Browsing Government by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 94
Results Per Page
- ItemThe impact of new public management on the roles of elected councillors, management and the community sector in Irish local government: a case study of Cork County Council(University College Cork, 2000) Quinlivan, Aodh; Collins, NeilThe fundamental aim of this thesis is to examine the effect of New Public Management (NPM) on the traditional roles of elected representatives, management and community activists in Irish local government. This will be achieved through a case study analysis of one local authority, Cork County Council. NPM promises greater democracy in decision-making. Therefore, one can hypothesise that the roles of the three key groupings identified will become more influenced by principles of participatory decision-making. Thus, a number of related questions will be addressed by this work, such as, have the local elected representatives been empowered by NPM? Has a managerial revolution taken place? Has local democracy been enhanced by more effective community participation? It will be seen in chapter 2 that these questions have not been adequately addressed to date in NPM literature. The three groups identified can be regarded as stakeholders although the researcher is cautious in using this term because of its value-laden nature. Essentially, in terms of Cork County Council, stakeholders can be defined as decision-makers and people within the organization and its environment who are interested in or could be affected directly or indirectly by organizational performance. This is an all-embracing definition and includes all citizens, residents, community groups and client organizations. It is in this context that the term 'stakeholder' should be understood when it is occasionally used in this thesis. In this case, the perceptions of elected councilors, management and community representatives with regard to their changing roles are as significant as the changes themselves. The chapter begins with a brief account of the background to this research. This is followed by an explanation of the methodology which is used and then concludes with short statements about the remaining chapters in the thesis.
- ItemEuropean Standards and Waste Management in Ireland - Examining the Local Implementation Deficit(Institute of Public Administration, 2002) Quinlivan, Aodh; McNamara, TonyThe European Union policy concerning the protection of the environment and natural resources has grown steadily since the 1980s. The so-called 'Earth Summit' (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 increased the pace and represented a universal attempt at global sustainability. McCormick (2001:168) provides an indication of the scope, depth and volume of EU environmental decision-making by outlining that the EU has adopted 85 laws, a myriad of strategies and a broad variety of policy initiatives since the 1980s in the area of waste management alone. However, the existence of substantial legislation does not necessarily imply the adoption of best practice procedures in member states. Andersen and Eliassen (2001:17) demonstrate some of the difficulties of incorporating EU laws and directives through national and politic-administrative systems and emphasise 'the interplay between legislation and implementation'. Knill's (1998) contribution is also valuable in arguing that national adaptation depends on the level of embeddedness of existing national structures. Despite the proliferation of EU law on waste management, McCormick (2001:168) notes that "the EU does not yet have a common waste management policy". Perhaps this reflects Sbragia's assertion that European environmental policy is driven by a tension between the proponents of stringent standards and the reluctant actors, within and between countries. The formulation of environmental policy resembles a process which has been described by Haas (1993) as the 'leader-laggard' dynamic. On environmental matters, the 'leader' countries tend to be Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands and often it is their domestic politics which drive the Community's policy process along (Sbragia, 1999). This paper seeks to assess Ireland's position in this dynamic, primarily in the area of waste management. In so doing, it will examine the burden of implementation which has been placed on local authorities and will highlight recent Irish legislation which has removed the power of decision-making from democratically elected representatives.
- ItemRespect and dignity: essential guides to successful public sector innovation(Institute of Public Administration, 2005) Ó Tuama, Séamus
- ItemInternational pricing and distribution of therapeutic pharmaceuticals – An ethical minefield(Blackwell Publishing, 2005-04) Buckley, Joan; Ó Tuama, SéamusThis paper seeks to identify and consider ethical issues relating to the international pricing of pharmaceuticals, drawing especially on liberal rights theories. It suggests why and how some of these issues might be resolved. It examines and critiques arguments presented by major pharmaceutical manufacturers. It addresses a range of ancillary issues like current pricing policies, R&D, intellectual property rights, rights to profits, the public good and regulation. It proposes a potential model for moving forward on the pricing of pharmaceuticals, with a view to increasing access to essential drugs.
- ItemThe report of the Democracy Commission : engaging citizens : the case for democratic renewal in Ireland(TASC at New Island, 2005-10) Harris, Clodagh
- ItemBallot paper photographs and low-information elections in Ireland(Political Studies Association; Blackwell Publishing, 2007-10) Buckley, Fiona; Collins, Neil; Reidy, TheresaIn an attempt to facilitate greater voting participation in the Republic of Ireland, photographs of candidates have been placed on the ballot paper for local, national and European elections. Limited research undertaken in advance of the implementation of the photograph policy advised that the measure would assist people with literacy problems. However, social psychology research has long demonstrated that people are willing to make considerable judgements about a person when shown a photograph. The advent of ballot paper photographs allows candidates to be evaluated on the basis of their appearance. This article will explore how photographs could have become a factor in voter decision-making. Providing additional knowledge to encourage greater participation and engagement has introduced a possible new level of superficiality into the voter decision-making process.
- ItemLearning lessons from the Ringaskiddy incineration story(Institute of Public Admistration, 2008-01) Quinlivan, Aodh; McCarthy, Timothy J.; McNamara, Tony; Higher Education AuthorityThe inclusion of incineration in waste management policies has proven very contentious in the Republic of Ireland. Even though the Cork Region Waste Management Strategy (1995-2020) acknowledged the role of incineration it came as no surprise that a planning application in May 2001 by Indaver Ireland for two incinerators in Cork Harbour was met with fierce local opposition. This paper tells the story which unfolded from May 2001 to May 2007 and examines the roles played by public bodies such as Cork County Council, An Bord Pleanála, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Health and Safety Authority. The Indaver case reveals flaws in the planning process and highlights the need for a more coordinated approach which fosters trust, credibility and legitimacy.
- ItemThe Taskforce on Active Citizenship – the CLEAR analysis(Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008-04) Harris, ClodaghRecent debates on citizenship in Ireland have ranged from minimalist legalistic definitions of Irish citizenship to efforts to encourage active citizenship. This article deconstructs the active citizenship debates of the Democracy Commission, the Democratic Audit and the Taoiseach's Taskforce on Active Citizenship, concluding that active citizenship involves social capital, deliberative democratic mechanisms and a readiness to take part in the more formal aspects of public life. The CLEAR framework developed by Lowndes, Pratchett and Stoker incorporates these three dimensions of active citizenship and is applied to the recent recommendations on active citizenship in Ireland. The CLEAR analysis concludes that the taskforce's recommendations go furthest in terms of active citizenship. The promotion of social capital features strongly in its recommendations, compared with the Democracy Commission's approach, which lays greater stress on the deliberative and readiness to take part in the more formal part of public life sections.
- ItemJudicial review under the Irish Constitution: More American than Commonwealth(Schoordijk Instituut, Faculty of Law, Tilburg University, 2008-10) Ó Tuama, SéamusThe Irish legal system emerged from the British system. Yet the Irish constitution diverges from the Commonwealth model and more closely resembles the American constitution in both substance and application. This means that while the Irish parliamentary system is very much based on the Westminster model, the legal system, while remaining within the Common Law family, has important distinctions. One of the key areas of divergence from the Commonwealth model is in judicial review. This has important ramifications for the recognition and elaboration of human rights under the constitution. This article explores some of the historical reasons for the shift from the Commonwealth model and the nature and consequence of some of those differences. It also contrasts certain aspects of the Irish judicial review process with those pertaining in the United States; in particular it highlights some anti-democratic tendencies in the Irish system.
- ItemReconsidering directly elected mayors in Ireland: Experiences from the United Kingdom and America(Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008-11) Quinlivan, AodhAs part of the proposed modernisation of Irish local government a directly elected mayor with executive powers will be introduced in Dublin in 2011. It is then anticipated that the system of elected mayors will be extended to the whole country. However, it is not known what impact this new form of executive leadership will have on the prevailing system whereby city and county managers are dominant. Drawing from experiences in the United Kingdom and the United States, this paper suggests that Ireland needs a clear, unambiguous mayoral model. As a political leader with executive powers it is imperative that the mayor’s relationships with both the council and the city/county manager are tightly defined.
- ItemCritical turns in critical theory: new directions in social and political thought(Taurus Academic Studies, 2009) Ó Tuama, SéamusThe contemporary world is one of contingency and risk. We face a range of social and political problems barely imaginable to previous generations. Here the technique of critical social theory is applied to some of the most challenging social and political questions of our time. "Critical Turns in Critical Theory" brings together a diverse range of scholars to discuss a number of issues facing civil society at a regional and global level in recent years. The book explores new theories, critiques, analyses and practices to address debates about risk, responsibility, ethics, communication, the environment, science and technology, gender, identity, development and law. Loosely based on the seminal work of the critical social theorist Piet Strydom, "Critical Turns in Critical Theory" offers a set of perspectives and critiques that reshape some traditional concepts of critical social theory and challenge the liberal consensus which dominates contemporary civil society.
- ItemWe don’t like (to) party. A typology of Independents in Irish political life, 1922–2007(Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2009-02) Weeks, LiamThis article examines the phenomenon of Independents, or non-party candidates, in Irish political life. It has two main aims: the first is to disaggregate Independents from ‘others’ to provide a definitive dataset of their electoral performance, and to enable more reliable and valid analysis about this actor. The second, and primary, aim is to use this disaggregation to construct a typology of Independents. The background of every Independent candidate contesting a general election between 1922 and 2007 is examined, from which they are grouped into a number of Independent families and sub-categories. A detailed profile is provided of each of these categories, describing their key characteristics and respective electoral performances. It is shown that Independents are a residual heterogeneous category, about whom a better understanding can be achieved if their diversity is appreciated.
- ItemAn investigation of the utilisation of health impact assessments (HIAs) in Irish public policy making(University College Cork, 2009-04) O'Mullane, Monica; Quinlivan, AodhIt is the aim of this thesis to investigate Health Impact Assessment (HIA) use in public policy formulation in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Ireland. The influences affecting the use of HIAs will be examined in this study. Four case studies, where HIA has been conducted, will be used for research analysis. This includes HIAs conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin, Traveller accommodation in Donegal, a draft air quality action plan in Belfast and on a social housing regeneration project in Derry. HIA aims to identify possible intended and unintended consequences that a project, policy or programme will have on the affected population’s health. Although it has been acknowledged as a worthwhile tool to inform decision-makers, the extent to which it is used in policy in Ireland is subject to scrutiny. A theoretical framework, drawing from institutionalist, impact assessment and knowledge utilisation theories and schools of literature, underpin this study. The investigation involves an examination of the unit of analysis which consists of the HIA steering groups. These are made up of local authority decision makers, statutory health practitioners and community representatives. The overarching structure and underlying values which are hypothesized as present in each HIA case are investigated in this research. Chapters 2 and 3 outline the main literature in the area which includes theories from the public health and health promotion paradigm, the policy sciences and impact assessment techniques. Chapter 4 describes the methodology in this research which is a multiple case study design. This is followed by an analysis of the cases and then concludes with practical recommendations for HIA in Ireland and theoretical conclusions of the research.
- ItemThe puzzle of non-party actors in party democracy: Independents in Ireland(Palgrave Macmillan, 2009-09) Bolleyer, Nicole; Weeks, LiamIt is an accepted truth that parties are the central political actors in all liberal democracies. This dominance of parties is often considered the logical outcome of rational politicians’ attempts to maximize their utility in terms of votes and policy influence. However, the last twenty years have seen a number of significant Independent (i.e. non-party) actors emerge in more than a few political systems. From an actor-centred point of view, party affiliation can, depending on the particular environment, be rather a liability than an advantage, which has significant implications for the role of non-party actors in face of weakening party democracies. To demonstrate this point, we deliver an account of the rise of Independents in the Irish political system, opposed to the dominant scholarly perspective that tends to consider Independents as an idiosyncrasy. We show that the choice of organizational independence over party affiliation represents a reaction to incentives inherent in the electoral, parliamentary and governmental stages that can disfavour party as the most efficient vehicle for individual goal attainment. This becomes evident when avoiding the misleading comparison between parties as collective bodies with that of Independents as individuals, instead focussing on the respective strategic positions of the individual MPs.
- ItemWhy did occidental modernity fail in the Arab Middle East: the failed modern state?(University College Cork, 2011) Aziz, Sardar; Cottey, AndrewThis thesis asks a straightforward but nevertheless a complex question, that is: Why did modernity fail in the Arab Middle East? The notion of modernity in this thesis signifies the occidental modernity which reached the region in many different forms and through various channels. This occidental modernity had an impact on many areas and changed the societies and politics of the region. But these changes stopped short of reaching modernity, in other words it failed to change the society from traditional to modem. The failure of the emergence of a modem society in the region has been a puzzle for those who work on the Middle East. There are plethora of theories, concepts and models attempting to demystify this puzzle. This thesis regards the emerged form of the States and the sovereign in the region as the prime cause behind this failure. The thesis advances a new way of conceptualising statehood and politics in the Middle East: the Failed Modem State (FMS). The key features of the FMS are as follows: the sovereign is the state; both modem and traditional elements are utilised by the state elites; the territory of the state is a space where roles and functions of everything changes. The main features which distinguish the FMS analysis from other analyses of the Middle East are as follows: it does not emphases' one area or aspect; it shows how both modem and traditional tools are necessary for the survival of the State; the Failed Modem State is neither modem nor traditional and resists being either. The FMS mages to reduce both modernity and traditional aspects into tools, this enables the FMS sovereigns to utilise both as instruments. Modem and traditional forces used by the FMS to balance the power, to justify acts, divide society and being able to rule it and conquer it. This makes reform and change difficult if not impossible.
- ItemThe transformation of Ireland 1958 - 93: the role of ideas in punctuating institutional path dependency at critical junctures(University College Cork, 2011) McCarthy, Timothy J.; Murphy, Mary C.; Collins, NeilIreland experienced two critical junctures when its economic survival was threatened: 1958/9 and 1986/7. Common to both crises was the supplanting of long established practices, that had become an integral part of the political culture of the state, by new ideas that ensured eventual economic recovery. In their adoption and implementation these ideas also fundamentally changed the institutions of state – how politics was done, how it was organised and regulated. The end result was the transformation of the Irish state. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that at those critical junctures the political and administrative elites who enabled economic recovery were not just making pragmatic decisions, their actions were influenced by ideas. Systematic content analysis of the published works of the main ideational actors, together with primary interviews with those actors still alive, reveals how their ideas were formed, what influenced them, and how they set about implementing their ideas. As the hypothesis assumes institutional change over time historical institutionalism serves as the theoretical framework. Central to this theory is the idea that choices made when a policy is being initiated or an institution formed will have a continuing influence long into the future. Institutions of state become ‘path dependent’ and impervious to change – the forces of inertia take over. That path dependency is broken at critical junctures. At those moments ideas play a major role as they offer a set of ready-made solutions. Historical institutionalism serves as a robust framework for proving that in the transformation of Ireland the role of ideas in punctuating institutional path dependency at critical junctures was central.
- ItemExpectations and adaptation: China's foreign policies in a changing global environment(Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya., 2011-04) Duggan, Niall; Gottwald, Jörn-CarstenThe financial and economic crisis of 2008 has highlighted the changing landscape of international relations and the enormous pressure on the People's Republic of China to redefine its international position. Based on two case studies, China's Africa policy and its response to the global financial and economic crisis, we argue that China's foreign policies are currently characterized by an adaptation of its historical role conception as a "leading developing country" to that of a "responsible caretaker" in international, especially economic affairs. In its own perceptions - developed in constant exchange with external perceptions of China - as well as in its actions, the PRC finds itself drawn faster and further into a complex web of global governance than anticipated by its policy elites. Acknowledging the benefits of a stronger involvement, the PRC steps up its engagement with regional, multilateral and global orders and is actively pursuing their recalibration. Contradictions within the Chinese leadership, conflicting themes in public discourse and incoherent actions highlight the difficulties even for a technocratic one-party elite with a limited - albeit real and important - need to assure domestic support and legitimacy to define the global role of an "emerging great power".
- ItemThe influence of neoliberal thought on contemporary politics: an examination of the interrelationships between ideological hegemony, neoliberal thought and contemporary politics(University College Cork, 2011-09) Mac Donald, Fergal; Ó Tuama, SéamusThis thesis critically assesses the impact of neoliberal ideology on liberal thought and contemporary politics specifically examining the question, To what extent has neoliberalism, as elucidated originally by Hayek affected change in contemporary politics? This question is crucial to understanding the nature, role, influence and impact of neoliberal ideas. This investigation required a broad engagement with the literature, identifying and discussing the relationships within neoliberalism allowing a clearer understanding of the role of ideas in neoliberalism’s continuing hegemony. The methodological approach adopted a social constructivist character that encompassed an individual centric emphasis, acknowledging the breadth and complexity of Neoliberalization through the use of interpretive repertoires. The initial chapters examine the ideational process and the role of particular understanding in motivating political conduct. In this context of the transfer of ideas through their everyday resonance eventually becoming ‘stubborn social facts’ (Habermas 2006:413) is highlighted. Later chapters discuss the historical and economic context of Neoliberalization focussing on the role of the hegemon and its influence, outlining and evaluating the contribution of Hayek to liberal thought. The penultimate chapter deals with the contemporary situation and the irony associated with Hayek’s original ideas. Concluding, several findings emerged contributing by combining available knowledge in a uniquely fresh way and generating originality by linking old ideas, new ideas and new facts. The results are grouped as, - Pragmatic, recognising that political pragmatism trumps ideological aspiration where liberal democratic processes require politicians are held to account. - Realistic, recognising the contrast and irony between political action and ideological insight reflected in the operationalization of neoliberalism. - General, recognising Hayek’s on-going but increasingly indirect influence. The thesis finishes with a short aside on ideational change within the context of the current crisis and advocates an introspective approach that includes entrepreneurial spirit, good conscience and duty as part of future deliberations.
- ItemAn analysis of political efficacy socialisation among threshold voters in the Republic of Ireland(University College Cork, 2011-10) Murphy, Philip Joseph; Harris, Clodagh; Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social SciencesThe spread of democracy in the latter part of the twenty first century has been accompanied by an increasing focus on its perceived performance in established western democracies. Recent literature has expressed concern about a critical outlook among younger cohorts which threatens their political support and engagement. Political efficacy, referring to the feeling of political effectiveness, is considered to be a key indicator of the performance of democratic politics; as it refers to the empowerment of citizens, and relates to their willingness to engage in political matters. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the socialisation of political efficacy among those on the threshold of political adulthood; i.e., 'threshold voters'. The long-term significance of attitudes developed by time of entry to adulthood for political engagement during adulthood has been emphasised in recent literature. By capturing the effect of non-political and political learning among threshold voters, the study advances existing research frames which focus on childhood and early adolescent socialisation. The theoretical and methodological framework applied herein recognises the distinction between internal and external political efficacy, which has not been consistently operationalized in existing research on efficacy socialisation. This research involves a case study of 'threshold voters' in the Republic of Ireland, and employs a quantitative methodology. A study on Irish threshold voters is timely as the parliament and government have recently proposed a lowering of the voting age and an expansion of formal political education to this age group. A project-specific survey instrument was developed and administered to a systematic stratified sample of 1,042 post-primary students in the Cork area. Interpretation of the results of statistical analysis leads to findings on the divergent influence of family, school, associational, and political agents/environments on threshold voter internal and external political efficacy.
- ItemThe protection and security of vulnerable populations in complex emergencies using the Dadaab refugee camps in the north eastern province of Kenya as a case study(University College Cork, 2012-02) McSweeney, Damien Patrick John; Cottey, AndrewThe past two decades has seen a dramatic upheaval in the international world order: the end of the Cold War, the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent 'War on Terror', increased Jihadist activities, the accelerated pace of globalization, climate change and the 2008 global financial crisis have contributed to fear, uncertainty, poverty, conflict, massive displacements of populations of asylum seekers and refugees globally and a proliferation of Protracted Refugee Situations (PRS), defined as situations in which refugees have been in exile 'for 5 years or more after their initial displacement, without immediate prospects for implementation of durable solutions. In the past two decades there has been a huge proliferation of these with more than 7.2 million refugees now trapped in these PRS, with a further 16 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) trapped in camps within their own countries. The Dadaab refugee complex in Kenya, which of as March 2012, holds over 463,000 refugees, is the most significant and extreme example in recent times of a PRS. It was established in 1991 following the collapse of the Somali Government of Dictator Siad Barre, and the disintegration of Somalia into the chaos that still exists today. PRS such as Dadaab raise particular issues about humanitarianism in terms of aid, protection, security, human rights and the actions (or inaction) of the various stakeholders on an international, national and local level. This thesis investigates these issues by the use of a case study methodology on Dadaab as a PRS, framed in the context of humanitarianism and in particular the issues that arise in terms of how the international community, the UN system and individual states provide assistance and protection to vulnerable populations. Although the refugee camps have been in existence (as of 2012) for over 20 years, there has never been such a detailed study of Dadaab (or any other PRS) undertaken to date and would be of interest to academics in the areas of international relations, refugee/migration studies and global Governance as well as practitioners in both humanitarian response and development