Browsing Cork University Dental School and Hospital - Journal Articles by Issue Date
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- ItemPrevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of Children's Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002(BioMed Central Ltd., 2007-07-31) Whelton, Helen; Harrington, Janas M.; Crowley, Evelyn; Kelleher, Virginia; Cronin, Michael S.; Perry, Ivan J.Background: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). Methods: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. Results: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). Conclusion: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.
- ItemThe heights and weights of Irish children from the post-war era to the Celtic tiger(British Medical Journal Group, 2009-03) Perry, Ivan J.; Whelton, Helen; Harrington, Janas M.; Cousins, BernardBACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a significant global health issue. National level data on long-term secular trends are relatively sparse. METHODS: Data were obtained from three large-scale surveys of school-aged children in Ireland involving measurements of height and weight in 1948, the 1970s and 2002. RESULTS: Significant increases in height and weight were observed in both boys and girls and in all age groups across the decades. The increases in weight were disproportionate to the trends in height. While boys aged 14 years were 23 cm taller 2002 than in 1948, their average weight was 61 kg, compared with 37 kg in 1948, an increase of 24 kg. A substantial proportion of the increase in weight is seen between the 1970s and 2002. CONCLUSIONS: The data provide stark and compelling evidence on the evolution of the obesity epidemic in Irish children in tandem with the increase in economic prosperity.
- ItemThe effect of variability in the powder/liquid ratio on the strength of zinc phosphate cement(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2011-11) McKenna, Jill E.; Ray, Noel J.; McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis M.; Abdalla, Ali I.Aim: To investigate (a) variability in powder/liquid proportioning (b) effect of the extremes of any such variability on diametral tensile strength (DTS), in a commercial zinc phosphate cement. Statistical analyses (a = 0.05) were by Student's t-test in the case of powder/liquid ratio and one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD for for pair-wise comparisons of mean DTS. The Null hypotheses were that (a) the powder-liquid mixing ratios observed would not differ from the manufacturer's recommended ratio (b) DTS of the set cement samples using the extreme powder/liquid ratios observed would not differ from those made using the manufacturer's recommended ratio. Methodology: Thirty-four undergraduate dental students dispensed the components according to the manufacturer's instructions. The maximum and minimum powder/liquid ratios (m/m), together with the manufacturer's recommended ratio (m/m), were used to prepare cylindrical samples (n = 3 x 34) for DTS testing. Results: Powder/liquid ratios ranged from 2.386 to 1.018.The mean ratio (1.644 (341) m/m) was not significantly different from the manufacturer's recommended value of 1.718 (p=0.189). DTS values for the maximum and minimum ratios (m/m), respectively, were both significantly different from each other (p<0.001) and from the mean value obtained from the manufacturer's recommended ratio (m/m) (p<0.001). Conclusions: Variability exists in powder/liquid ratio (m/m) for hand dispensed zinc phosphate cement. This variability can affect the DTS of the set material.
- ItemDental anxiety prevalence and surgery environment factors: A questionnaire-based survey of attenders in Ireland(Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry, 2012-01) Brady, Paul; Dickinson, Chris; Whelton, HelenAim: To identify and quantify anxious dental patientsand dental office environment factors that may influence anxiety. Objective: To develop and implement a questionnaire toinvestigate dental anxiety and identify factors thatenhance or lessen dental anxiety in the surgery setting. Methods: Data was collected from patients by a self completed questionnaire when attending dentists at a general dental practice and hospital clinics. Results: The estimated prevalence of dental anxiety in the totalsample was 17.0%. A higher proportion of females were highly anxious. Those attending the Dental Hospital were less likely to be anxious than those who were attending the Dental Practice. An inverse relationship between frequency of dental attendance and dental anxiety was found. Anxiety was significantly higher forthose respondents that indicated that a delay in their appointment would make them more anxious. Of the reported fears regarding their dental visit, 60% of respondents claimed that they were afraid it s going tohurt . When compared to non-anxious patients, more anxious patients feared feeling out of control , a negative experience , the needle, the drill, and being bothered by the smell associated with dental materials.The majority of respondents had a preference for a dentist that was young, friendly, talkative and native English speaking. In general, patients preferred the surgery temperature to be slightly cool. Regardless of anxiety level, 31.0% of patients said that they would prefer the chairside mouth rinse to be plain water with 49.1% not having a preference. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a significant proportion of patients experience anxiety about visiting the dentist. Many of them have preferences about dentists and the surgery environment which may be modulators of their anxiety. Awareness by the dental profession of the causes of dental anxiety and measures taken by dentists tominimise these trigger factors could have a substantial impact on anxious patients.
- ItemThe effect of copayments for prescriptions on adherence to prescription medicines in publicly insured populations; A systematic review and meta-analysis(Public Library of Science, 2013) Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Buckley, Claire M.; O'Riordan, David; Bradley, Colin P.; Whelton, Helen; Health Research BoardIntroduction: Copayments are intended to decrease third party expenditure on pharmaceuticals, particularly those regarded as less essential. However, copayments are associated with decreased use of all medicines. Publicly insured populations encompass some vulnerable patient groups such as older individuals and low income groups, who may be especially susceptible to medication non-adherence when required to pay. Non-adherence has potential consequences of increased morbidity and costs elsewhere in the system. Objective: To quantify the risk of non-adherence to prescribed medicines in publicly insured populations exposed to copayments. Methods: The population of interest consisted of cohorts who received public health insurance. The intervention was the introduction of, or an increase, in copayment. The outcome was non-adherence to medications, evaluated using objective measures. Eight electronic databases and the grey literature were systematically searched for relevant articles, along with hand searches of references in review articles and the included studies. Studies were quality appraised using modified EPOC and EHPPH checklists. A random effects model was used to generate the meta-analysis in RevMan v5.1. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I-2 test; p>0.1 indicated a lack of heterogeneity. Results: Seven out of 41 studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies contributed more than 1 result to the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 199, 996 people overall; 74, 236 people in the copayment group and 125,760 people in the non-copayment group. Average age was 71.75years. In the copayment group, (verses the non-copayment group), the odds ratio for non-adherence was 1.11 (95% CI 1.09-1.14; P = <0.00001). An acceptable level of heterogeneity at I-2 = 7%, (p = 0.37) was observed. Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed an 11% increased odds of non-adherence to medicines in publicly insured populations where copayments for medicines are necessary. Policy-makers should be wary of potential negative clinical outcomes resulting from non-adherence, and also possible knock-on economic repercussions.
- ItemIs 50 cent the price of the optimal copayment? - a qualitative study of patient opinions and attitudes in response to a 50 cent charge on prescription drugs in a publicly funded health system in Ireland(BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-01-10) Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Guinane, Marie; Whelton, Helen; Byrne, StephenBackground: A 50 cent prescription levy was introduced in 2010 on the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme (Irish public health insurance). This study sought to examine patient attitudes and opinions surrounding the 50 cent copayment. Given the small momentary value of the prescription fee, these results are of interest to policymakers internationally who wish to reduce copayments rather than abolish them. Methods: A qualitative research design was used; semi structured interviews were carried out. Twenty four GMS eligible participants were interviewed in 23 interviews. Fifteen females and 9 males took part. Ages varied from 31- >70 years. Patients were invited to be interviewed in both independent and chain community pharmacies in three types of setting; 1) a socially deprived urban area, 2) a suburban affluent area and 3) a rural area. The Framework method was used for data management and analysis using QSR International’s NVivo 9.2 qualitative data analysis software. The “Francis method” was used to test for data saturation. Results: Results are of interest to the Irish context and also at a broader international level. Patients were mostly accepting of the prescription levy with some reservations concerning an increased price and the way in which generated revenue would be used by government. Participants identified waste of prescription drugs at the hand of patients (moral hazard), but there was discordant opinion on whether the 50 cent copayment would halt this moral hazard. Interviewees felt the levy was affordable, albeit some may suffer a financial impact more than others. Conclusions: This qualitative study gives important insights into the experiences of GMS patients with regard to the prescription levy. Information regarding the appropriateness of a 50 cent copayment as a symbolic copayment needs to be confirmed by quantitative analysis. Further insight is required from a younger population.
- ItemManaging periodontal disease: the clinician's role and the patient's responsibility(George Warman Publications Ltd, 2013-06) Buckley, Peter; Roberts, AnthonyThis manuscript highlights the roles and responsibilities of the clinician and patient in the successful management of periodontal disease. Clinical relevance: This article highlights the variety of factors that need to be addressed for periodontal diseases to be successfully managed. Learning objective: The reader should understand the broad range of issues that require consideration for patients to be successfully managed for their periodontal problems.
- ItemAn analysis of the attitudes of dental patients attending general dental practice in Galway(Irish Dental Association, 2013-08) Hayes, Martina; Burke, Francis M.; McKenna, Gerald; Madden, Jamie M.; Cronin, MichaelAim: To describe the patterns of dental attendance and attitudes towards tooth loss of general dental practice patients in Galway. Objectives: 1. To determine the pattern of adult dental attendance in general practices in Galway; and, 2. To examine the oral health attitudes of these patients. Method: Questionnaires were distributed to 311 consecutive adult patients in the waiting rooms of ten general dental practices in Galway, which were randomly selected from the telephone directory. Results: A total of 254 of the 311 questionnaires distributed were fully completed, returned and included in the results, giving a response rate of 81.7%. A total of 59% of dentate participants attended their dentist for annual or biannual examinations compared to 23% of edentate patients. Some 10.5% of medical card holders and 0.5% of non-medical card holders were edentulous. Conclusions: The data from the survey indicated that medical card holders in Galway were more likely to be edentulous than nonmedical card holders. Edentate patients were less likely to be regular dental attenders than dentate patients.
- ItemIntracranial abscess secondary to dental infection(Irish Dental Association, 2014-02) Brady, Paul; Bergin, Sarah; Cryan, Bartley; Flanagan, OisinWe report a case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.actinomycetemcomitans) bacteraemia and secondary brain abscess in a patient where periodontal disease was implicated as the probable source.
- ItemIrish dental practitioners perceived barriers to the care of patients with special healthcare needs and the effect of postgraduate training(Stephen Hancocks Ltd, 2014-12) Jimoh, K.; Kinirons, MartinInequalities in oral healthcare service provision to people with special health needs have been reported in the Republic of Ireland. These include higher unmet dental treatment needs and longer waiting period to access routine dental treatment than the general population. Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the groups of patients with special needs which pose a challenge to manage in the dental surgery and to examine perceived barriers to the care of these patients. We aimed to determine whether postgraduate training in the management of these patients increases the practitioners’ frequency of treatment and their desire for further training in this area. Methods: A questionnaire was used to survey 326 randomly selected dentists from the Dental Council’s register of dentists. Questionnaire and information sheets explaining the purpose of the survey, confidentiality and anonymity of the responses were posted to the dentists. Results: The results showed that children with intellectual disability posed the biggest challenge for dentists to manage in the dental surgery. Behaviour management issues and the degree of disability were perceived by many dentists as factors that would have high effects on their willingness to treat patients with special needs. Dentists who have postgraduate training in the management of patients with special needs were significantly more willing to treat these patients and to seek additional training in the future. Conclusion: There are links between the training and the willingness of practitioners to undertake dental treatment or patients with special healthcare needs.
- ItemDentists’ requirements for continuing professional development in Ireland. A pilot study conducted at University College Cork(Irish Dental Association, 2015-03) Stewart, Christopher; Kinirons, MartinAims: To determine the self-assessed continuing professional development (CPD) needs of dental practitioners and identify how each discipline can best be served by a dental CPD programme. To set findings in the context of the available literature and contribute to the development of CPD programmes. Method: Topics were arranged into eight disciplines: practice management; paediatric dentistry; preventive dentistry; orthodontics; behaviour management; dentistry for people with a disability; oral medicine and surgery; and, restorative dentistry. A web-based questionnaire was constructed and administered using a MarkClass 2.21 online survey tool. Results: Fifty-six self-reported assessment responses were received, with three-quarters of participants having graduated within the past 10 years. Topics in oral medicine and surgery attracted consistently high levels of interest. A tendency to favour topics with a perceived direct clinical application was observed. Topics recommended by the Dental Council as core areas for CPD were given a high level of priority by respondents. Conclusions: Traditional lectures remain a valued mode of CPD participation. Practical courses were valued across all dental topics offered. A varied approach to determining the requirements of dentists is essential to appropriately support the practitioner.
- ItemA study of primary teeth restored by intracoronal restorations in children participating in an undergraduate teaching programme at Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland(Italian Society of Paediatric Dentistry, 2015-03) Hurley, Eimear; da Mata, Cristiane; Stewart, Christopher; Kinirons, MartinAim: To study the outcomes for restored primary molar teeth; to examine outcomes in relation to tooth type involved, intracoronal restoration complexity and to the material used. Materials and methods: Design: Retrospective study of primary molar teeth restored by intracoronal restorations. A series of restored primary molar teeth for children aged 6-12 years was studied. The principal outcome measure was failure of initial restoration (re-restoration or extraction). Three hundred patient records were studied to include three equal groups of primary molar teeth restored with amalgam, composite or glass ionomer, respectively. Restorative materials, the restoration type, simple (single surface) or complex (multi-surface) restoration, and tooth notation were recorded. Subsequent interventions were examined. Data were coded and entered into a Microsoft Excel database and analysis undertaken using SPSS v.18. Statistical differences were tested using the c2 test of statistical significance. Results: Of the 300 teeth studied, 61 restoration failures were recorded with 11 of those extracted. No significant differences were found between outcomes for upper first, upper second, lower first or lower second primary molars. Outcomes for simple primary teeth restored by intracoronal restorations were significantly better than those for complex intracoronal restorations (P = 0.042). Teeth originally restored with amalgam accounted for 19.7% of the 61 failures, composite for 29.5%, while teeth restored with glass ionomer represented 50.8% of all restoration failures. The differences were significant (P = 0.012). Conclusions: The majority (79.7%) of the 300 restored primary teeth studied were successful, and 3.7% teeth were extracted. Restorations involving more than one surface had almost twice the failure rate of single surface restorations. The difference was significant. Significant differences in failure rates for the three dental materials studied were recorded. Amalgam had the lowest failure rate while the failure rate with glass ionomer was the highest.
- ItemRetention procedures for stabilising tooth position after treatment with orthodontic braces.(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2016-01-29) Littlewood, Simon J.; Millett, Declan T.; Doubleday, Bridget; Bearn, David R.; Worthington, Helen V.Background: Retention is the phase of orthodontic treatment that attempts to keep teeth in the corrected positions after treatment with orthodontic braces. Without a phase of retention, there is a tendency for teeth to return to their initial position (relapse). To prevent relapse, almost every person who has orthodontic treatment will require some type of retention. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of different retention strategies used to stabilise tooth position after orthodontic braces. Search methods: We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 26 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 26 January 2016) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 26 January 2016). We searched for ongoing trials in the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We applied no language or date restrictions in the searches of the electronic databases. We contacted authors of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to help identify any unpublished trials. Selection criteria: RCTs involving children and adults who had had retainers fitted or adjunctive procedures undertaken to prevent relapse following orthodontic treatment with braces. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened eligible studies, assessed the risk of bias in the trials and extracted data. The outcomes of interest were: how well the teeth were stabilised, failure of retainers, adverse effects on oral health and participant satisfaction. We calculated mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous data and risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. We conducted meta-analyses when studies with similar methodology reported the same outcome. We prioritised reporting of Little's Irregularity Index to measure relapse. Main results: We included 15 studies (1722 participants) in the review. There are also four ongoing studies and four studies await classification. The 15 included studies evaluated four comparisons: removable retainers versus fixed retainers (three studies); different types of fixed retainers (four studies); different types of removable retainers (eight studies); and one study compared a combination of upper thermoplastic and lower bonded versus upper thermoplastic with lower adjunctive procedures versus positioner. Four studies had a low risk of bias, four studies had an unclear risk of bias and seven studies had a high risk of bias. Removable versus fixed retainers Thermoplastic removable retainers provided slightly poorer stability in the lower arch than multistrand fixed retainers: MD (Little's Irregularity Index, 0 mm is stable) 0.6 mm (95% CI 0.17 to 1.03). This was based on one trial with 84 participants that was at high risk of bias; it was low quality evidence. Results on retainer failure were inconsistent. There was evidence of less gingival bleeding with removable retainers: RR 0.53 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.88; one trial, 84 participants, high risk of bias, low quality evidence), but participants found fixed retainers more acceptable to wear, with a mean difference on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 to 100; 100 being very satisfied) of -12.84 (95% CI -7.09 to -18.60). Fixed versus fixed retainers The studies did not report stability, adverse effects or participant satisfaction. It was possible to pool the data on retention failure from three trials that compared polyethylene ribbon bonded retainer versus multistrand retainer in the lower arch with an RR of 1.10 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.57; moderate heterogeneity; three trials, 228 participants, low quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in failure rates. It was also possible to pool the data from two trials that compared the same types of upper fixed retainers, with a similar finding: RR 1.25 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.78; low heterogeneity; two trials, 174 participants, low quality evidence). Removable versus removable retainers One study at low risk of bias comparing upper and lower part-time thermoplastic versus full-time thermoplastic retainer showed no evidence of a difference in relapse (graded moderate quality evidence). Another study, comparing part-time and full-time wear of lower Hawley retainers, found no evidence of any difference in relapse (low quality evidence). Two studies at high risk of bias suggested that stability was better in the lower arch for thermoplastic retainers versus Hawley, and for thermoplastic full-time versus Begg (full-time) (both low quality evidence). In one study, participants wearing Hawley retainers reported more embarrassment more often than participants wearing thermoplastic retainers: RR 2.42 (95% CI 1.30 to 4.49; one trial, 348 participants, high risk of bias, low quality evidence). They also found Hawley retainers harder to wear. There was conflicting evidence about survival rates of Hawley and thermoplastic retainers. Other retainer comparisons Another study with a low risk of bias looked at three different approaches to retention for people with crowding, but normal jaw relationships. The study found that there was no evidence of a difference in relapse between the combination of an upper thermoplastic and lower canine to canine bonded retainer and the combination of an upper thermoplastic retainer and lower interproximal stripping, without a lower retainer. Both these approaches are better than using a positioner as a retainer. Authors' conclusions: We did not find any evidence that wearing thermoplastic retainers full-time provides greater stability than wearing them part-time, but this was assessed in only a small number of participants. Overall, there is insufficient high quality evidence to make recommendations on retention procedures for stabilising tooth position after treatment with orthodontic braces. Further high quality RCTs are needed.
- ItemRisk indicators associated with root caries in independently living older adults(Elsevier, 2016-08) Hayes, Martina; da Mata, Cristiane; Cole, Margaret; McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis M.; Allen, P. Finbarr; Health Research BoardObjective: To determine the risk indicators associated with root caries experience in a cohort of independently living older adults in Ireland. Methods: The data reported in the present study were obtained from a prospective longitudinal study conducted in a cohort of independently living older adults (n = 334). Each subject underwent an oral examination, performed by a single calibrated examiner, to determine the root caries index and other clinical variables. Questionnaires were used to collect data on oral hygiene habits, diet, smoking and alcohol habits and education level. A regression analysis with the outcome variable of root caries experience (no/yes) was conducted. Results: A total of 334 older dentate adults with a mean age of 69.1 years were examined. 53.3% had at least one filled or decayed root surface. The median root caries index was 3.13 (IQR 0.00, 13.92). The results from the multivariate regression analysis indicated that individuals with poor plaque control (OR 9.59, 95% CI 3.84–24.00), xerostomia (OR 18.49, 95% CI 2.00–172.80), two or more teeth with coronal decay (OR 4.50, 95% CI 2.02–10.02) and 37 or more exposed root surfaces (OR 5.48, 95% CI 2.49–12.01) were more likely to have been affected by root caries. Conclusions: The prevalence of root caries was high in this cohort. This study suggests a correlation between root caries and the variables poor plaque control, xerostomia, coronal decay (≥2 teeth affected) and exposed root surfaces (≥37). The significance of these risk indicators and the resulting prediction model should be further evaluated in a prospective study of root caries incidence. Clinical significance Identification of risk indicators for root caries in independently living older adults would facilitate dental practitioners to identify those who would benefit most from interventions aimed at prevention.
- ItemTooth replacement for partially dentate elders: A willingness-to-pay analysis(Elsevier B.V., 2016-09-15) McKenna, G.; Tada, S.; Woods, N.; Hayes, M.; DaMata, Cristiane; Allen, P. Finbarr; Health Research BoardObjectives: The primary aim of this study was to investigate partially dentate elders’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for two different tooth replacement strategies: Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs) and, functionally orientated treatment according to the principles of the Shortened Dental Arch (SDA). The secondary aim was to measure the same patient groups’ WTP for dental implant treatment. Methods: 55 patients who had completed a previous RCT comparing two tooth replacement strategies (RPDs (n = 27) and SDA (n = 28)) were recruited (Trial Registration no. ISRCTN26302774). Patients were asked to indicate their WTP for treatment to replace missing teeth in a number of hypothetical scenarios using the payment card method of contingency evaluation coupled to different costs. Data were collected on patients’ social class, income levels and other social circumstances. A Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare differences in WTP between the two treatment groups. To investigate predictive factors for WTP, multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: The median age for the patient sample was 72.0 years (IQR: 71–75 years). Patients who had been provided with RPDs indicated that their WTP for this treatment strategy was significantly higher (€550; IQR: 500–650) than those patients who had received SDA treatment (€500; IQR: 450–550) (p = 0.003). However patients provided with RPDs indicated that their WTP for SDA treatment (€650; IQR: 600–650) was also significantly higher than those patients who had actually received functionally orientated treatment (€550; IQR: 500–600) (p < 0.001). The results indicated that both current income levels and previous treatment allocation were significantly correlated to WTP for both the RPD and the SDA groups. Patients in both treatment groups exhibited little WTP for dental implant treatment with a median value recorded which was half the market value for this treatment (€1000; IQR: 500–1000). Conclusions: Amongst this patient cohort previous treatment experience had a strong influence on WTP as did current income levels. Both treatment groups indicated a very strong WTP for simpler, functionally orientated care using adhesive fixed prostheses (SDA) over conventional RPDs. Clinical significance: Partially dentate older patients expressed a strong preference for functionally orientated tooth replacement as an alternative to conventional RPDs.
- ItemPeriodontal disease: breaking the downward spiral of the disease process(George Warman Publications (UK) Ltd., 2016-10) Kehily, Elaine; Roberts, AnthonyPeriodontal disease is a common disease affecting more than 50% of the world’s adult population. It presents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the dental clinician. A successful treatment outcome can be achieved by early and repeated intervention when signs of disease are evident in the mouth. Gingival bleeding is one of the early signs of gum disease and one which should not be overlooked by the patient or his/her dental care professional. This is usually indicative of the presence of gingivitis, which can lead to periodontitis in susceptible patients. CPD/Clinical Relevance: A high standard of plaque control is essential throughout treatment for a favourable periodontal outcome and yet it is unfortunate that sometimes, despite the best endeavour of both patients and clinicians, this is not possible. As a consequence of the failure to establish high levels of plaque control, some patients do not respond fully to traditional periodontal therapy and, for some patients, an ongoing deterioration or ‘downward spiral’ continues and adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal therapy are indicated to improve periodontal outcomes.
- ItemAdhesives for fixed orthodontic bands(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2016-10) Millett, Declan T.; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye C.R.; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A.Background: Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. :Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of: (1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and (2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. Search methods: The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Selection criteria: Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. Data collection and analysis: All review authors were involved in study selection, validity assessment and data extraction without blinding to the authors, adhesives used or results obtained. All disagreements were resolved by discussion. Main results: Five RCTs and three CCTs were identified as meeting the review's inclusion criteria. All the included trials were of split-mouth design. Four trials compared chemically cured zinc phosphate and chemically cured glass ionomer; three trials compared chemically cured glass ionomer cement with light cured compomer; one trial compared chemically cured glass ionomer with a chemically cured glass phosphonate. Data analysis was often inappropriate within the studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient high quality evidence with regard to the most effective adhesive for attaching orthodontic bands to molar teeth. Further RCTs are required.
- ItemThe international generalisability of evidence for health policy: A cross country comparison of medication adherence following policy change(Elsevier B.V., 2016-10-26) Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Whelton, Helen; Franklin Myers, Jessica; Polinski, Jessica Milan; Health Research BoardCopayments for prescriptions may increase morbidity and mortality via reductions in adherence to medications. Relevant data can inform policy to minimise such unintended effects. We explored the generalisability of evidence for copayments by comparing two international copayment polices, one in Massachusetts and one in Ireland, to assess whether effects on medication adherence were comparable. We used national prescription data for public health insurance programmes in Ireland and Medicaid data in the U.S. New users of oral anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidaemic and diabetic drugs were included (total n = 14,259 in U.S. and n = 43,843 in Ireland). We examined changes in adherence in intervention and comparator groups in each setting using segmented linear regression with generalised estimating equations. In Massachusetts, a gradual decrease in adherence to anti-hypertensive medications of -1% per month following the policy occurred. In contrast, the response in Ireland was confined to a -2.9% decrease in adherence immediately following the policy, with no further decrease over the 8 month follow-up. Reductions in adherence to oral diabetes drugs were larger in the U.S. group in comparison to the Irish group. No difference in adherence changes between the two settings for anti-hyperlipidaemic drugs occurred. Evidence on cost-sharing for prescription medicines is not 'one size fits all'. Time since policy implementation and structural differences between health systems may influence the differential impact of copayment policies in international settings.