities are derived. With equal covariance matrices the predictive method is preferable. Where it derives this superiority is investigated by considering its performance for various levels of fixed true log-odds. It is also shown that the predictive method is sensitive to n1 ≠ n2. For unequal but proportional covariance matrices the unbiased estimative method is preferred. Product Normal kernel density estimates are used to give a kernel estimator of true log-odds. The effect of correlation in the variables with product kernels is considered. With equal covariance matrices the kernel and parametric estimators are compared by simulation. For moderately correlated variables and large dimension sizes the product kernel method is a good estimator of true log-odds.
- ItemTerm-dependent hybridization of the 5 f-wave functions of Ba and Ba++(American Physical Society, 1982) Connerade, J. P.; Mansfield, Michael W. D.It is shown that, unlike in neutral Ba, the 4d→5f transitions cannot be neglected in the interpretation of the 4d spectrum of Ba++. A term-dependent hybridization of the 5f wave functions occurs, the effects of which reverse between Ba and Ba++, and oscillator strength reappears in the 4d→nf (n>~5) transitions. A second kind of wave-function collapse is identified and its effects are described.
- ItemScrFI: a new sequence-specific endonuclease from Streptococcus cremoris(Oxford University Press, 1982) Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Daly, C.; Brown, L. R.; Gingeras, T. R.
- ItemObservation of a burst of cosmic-rays at energies above 7x10(13)eV(American Physical Society, 1983) Fegan, David J.; McBreen, B.; O'Sullivan, Colm T.The authors report on an unusual simultaneous increase in the cosmic-ray shower rate at two recording stations separated by 250 km. The event lasted for 20 s. This event was the only one of its kind detected in three years of observation. The duration and structure of this event is different from a recently reported single-station cosmic-ray burst. The simultaneity of the coincident event suggests that it was caused by a burst of cosmic gamma rays. There is a possibility that this event may be related to the largest observed glitch of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula.
- ItemUntangling unstructured programs(University College Cork, 1984) Oulsnam, Gordon; O'Regan, P. G.A method is presented for converting unstructured program schemas to strictly equivalent structured form. The predicates of the original schema are left intact with structuring being achieved by the duplication of he original decision vertices without the introduction of compound predicate expressions, or where possible by function duplication alone. It is shown that structured schemas must have at least as many decision vertices as the original unstructured schema, and must have more when the original schema contains branches out of decision constructs. The structuring method allows the complete avoidance of function duplication, but only at the expense of decision vertex duplication. It is shown that structured schemas have greater space-time requirements in general than their equivalent optimal unstructured counterparts and at best have the same requirements.
- ItemMicropropagation of Begonia and a study of genome stability in Begonia rex(University College Cork, 1985) Morrish, Fionnuala; Cassells, Alan C.The development of procedures and media for the micropropagation of B. rex are described. Media for the production of plantlets from a number of other Begonia hybrids are also provided. Growth analysis data is given for plants produced in vivo from leaf cuttings and in vitro from mature leaf petioles and immature leaves derived from singly and multiply recycled axenic plantlets. No significant difference was found in phenotype or quantitative vegetative characters for any of the populations assessed. The results presented from studies on the development of broad spectrum media for the propagation of a number of B. rex cultivars using axenic leaf explants on factorial combinations of hormones illustrate the major influence played by the genotype on explant response in vitro and suggest media on which a range of B. rex cultivars may be propagated. Procedures for in vitro irradiation and colchicine treatments to destabilize the B. rex genome have also been described. Variants produced from these treatments indicate the utility of in vitro procedures for the expression of induced somatic variation. Colour variants produced from irradiation treatment have been cultured and prove stable. Polyploids produced as variants from irradiation treatment have been subcultured but prove unstable. Media for the induction and proliferation of callus are outlined. The influence of callus subculture and aging on the stability of the B. rex genome is assessed by chromosomal analysis of cells, in vitro and in regenerants. The B. rex genome is destabilized in callus culture but attenuation of variation occurs on regeneration. Diploid cell lines are maintained in callus subcultures and supplementation of regenerative media with high cytokinin concentrations, casein hydrolysate or adenine failed to produce variants. Callus aging however resulted in the production of polyploids. The presence and expression of pre-existing somatic variation in B. rex pith and root tissue is assessed and polyploids have been produced from pith tissues cultured in vitro. The stability of the B. rex genome and the application of tissue culture to micropropagation and breeding of B. rex are discussed.
- ItemHow large can a star be?(American Physical Society, 1986) Ó Murchadha, NiallIn a recent article Schoen and Yau develop an inequality which shows that there exists a relationship between the minimum energy density ρ0 in a star and the size R of the star, of the form ρ0R2≤π6. This article shows that this inequality is valid for two different measures of the size of the star and conjectures that the inequality can be improved to ρ0R2≤3π32.
- ItemThe development of a computer model to optimize the performance of a 50kWp photovoltaic system(University College Cork, 1986) McCarthy, Sean; Wrixon, Gerry T.A computer model has been developed to optimize the performance of a 50kWp photovoltaic system which supplies electrical energy to a dairy farm at Fota Island in Cork Harbour. Optimization of the system involves maximising the efficiency and increasing the performance and reliability of each hardware unit. The model accepts horizontal insolation, ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction and load demand as inputs. An optimization program uses the computer model to simulate the optimum operating conditions. From this analysis, criteria are established which are used to improve the photovoltaic system operation. This thesis describes the model concepts, the model implementation and the model verification procedures used during development. It also describes the techniques which are used during system optimization. The software, which is written in FORTRAN, is structured in modular units to provide logical and efficient programming. These modular units may also be used in the modelling and optimization of other photovoltaic systems.
- ItemChemistry of B1- and B10- boranes containing halogen or pseudohalogen groups(University College Cork, 1987) Myers, Michael; Spalding, Trevor R.The research described in this thesis involved the chemistry of borane-species which contain one or more halide or pseudohalide groups. Both monoboron species e.g. [BH3X]- and "cluster" borane species e.g. [B10H9X]2- and I-Se B11H10 were studied. The first chapter is a review of the syntheses, properties and reactions of halide and pseudohalide species containing from one to ten boron atoms. Chapter Two is a theoretical investigation of' the electronic and molecular structures of two series of boranes i. e. [BH3X]- and [B10H9X]2- where X = H, CI, CN, NCS, SCN and N3. The calculational method used was the Modified Neglect of Differential Overlap (MNDO) method of Dewar et al. The results were compared where possible with experimental results such as the X-ray crystallographically determined structures of [BH3CI]- and [B10H10]2-. Chapter Three concerns halogenated selenaborane clusters and reports an improved synthesis of 12-Br-SeB11H10 and the first structural data for a simple non-metal containing selenaborane cage with the X-ray crystallographically determined structure of 12-1-SeB11H10. Finally, an indepth n.m.r. study of Se2B9H9 is also reported together with attempts to halogenate this compound. The last two chapters are based on single boron systems. Chapter Four concerns the synthetic routes to amine-boranes and -cyanoboranes from [BH4]- and [BH3CN]- substrates. This chapter discusses some difficulties encountered when polyamines were used in these reactions. The characterisation of an unusual ketone isolated from some of these reactions, the X-ray crystallographically determined structure of 4-dimethylamino-pyridine-cyanoborane and a new route to pyrazabole dimeric species are also discussed. The final chapter reports on work carried out at producing BH2X (X = H, CN) adducts of aminophosphines. Three routes were attempted to generate P-B and N-B bonded species with varying degrees of success. Some unusual products of these reactions are discussed including [Ph2(O) PPPh2 ] [Ph2NH]2, the structure of which was determined by X-ray crystallography.
- ItemOptimisation of growth and storage conditions of lactic streptococci(University College Cork, 1987) Lyne, John Gerard; Daly, CharlieThe application of defined strain culture systems in the Irish Cheese Industry required detailed knowledge of culture preparation and preservation. Concentrated starters were prepared for strains of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris in a low lactose medium (2.5% milk solids) with external pH control. Initial studies indicated that doubling the level of yeast extract in the medium did not have a significant effect on specific growth rate or on final cell numbers. For most strains, final cell numbers at 22°C were greater than obtained in 10%.milk solids medium. Individual strains showed variable ability to maintain activity once the culture entered the stationary phase. When optimum conditions for cell harvesting had been established, individual strains were stored at refrigeration and sub-zero temperatures - both with and without cryoprotectants. Samples were assayed at various intervals for cell viability and culture activity. At -80°C most strains maintained activity and viability whether cryoprotectants were added or not. Strains which showed a decline in viability were best protected by glycerol with lactose being slightly less effective. At -20°C, the spent ferementation medium was not able to protect the strains from freezing or from frozen storage. Some strains lost activity without showing a decline in viability. With others, activity decreased at a rate corresponding to the loss in viability. For the former strains, subculturing at 21°C did not restore full activity but the latter cultures were able to regain full activity on sub-culture. The addition of glycerol and lactose prior to freezing aided in cell protection as did freezing at low temperature. However, the degree of protection was strain dependent. Some strains retained activity at refrigeration temperatures for up to 73 days, with all strains remaining active at 4°C for at least 14 days. One S. cremoris strain did not grow well under pHcontrol. A bacteriophage was detected in the culture, initially at low levels. The phage propagated and eventually lysed the culture. This occurred in milk based media which were pH controlled between pH values 6.0 and 7.3. Growth under pH controlled conditions at pH 5.5 did not cause phage release even though in separate experiments the phage was able to multiply at this pH. Inducing agents, such as U.V. and mitomycin-C failed to release lytic phage, nor were phage detected in broth or in phage-inhibitory media. Single strain isolates also exhibited phage release, even though these isolates differed from the parent strain in phenotype and phage typing. With the exception of one S. cremoris strain, conditions of culture growth, harvesting and storage were established. These have proved useful for the growth of lactic streptococci for commercial cheese making.
- ItemAverage energy density and the size of the universe(American Physical Society, 1987) Ó Murchadha, NiallThis paper shows that there is a relationship between the maximum volume of any cosmological solution of the Einstein equations and its average energy density. An inequality is derived which shows that the average energy density multiplied by the volume to the ⅔, power must be greater than a fixed constant. Equivalently, the total energy content, divided by the volume to the ⅓ power, is bounded below.
- ItemThe ecology of the Irish stoat(University College Cork, 1987) Sleeman, David Patrick; Mulcahy, Máire F.The Irish stoat, Mustela erminea hibernica (Thomas and Barrett-Hamilton), has been regarded as an intermediate between the British stoat and the weasel. In this study Irish stoats, mainly from road casualties, were collected and studied. A small number were also live-trapped and radio-tracked. Thus information was gathered on the stoat’s ecology, in particular its form (size and coat colours), reproduction, food habits, parasites, habitat utilisation mortality and predation. The Irish stoats studied were clearly not intermediate in size between British stoats and weasels. They showed considerable size overlap with British stoats, and marked size variation within Ireland. It is argued that size of stoats is determined by food supply early in life. The ventral coat pattern of Irish stoats is apparently unique in the Palaearctic, being similar to that of some stoats found on the west coast of North America. It is argued that this is an example of parallel evolution resulting from adaptation to similar climatic conditions. The stoats were reproductively active in spring and summer. Food consisted mainly of rabbits, but rats, birds, shrews mice and voles were also consumed. Mites were the most numerous ectoparasites, followed by lice, ticks and fleas. Damage by the parasitic nematode Skrjabingylus nasicola was found more frequently in female stoat skulls. Stoats were frequently found in a variety of habitats, both open and wooded. Some of the radio-tracked stoats climbed trees. Dens used were often rat holes. Only one home range, that of a breeding female, was considered to have been accurately measured. It was 22 ha. in size. Mortality is known to have been caused by road accidents and domestic carnivores. It is argued that predation by raptorial birds is important to stoat populations. Results of this study are compared with information available from elsewhere.
- ItemLead toxicity in Mute swans: Cygnus olor (Gmelin)(University College Cork, 1987) O'Halloran, John; Myers, A. A.Lead toxicity in Mute swans Cygnus olor (Gmelin) was investigated. Two methods for the assessment of lead exposure were used: (1) blood lead level and (2) free red blood cell protoporphyrin. An accurate estimation of haemoglobin was found to be a prerequisite to determining lead exposure. A measurement of haemoglobin based on converting all haem species to alkaline haematin was found to give accurate and reproducible results. Variation in blood lead during the diel cycle in caged birds was investigated. Blood lead levels in a flock of Mute swans at a coarse-fish angling site were examined over a two year period. Forty-two percent of blood samples (n = 870) from this site were shown to have elevated lead. X-ray examination of swans revealed the source of contamination to be ingested lead pellets. Post mortem examination showed that 68% (n = 101) of all Mute swans examined died from lead poisoning. Two sources of lead were identified: spent gunshot and lost or discarded anglers' weights. Biochemical and haematological aspects of swan blood were also investigated. Reference haematological and biochemical values were established from 'normal' healthy Mute swans. These reference values were used as a baseline against which changes in lead poisoned birds could be measured. Moulting and immaturity were identified as causing natural variation, while acute lead poisoning was found to increase protoporphyrin, cholesterol and two serum enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase. Hypochromic anaemia was noted in swans suffering from acute lead poisoning. The possible role of lead in causing other sub-lethal effects, for example collisions, is also discussed.
- ItemMultiplicative time and space integrating acousto-optic architectures for real time spectrum processing(Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 1987-11-25) Riza, Nabeel A.; Psaltis, Demetri; Air Force Office of Scientific ResearchMultiplicative acousto-optic architectures using time and space dimensions for spectrally resolving long 1-D signals and images are described. The Discrete Fourier Transform algorithm is implemented optically to provide fine frequency resolving power. Experimental results are presented for 1-D and 2-D input signals. Bias removal techniques are discussed, including an approach using a photorefractive crystal as a time integrating bias-free detector.
- ItemTrapped surfaces in spherical stars(American Physical Society, 1988) Bizon, Piotr; Malec, Edward; Ó Murchadha, NiallWe give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis.