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- ItemWomen's contribution to the development of the English novel: 1621-1818(University College Cork, 1939) MacCarthy, Bridget G.; Corkery, DanielWomen's contribution to literature is no arbitrary or artificial distinction. However much the reformer may welcome, or the conservative lament, the growth of a harmonious sharing of ideals between men and women, that growth has been a hard-fought struggle. It has been an escape from a prison, which, when it did not entirely shut out the greater world, at least enclosed a little world of education meant for women, literature adapted to the supposed limitations of their intellect, and a course of action prescribed by the other sex. To show how the literary efforts of women developed and justified their claims to free activity is the purpose of this thesis.
- ItemLeaf galls in our native trees and shrubs(University College Cork, 1945) Walsh, Eileen G.; Renouf, Louis P. W.Plant galls constitute a branch of study and research which has been to me a subject of much interest for some time. At the start of this work, it was intended to include Plant galls in general, but after some months this was found to be too comprehensive a field and would in fact take a great many years to study fully. Even leaf galls alone, both of herbs and trees provide so large a field of investigation that ultimately I decided to confine my attention to those or our native trees and shrubs. Upon looking up the literature on this subject, it will be found that in nearly all cases, either the gall is described fully and mere mention made or the agent concerned in its production, or vice versa. This state of things is most unsatisfactory, as in studying galls, both the gall-maker and the gall formation must be examined in detail before it is safe to apply nomenclature. This work, therefore, sets out to give accurate and scientific descriptions of both galls and gall-makers. The difficulties encountered are manifold; firstly, our trees are all deciduous, hence, the collecting period is necessarily restricted to that time of the year between the appearance of the buds and the fall of the leaf. Secondly, the rearing of imagines is always difficult, especially in the case or the autumn gall; more will be said on this matter later. Lastly, due to war-time conditions much trouble was experienced in obtaining suitable literature and many invaluable books on this subject were unprocurable. The Plates at the back have all been copied from original material except in the case or the Phytoptid mites which have been sketched with the help of illustrations, the reason for this being the difficulty of making suitable mounts of these minute creatures, Where possible all stages or at least larva and imago have been sketched, together with the host plant and the type of gall-formation produced. Slides have also been made of most larvae and the imagines attached to cards and pinned on to pith or cork in the usual manner.
- ItemThe purification and characterization of the high and low molecular weight forms of rabbit intestinal adenosine deaminase(University College Cork, 1972) Piggott, Charles O.; Brady, T. G.
- ItemThe Queen's College, Cork: its origins and early history, 1803-1858(University College Cork, 1973) Pettit, Sean F.; McClelland, AlanThis work examines the origins and early history of the Queen's College, Cork. Designedly there is as much stress on the origins as on the early history, for it is the contention of the work that the College was something more than a legislative mushroom. It was very much in the tradition of the civic universities which added an exciting new dimension to academic life in these islands in the nineteenth century. The first chapter surveys university practice and thinking at the opening of the century, relying exclusively on published sources. The second chapter is devoted specifically to the state of learning in Cork during the period, and makes extensive use of hitherto unpublished manuscript material in relation to the Royal Cork Institution. The third chapter deals with the highly significant evidence on education embodied in the Report of the Select Committee on Irish Education of 1838. This material has not previously been published. In chapter four an extended study is made of relevant letters in the manuscript correspondence of Sir Robert Peel - even the most recent authoritative biography has ignored this material. The remaining three chapters are devoted more specifically to the College, both in the formulation or policy and in its practical working. In chapter six there is an extended survey of early College life based exclusively on hitherto unpublished manuscript material in the College Archives. All of these sources, together with incidental published material, are set out at the end of each chapter.
- ItemA study of the oxygen electrochemistry of ruthenium and iridium(University College Cork, 1975) Buckley, D. Noel; Burke, L. D.This thesis is concerned with an investigation of the anodic behaviour of ruthenium and iridium in aqueous solution and particularly of oxygen evolution on these metals. The latter process is of major interest in the large-scale production of hydrogen gas by the electrolysis of water. The presence of low levels of ruthenium trichloride ca. 10-4 mol dm-3 in acid solution give a considerable increase in the rate of oxygen evolution from platinum and gold, but not graphite, anodes. The mechanism of this catalytic effect was investigated using potential step and a.c. impedance technique. Earlier suggestions that the effect is due to catalysis by metal ions in solution were proved to be incorrect and it was shown that ruthenium species were incorporated into the surface oxide film. Changes in the oxidation state of these ruthenium species is probably responsible for the lowering of the oxygen overvoltage. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the reaction were complicated by the fact that at constant potential the rates of both the catalysed and the uncatalysed oxygen evolution processes exhibit an appreciable, continuous decrease with either time or degree of oxidation of the substrate. The anodic behaviour of iridium in the oxide layer region has been investigated using conventional electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry. Applying a triangular voltage sweep at 10 Hz, 0.01 to 1.50V increases the amount of electric charge which the surface can store in the oxide region. This activation effect and the mechanism of charge storage is discussed in terms of both an expanded lattice theory for oxide growth on noble metals and a more recent theory of irreversible oxide formation with subsequent stoichiometry changes. The lack of hysteresis between the anodic and cathodic peaks at ca. 0.9 V suggests that the process involved here is proton migration in a relatively thick surface layer, i.e. that the reaction involved is some type of oxide-hydroxide transition. Lack of chloride ion inhibition in the anodic region also supports the irreversible oxide formation theory; however, to account for the hydrogen region of the potential sweep a compromise theory involving partial reduction of the outer regions of iridium oxide film is proposed. The loss of charge storage capacity when the activated iridium surface is anodized for a short time above ca. 1.60 V is attributed to loss by corrosion of the outer active layer from the metal surface. The behaviour of iridium at higher anodic potentials in acid solution was investigated. Current-time curves at constant potential and Tafel plots suggested that a change in the mechanism of the oxygen evolution reaction occurs at ca. 1.8 V. Above this potential, corrosion of the metal occurred, giving rise to an absorbance in the visible spectrum of the electrolyte (λ max = 455 nm). It is suggested that the species involved was Ir(O2)2+. A similar investigation in the case of alkaline electrolyte gave no evidence for a change in mechanism at 1.8 V and corrosion of the iridium was not observed. Oxygen evolution overpotentials were much lower for iridium than for platinum in both acidic and alkaline solutions.
- ItemFractionation and compositional studies of rabbit skeletal muscle membranes(University College Cork, 1975) Barrett, Edward John; Headon, D. R.The observations of Hooke (1665), Schleiden & Schwann (1839) and Virchow (1855) led to the identification of the cell as the basic structural unit of living material. In the intervening years, it has been firmly established that the chemical processes which underlie the proper functioning, development and reproduction of the organism are cellular activities. The development of the electron microscope has enabled cell structure to be studied in detail. A picture of the cell as an entity with a complex and highly organised internal structure has emerged from the work of Palade, Porter, Fernandez-Moran and many others. Although cells from different tissues and organisms differ in aspects of their structure and consequently in function, they have several features in common. A retentive membrane encloses a number of cell constituents, which include membrane-enclosed subcellular structures known as organelles. The cells of most tissues also contain a reticulum or system of branching tubules. The interplay of the biochemical activities of these structures enables the cell to function. Almost thirty years ago, Claude, Palade, Schneider, Hogeboom, de Duve and others set out to analytically fractionate the subcellular components obtained after the fragmentation of liver cells. This approach has become known as subcellular fractionation, and signalled a major conceptual breakthrough in biochemistry (reviewed by de Duve, 1964, 1967, 1971). The significance of this breakthrough has been underlined by the award of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine to de Duve, Palade and Claude. This thesis is concerned with the application of subcellular fractionation techniques to the separation and characterisation of the membrane systems of the rabbit skeletal muscle cell.
- ItemStudies on Formica lugubris Zetterstedt in Ireland (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)(University College Cork, 1976) Breen, John A. G.; O'Rourke, Fergus J.This thesis is based on studies of Formica lugubris from 1972-1975. While this species' range is diminishing in Ireland, the nests are quite common in the State plantations of South Tipperary. It is not certain that the species is indigenous. Above-ground activity occurs from late-February to the end of October; foraging begins in April. Two territorial "spring-battles" between neighbouring nests are described. Most active nests produced alatae of both sexes and flights were observed on successive June mornings above l7.5°C air temperature. Both polygyny and polycaly seem to be rare. Where the nests occur commonly, the recorded densities are similar to those reported from the continent. Most nests persisted at the same site since 1973. The nest-sites are described by recording an array of nest, soil, tree, vegetation and location variables at each site. Pinus sylvestris is the most important overhead tree. Nests seem to be the same age as their surrounding plantation and reach a maximum of c. 30 years. Nearest-neighbour analysis suggests the sites are overdispersed. Forager route-fidelity was studied and long-term absence from the route, anaesthetization and "removal" of an aphid tree had little effect on this fidelity. There were no identifiable groups of workers specifically honeydew or prey-carriers. Size-duty relationships of workers participating in adult transport are described. Foraging rhythms were studied on representative days: the numbers foraging were linearly related to temperature. Route-traffic passed randomly and an average foraging trip lasted c. four hours. Annual food intake to a nest with 25 000 foragers was estimated at approximately 75 kg honeydew and 2 million prey-items. Forager-numbers and colony-size were estimated using the capture-mark - recapture method: paint marking was used for the forager estimate and an interval radiophosphorus mark, detected by autoradiography, was used for the colony-size estimate. The aphids attended by lugubris and the nest myrmecophiles are recorded.
- ItemOn classical and other methods of discriminant analysis and estimation of log-odds(University College Cork, 1981) Murphy, Brendan J.; Moran, M. A.For two multinormal populations with equal covariance matrices the likelihood ratio discriminant function, an alternative allocation rule to the sample linear discriminant function when n1 ≠ n2 ,is studied analytically. With the assumption of a known covariance matrix its distribution is derived and the expectation of its actual and apparent error rates evaluated and compared with those of the sample linear discriminant function. This comparison indicates that the likelihood ratio allocation rule is robust to unequal sample sizes. The quadratic discriminant function is studied, its distribution reviewed and evaluation of its probabilities of misclassification discussed. For known covariance matrices the distribution of the sample quadratic discriminant function is derived. When the known covariance matrices are proportional exact expressions for the expectation of its actual and apparent error rates are obtained and evaluated. The effectiveness of the sample linear discriminant function for this case is also considered. Estimation of true log-odds for two multinormal populations with equal or unequal covariance matrices is studied. The estimative, Bayesian predictive and a kernel method are compared by evaluating their biases and mean square errors. Some algebraic expressions for these quantities are derived. With equal covariance matrices the predictive method is preferable. Where it derives this superiority is investigated by considering its performance for various levels of fixed true log-odds. It is also shown that the predictive method is sensitive to n1 ≠ n2. For unequal but proportional covariance matrices the unbiased estimative method is preferred. Product Normal kernel density estimates are used to give a kernel estimator of true log-odds. The effect of correlation in the variables with product kernels is considered. With equal covariance matrices the kernel and parametric estimators are compared by simulation. For moderately correlated variables and large dimension sizes the product kernel method is a good estimator of true log-odds.
- ItemUntangling unstructured programs(University College Cork, 1984) Oulsnam, Gordon; O'Regan, P. G.A method is presented for converting unstructured program schemas to strictly equivalent structured form. The predicates of the original schema are left intact with structuring being achieved by the duplication of he original decision vertices without the introduction of compound predicate expressions, or where possible by function duplication alone. It is shown that structured schemas must have at least as many decision vertices as the original unstructured schema, and must have more when the original schema contains branches out of decision constructs. The structuring method allows the complete avoidance of function duplication, but only at the expense of decision vertex duplication. It is shown that structured schemas have greater space-time requirements in general than their equivalent optimal unstructured counterparts and at best have the same requirements.
- ItemMicropropagation of Begonia and a study of genome stability in Begonia rex(University College Cork, 1985) Morrish, Fionnuala; Cassells, Alan C.The development of procedures and media for the micropropagation of B. rex are described. Media for the production of plantlets from a number of other Begonia hybrids are also provided. Growth analysis data is given for plants produced in vivo from leaf cuttings and in vitro from mature leaf petioles and immature leaves derived from singly and multiply recycled axenic plantlets. No significant difference was found in phenotype or quantitative vegetative characters for any of the populations assessed. The results presented from studies on the development of broad spectrum media for the propagation of a number of B. rex cultivars using axenic leaf explants on factorial combinations of hormones illustrate the major influence played by the genotype on explant response in vitro and suggest media on which a range of B. rex cultivars may be propagated. Procedures for in vitro irradiation and colchicine treatments to destabilize the B. rex genome have also been described. Variants produced from these treatments indicate the utility of in vitro procedures for the expression of induced somatic variation. Colour variants produced from irradiation treatment have been cultured and prove stable. Polyploids produced as variants from irradiation treatment have been subcultured but prove unstable. Media for the induction and proliferation of callus are outlined. The influence of callus subculture and aging on the stability of the B. rex genome is assessed by chromosomal analysis of cells, in vitro and in regenerants. The B. rex genome is destabilized in callus culture but attenuation of variation occurs on regeneration. Diploid cell lines are maintained in callus subcultures and supplementation of regenerative media with high cytokinin concentrations, casein hydrolysate or adenine failed to produce variants. Callus aging however resulted in the production of polyploids. The presence and expression of pre-existing somatic variation in B. rex pith and root tissue is assessed and polyploids have been produced from pith tissues cultured in vitro. The stability of the B. rex genome and the application of tissue culture to micropropagation and breeding of B. rex are discussed.
- ItemThe development of a computer model to optimize the performance of a 50kWp photovoltaic system(University College Cork, 1986) McCarthy, Sean; Wrixon, Gerry T.A computer model has been developed to optimize the performance of a 50kWp photovoltaic system which supplies electrical energy to a dairy farm at Fota Island in Cork Harbour. Optimization of the system involves maximising the efficiency and increasing the performance and reliability of each hardware unit. The model accepts horizontal insolation, ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction and load demand as inputs. An optimization program uses the computer model to simulate the optimum operating conditions. From this analysis, criteria are established which are used to improve the photovoltaic system operation. This thesis describes the model concepts, the model implementation and the model verification procedures used during development. It also describes the techniques which are used during system optimization. The software, which is written in FORTRAN, is structured in modular units to provide logical and efficient programming. These modular units may also be used in the modelling and optimization of other photovoltaic systems.
- ItemChemistry of B1- and B10- boranes containing halogen or pseudohalogen groups(University College Cork, 1987) Myers, Michael; Spalding, Trevor R.The research described in this thesis involved the chemistry of borane-species which contain one or more halide or pseudohalide groups. Both monoboron species e.g. [BH3X]- and "cluster" borane species e.g. [B10H9X]2- and I-Se B11H10 were studied. The first chapter is a review of the syntheses, properties and reactions of halide and pseudohalide species containing from one to ten boron atoms. Chapter Two is a theoretical investigation of' the electronic and molecular structures of two series of boranes i. e. [BH3X]- and [B10H9X]2- where X = H, CI, CN, NCS, SCN and N3. The calculational method used was the Modified Neglect of Differential Overlap (MNDO) method of Dewar et al. The results were compared where possible with experimental results such as the X-ray crystallographically determined structures of [BH3CI]- and [B10H10]2-. Chapter Three concerns halogenated selenaborane clusters and reports an improved synthesis of 12-Br-SeB11H10 and the first structural data for a simple non-metal containing selenaborane cage with the X-ray crystallographically determined structure of 12-1-SeB11H10. Finally, an indepth n.m.r. study of Se2B9H9 is also reported together with attempts to halogenate this compound. The last two chapters are based on single boron systems. Chapter Four concerns the synthetic routes to amine-boranes and -cyanoboranes from [BH4]- and [BH3CN]- substrates. This chapter discusses some difficulties encountered when polyamines were used in these reactions. The characterisation of an unusual ketone isolated from some of these reactions, the X-ray crystallographically determined structure of 4-dimethylamino-pyridine-cyanoborane and a new route to pyrazabole dimeric species are also discussed. The final chapter reports on work carried out at producing BH2X (X = H, CN) adducts of aminophosphines. Three routes were attempted to generate P-B and N-B bonded species with varying degrees of success. Some unusual products of these reactions are discussed including [Ph2(O) PPPh2 ] [Ph2NH]2, the structure of which was determined by X-ray crystallography.
- ItemOptimisation of growth and storage conditions of lactic streptococci(University College Cork, 1987) Lyne, John Gerard; Daly, CharlieThe application of defined strain culture systems in the Irish Cheese Industry required detailed knowledge of culture preparation and preservation. Concentrated starters were prepared for strains of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris in a low lactose medium (2.5% milk solids) with external pH control. Initial studies indicated that doubling the level of yeast extract in the medium did not have a significant effect on specific growth rate or on final cell numbers. For most strains, final cell numbers at 22°C were greater than obtained in 10%.milk solids medium. Individual strains showed variable ability to maintain activity once the culture entered the stationary phase. When optimum conditions for cell harvesting had been established, individual strains were stored at refrigeration and sub-zero temperatures - both with and without cryoprotectants. Samples were assayed at various intervals for cell viability and culture activity. At -80°C most strains maintained activity and viability whether cryoprotectants were added or not. Strains which showed a decline in viability were best protected by glycerol with lactose being slightly less effective. At -20°C, the spent ferementation medium was not able to protect the strains from freezing or from frozen storage. Some strains lost activity without showing a decline in viability. With others, activity decreased at a rate corresponding to the loss in viability. For the former strains, subculturing at 21°C did not restore full activity but the latter cultures were able to regain full activity on sub-culture. The addition of glycerol and lactose prior to freezing aided in cell protection as did freezing at low temperature. However, the degree of protection was strain dependent. Some strains retained activity at refrigeration temperatures for up to 73 days, with all strains remaining active at 4°C for at least 14 days. One S. cremoris strain did not grow well under pHcontrol. A bacteriophage was detected in the culture, initially at low levels. The phage propagated and eventually lysed the culture. This occurred in milk based media which were pH controlled between pH values 6.0 and 7.3. Growth under pH controlled conditions at pH 5.5 did not cause phage release even though in separate experiments the phage was able to multiply at this pH. Inducing agents, such as U.V. and mitomycin-C failed to release lytic phage, nor were phage detected in broth or in phage-inhibitory media. Single strain isolates also exhibited phage release, even though these isolates differed from the parent strain in phenotype and phage typing. With the exception of one S. cremoris strain, conditions of culture growth, harvesting and storage were established. These have proved useful for the growth of lactic streptococci for commercial cheese making.
- ItemThe ecology of the Irish stoat(University College Cork, 1987) Sleeman, David Patrick; Mulcahy, Máire F.The Irish stoat, Mustela erminea hibernica (Thomas and Barrett-Hamilton), has been regarded as an intermediate between the British stoat and the weasel. In this study Irish stoats, mainly from road casualties, were collected and studied. A small number were also live-trapped and radio-tracked. Thus information was gathered on the stoat’s ecology, in particular its form (size and coat colours), reproduction, food habits, parasites, habitat utilisation mortality and predation. The Irish stoats studied were clearly not intermediate in size between British stoats and weasels. They showed considerable size overlap with British stoats, and marked size variation within Ireland. It is argued that size of stoats is determined by food supply early in life. The ventral coat pattern of Irish stoats is apparently unique in the Palaearctic, being similar to that of some stoats found on the west coast of North America. It is argued that this is an example of parallel evolution resulting from adaptation to similar climatic conditions. The stoats were reproductively active in spring and summer. Food consisted mainly of rabbits, but rats, birds, shrews mice and voles were also consumed. Mites were the most numerous ectoparasites, followed by lice, ticks and fleas. Damage by the parasitic nematode Skrjabingylus nasicola was found more frequently in female stoat skulls. Stoats were frequently found in a variety of habitats, both open and wooded. Some of the radio-tracked stoats climbed trees. Dens used were often rat holes. Only one home range, that of a breeding female, was considered to have been accurately measured. It was 22 ha. in size. Mortality is known to have been caused by road accidents and domestic carnivores. It is argued that predation by raptorial birds is important to stoat populations. Results of this study are compared with information available from elsewhere.
- ItemAn Egyptian mummy and coffin at University College Cork(University College Cork, 1988) Davis, Helen; Twohig, Elizabeth Shee; Taylor, John H.This thesis is an attempt to establish the relationship between an Egyptian mummy, cartonnage and coffin. To this end, the mummy was x-rayed by conventional means and C.T scanning to discover possible a date and to discover whether there was anything unusual about it from the point of view of pathology, bandaging, or mummification process. The bandages were analysed microscopically and by chemical analyses. The cartonnage was examined to extablish a possible method for its manufacture, and to discover whether all four pieces belonged together. The inscriptions and subjects depicted upon it were drawn and photographed and where possible, interpreted. The provenance of the coffin was established, its inscriptions and art work recorded by drawing and photography and its present location communicated to the Topographical Bibliography of Egyptian Inscriptions etc.at the Griffith Institute at Oxford.
- ItemInvolvement of incipient hydrous oxide species in electrocatalysis at some metal electrode surfaces(University College Cork, 1989) O'Leary, William Anthony; Burke, L. D.In this thesis a novel theory of electrocatalysis at metal (especially noble metal)/solution interfaces was developed based on the assumption of metal adatom/incipient hydrous oxide cyclic redox transitions. Adatoms are considered as metastable, low coverage species that oxidise in-situ at potentials of often significantly cathodic to the regular metal/metal oxide transition. Because the adatom coverage is so low the electrochemical or spectroscopic response for oxidation is frequently overlooked; however, the product of such oxidation, referred to here as incipient hydrous oxide seems to be the important mediator in a wide variety of electrocatalytically demanding oxidation processes. Conversely, electrocatalytically demanding reductions apparently occur only at adatom sites at the metal/solution interface - such reactions generally occur only at potentials below, i.e. more cathodic than, the adatom/hydrous oxide transition. It was established that while silver in base oxidises in a regular manner (forming initially OHads species) at potentials above 1.0 V (RHE), there is a minor redox transition at much lower potentials, ca. o.35 v (RHE). The latter process is assumed to an adatom/hydrous oxide transition and the low coverage Ag(l) hydrous oxide (or hydroxide) species was shown to trigger or mediate the oxidation of aldehydes, e. g. HCHO. The results of a study of this system were shown to be in good agreement with a kinetic model based on the above assumptions; the similarity between this type of behaviour and enzyme-catalysed processes - both systems involve interfacial active sites - was pointed out. Similar behaviour was established for gold where both Au(l) and Au(lll) hydrous oxide mediators were shown to be the effective oxidants for different organic species. One of the most active electrocatalytic materials known at the present time is platinum. While the classical view of this high activity is based on the concept of activated chemisorption (and the important role of the latter is not discounted here) a vital role is attributed to the adatom/hydrous oxide transition. It was suggested that the well known intermediate (or anomalous) peak in the hydrogen region of the cyclic voltanmogram for platinum region is in fact due to an adatom/hydrous oxide transition. Using potential stepping procedures to minimise the effect of deactivating (COads) species, it was shown that the onset (anodic sweep) and termination (cathodic sweep) potential for the oxidation of a wide variety of organics coincided with the potential for the intermediate peak. The converse was also shown to apply; sluggish reduction reactions, that involve interaction with metal adatoms, occur at significant rates only in the region below the hydrous oxide/adatom transition.
- ItemSynthetic and stereochemical aspects of intramolecular reactions of α-diazoketones catalysed by rhodium(II) carboxylates(University College Cork, 1989) Maguire, Anita R.; McKervey, M. A.; Department of Education, Ireland; GlaxoSmithKline, United Kingdom; Cork County CouncilChapter 1 of this thesis is a brief introduction to the preparation and reactions of α-diazocarbonyl compounds, with particular emphasis on the areas relating to the research undertaken: C-H insertion, addition to aromatics, and oxonium ylide generation and rearrangement. A short summary of catalyst development illustrates the importance of rhodium(II)carboxylates for α-diazocarbonyl decomposition. Chapter 2 describes intramolecular C-H insertion reactions of α-diazo-β-keto sulphones to form substituted cyclopentanones. Rhodium(II) carboxylates derived from homochiral carboxylic acids were used as catalysts in these reactions and enantioselection achieved through their use is discussed. Chapter 3 describes intramolecular Buchner cyclisation of aryl diazoketones with emphasis on the stereochemical aspects of the cyclisation and subsequent reaction of the bicyclo[5.3.0]decatrienones produced. The partial asymmetric synthesis achieved through use of chiral rhodium(II) carboxylates as catalysts is discussed. The application of the intramolecular Buchner reaction to the synthesis of hydroazulene lactones is illustrated. Chapter 4 demonstrates oxonium ylide formation and rearrangement in the decomposition of an α-diazoketone. The consequences of the use of chiral rhodium(II) carboxylates as catalysts are described. Particularly significant was the discovery that rhodium(II) (S)-mandelate acts as a very efficient catalyst for α-diazoketone decompositions, in general. Moderate asymmetric induction was possible in the decomposition of α-diazoketones with chiral rhodium(II) carboxylates, with rhodium(II) (S)-mandelate being one of the more enantioselective catalysts investigated. However, the asymmetric induction obtained was very dependent on the exact structure of the α-diazoketone, the catalyst, and the nature of the reaction. Chapter 5 contains the experimental details, and the spectral and analytical data for all new compounds reported.
- ItemPolice accountability in Ireland: an analysis of the problems posed by the legal, constitutional and political dimensions and how they might be addressed(University College Cork, 1992) Walsh, Dermot P. J.; O'Connor, JohnThe concept of police accountability is not susceptible to a universal or concise definition. In the context of this thesis it is treated as embracing two fundamental components. First, it entails an arrangement whereby an individual, a minority and the whole community have the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the formulation of the principles and policies governing police operations. Second, it presupposes that those who have suffered as victims of unacceptable police behaviour should have an effective remedy. These ingredients, however, cannot operate in a vacuum. They must find an accommodation with the equally vital requirement that the burden of accountability should not be so demanding that the delivery of an effective police service is fatally impaired. While much of the current debate on police accountability in Britain and the USA revolves around the issue of where the balance should be struck in this accommodation, Ireland lacks the very foundation for such a debate as it suffers from a serious deficit in research and writing on police generally. This thesis aims to fill that gap by laying the foundations for an informed debate on police accountability and related aspects of police in Ireland. Broadly speaking the thesis contains three major interrelated components. The first is concerned with the concept of police in Ireland and the legal, constitutional and political context in which it operates. This reveals that although the Garda Siochana is established as a national force the legal prescriptions concerning its role and governance are very vague. Although a similar legislative format in Britain, and elsewhere, have been interpreted as conferring operational autonomy on the police it has not stopped successive Irish governments from exercising close control over the police. The second component analyses the structure and operation of the traditional police accountability mechanisms in Ireland; namely the law and the democratic process. It concludes that some basic aspects of the peculiar legal, constitutional and political structures of policing seriously undermine their capacity to deliver effective police accountability. In the case of the law, for example, the status of, and the broad discretion vested in, each individual member of the force ensure that the traditional legal actions cannot always provide redress where individuals or collective groups feel victimised. In the case of the democratic process the integration of the police into the excessively centralised system of executive government, coupled with the refusal of the Minister for Justice to accept responsibility for operational matters, project a barrier between the police and their accountability to the public. The third component details proposals on how the current structures of police accountability in Ireland can be strengthened without interfering with the fundamentals of the law, the democratic process or the legal and constitutional status of the police. The key elements in these proposals are the establishment of an independent administrative procedure for handling citizen complaints against the police and the establishment of a network of local police-community liaison councils throughout the country coupled with a centralised parliamentary committee on the police. While these proposals are analysed from the perspective of maximising the degree of police accountability to the public they also take into account the need to ensure that the police capacity to deliver an effective police service is not unduly impaired as a result.
- ItemUniformly convergent finite element methods for singularly perturbed parabolic partial differential equations(University College Cork, 1993) Guo, Wen; Stynes, MartinThis thesis is concerned with uniformly convergent finite element methods for numerically solving singularly perturbed parabolic partial differential equations in one space variable. First, we use Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods to generate three schemes for such problems, each of these schemes uses exponentially fitted elements in space. Two of them are lumped and the other is non-lumped. On meshes which are either arbitrary or slightly restricted, we derive global energy norm and L2 norm error bounds, uniformly in the diffusion parameter. Under some reasonable global assumptions together with realistic local assumptions on the solution and its derivatives, we prove that these exponentially fitted schemes are locally uniformly convergent, with order one, in a discrete L∞norm both outside and inside the boundary layer. We next analyse a streamline diffusion scheme on a Shishkin mesh for a model singularly perturbed parabolic partial differential equation. The method with piecewise linear space-time elements is shown, under reasonable assumptions on the solution, to be convergent, independently of the diffusion parameter, with a pointwise accuracy of almost order 5/4 outside layers and almost order 3/4 inside the boundary layer. Numerical results for the above schemes are presented. Finally, we examine a cell vertex finite volume method which is applied to a model time-dependent convection-diffusion problem. Local errors away from all layers are obtained in the l2 seminorm by using techniques from finite element analysis.
- ItemPrimary proteolysis of caseins in cheddar cheese(University College Cork, 1993) McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Fox, Patrick F.Studies were undertaken to investigate proteolysis of the caseins during the initial stages of maturation of Cheddar cheese. Isolated caseins were hydrolyzed by enzymes thought to be of importance during cheese ripening and the resulting peptides isolated and identified. Large peptides were also isolated from Cheddar cheese and identified, thus enabling the extent to which casein degradation studies could be extrapolated to cheese to be established. The proteolytic specificity of chymosin on bovine αs1- and αs2-caseins and of plasmin on bovine αs1-casein were determined. The action of cathepsin D, the principal indigenous acid milk proteinase, on caseins was studied and its pH optimum and sensitivity to NaCI determined. The action of cathepsin D on αs1-, αs2-, β- and κ-caseins was compared with that of chymosin and was found to be generally similar for the hydrolysis of αs1- and κ-caseins but to differ for αs2-and β- caseins. β-Casein in solution was hydrolyzed by cell wall-associated proteinases from three strains of Lactococcus lactis; comparison of electrophoretograms of the hydrolyzates with those of Cheddar cheese indicated that no peptides produced by cell wall-associated proteinases were detectable in the cheeses. All the major peptides in the water-insoluble fraction of Cheddar cheese were isolated and identified. It was found that β-casein was degraded primarily by plasmin and αs1 -casein by chymosin. Initial chymosin and plasmin cleavage sites in αs1-, and β-casein, respectively, identified in these and other studies corresponded to the peptides isolated from cheese. The importance of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) to the maturation of Cheddar was studied in cheeses manufactured from raw, pasteurized or microfiltered milks. NSLAB were found to strongly influence the quality and patterns of proteolysis. Results presented in this thesis are consistent with the hypothesis that primary proteolysis in Cheddar is catalysed primarily by the action of chymosin and plasmin on intact αs1- and β-caseins, respectively. The resulting large peptides so produced are subsequently degraded by these enzymes and by proteinases and peptidases from the starter and NSLAB.