Browsing Food and Nutritional Sciences - Doctoral Theses by Issue Date
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- ItemPrimary proteolysis of caseins in cheddar cheese(University College Cork, 1993) McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Fox, Patrick F.Studies were undertaken to investigate proteolysis of the caseins during the initial stages of maturation of Cheddar cheese. Isolated caseins were hydrolyzed by enzymes thought to be of importance during cheese ripening and the resulting peptides isolated and identified. Large peptides were also isolated from Cheddar cheese and identified, thus enabling the extent to which casein degradation studies could be extrapolated to cheese to be established. The proteolytic specificity of chymosin on bovine αs1- and αs2-caseins and of plasmin on bovine αs1-casein were determined. The action of cathepsin D, the principal indigenous acid milk proteinase, on caseins was studied and its pH optimum and sensitivity to NaCI determined. The action of cathepsin D on αs1-, αs2-, β- and κ-caseins was compared with that of chymosin and was found to be generally similar for the hydrolysis of αs1- and κ-caseins but to differ for αs2-and β- caseins. β-Casein in solution was hydrolyzed by cell wall-associated proteinases from three strains of Lactococcus lactis; comparison of electrophoretograms of the hydrolyzates with those of Cheddar cheese indicated that no peptides produced by cell wall-associated proteinases were detectable in the cheeses. All the major peptides in the water-insoluble fraction of Cheddar cheese were isolated and identified. It was found that β-casein was degraded primarily by plasmin and αs1 -casein by chymosin. Initial chymosin and plasmin cleavage sites in αs1-, and β-casein, respectively, identified in these and other studies corresponded to the peptides isolated from cheese. The importance of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) to the maturation of Cheddar was studied in cheeses manufactured from raw, pasteurized or microfiltered milks. NSLAB were found to strongly influence the quality and patterns of proteolysis. Results presented in this thesis are consistent with the hypothesis that primary proteolysis in Cheddar is catalysed primarily by the action of chymosin and plasmin on intact αs1- and β-caseins, respectively. The resulting large peptides so produced are subsequently degraded by these enzymes and by proteinases and peptidases from the starter and NSLAB.
- ItemVariations in total and differential milk somatic cell counts and plasmin levels and their role in proteolysis and quality of milk and cheese(University College Cork, 1995) Kelly, Alan L.; Foley, JohnIncreased plasmin and plasminogen levels and elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) and polymorphonuclear leucocyte levels (PMN) were evident in late lactation milk. Compositional changes in these milks were associated with increased SCC. The quality of late lactation milks was related to nutritional status of herds, with milks from herds on a high plane of nutrition having composition and clotting properties similar to, or superior to, early-mid lactation milks. Nutritionally-deficient cows had elevated numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in their milk, elevated plasmin levels and increased overall proteolytic activity. The dominant effect of plasmin on proteolysis in milks of low SCC was established. When present in elevated numbers, somatic cells and PMNs in particular had a more significant influence on the proteolysis of both raw and pasteurised milks than plasmin. PMN protease action on the caseins showed proteolysis products of two specific enzymes, cathepsin B and elastase, which were also shown in high SCC milk. Crude extracts of somatic cells had a high specificity on αs1-casein. Cheeses made from late lactation milks had increased breakdown of αs1-casein, suggestive of the action of somatic cell proteinases, which may be linked to textural defects in cheese. Late lactation cheeses also showed decreased production of small peptides and amino acids, the reason for which is unknown. Plasmin, which is elevated in activity in late lactation milk, accelerated the ripening of Gouda-type cheese, but was not associated with defects of texture or flavour. The retention of somatic cell enzymes in cheese curd was confirmed, and a potential role in production of bitter peptides identified. Cheeses made from milks containing high levels of PMNs had accelerated αs1-casein breakdown relative to cheeses made from low PMN milk of the same total SCC, consistent with the demonstrated action of PMN proteinases. The two types of cheese were determined significantly different by blind triangle testing.
- ItemThe formulation, testing and stability of 16% fat cream liqueurs(University College Cork, 1996) Power, Paul C.; Foley, JohnCream liqueurs manufactured by a one-step process, where alcohol was added before homogenisation, were more stable than those processed by a two -step process which involved addition of alcohol after homogenisation. Using the one-step process, it was possible to produce creaming-stable liqueurs by using one pass through a homogeniser (27.6 MPa) equipped with "liquid whirl" valves. Test procedures to characterise cream liqueurs and to predict shelf life were studied in detail. A turbidity test proved simple, rapid and sensitive for characterising particle size and homogenisation efficiency. Prediction of age thickening/gelation in cream liqueurs during incubation at 45 °C depended on the age of the sample when incubated. Samples that gelled at 45 °C may not do so at ambient temperature. Commercial cream liqueurs were similar in gross chemical composition, and unlike experimentally produced liqueurs, these did not exhibit either age-gelation at ambient or elevated temperatures. Solutions of commercial sodium caseinates from different sources varied in their calcium sensitivity. When incorporated into cream liqueurs, caseinates influenced the rate of viscosity increase, coalescence and, possibly, gelation during incubated storage. Mild heat and alcohol treatment modified the properties of caseinate used to stabilise non-alcoholic emulsions, while the presence of alcohol in emulsions was important in preventing clustering of globules. The response to added trisodium citrate varied. In many cases, addition of the recommended level (0.18%) did not prevent gelation. Addition of small amounts of NaOH with 0.18 % trisodium citrate before homogenisation was beneficial. The stage at which citrate was added during processing was critical to the degree of viscosity increase (as opposed to gelation) in the product during 45 °C incubation. The component responsible for age-gelation was present in the milk-solids non fat portion of the cream and variations in the creams used were important in the age-gelation phenomenon Results indicated that, in addition to possibly Ca++, the micellar casein portion of serum may play a role in gelation. The role of the low molecular weight surfactants, sodium stearoyl lactylate and monodiglycerides in preventing gelation, was influenced by the presence of trisodium citrate. Clustering of fat globules and age-gelation were inhibited when 0.18 % citrate was included. Inclusion of sodium stearoyl lactylate, but not monodiglycerides, reduced the extent of viscosity increase at 45 °C in citrate containing liqueurs.
- ItemMammalian cell cultures as a model system for the determination of cytotoxicity induced by cholesterol oxidation products(University College Cork, 2001) O'Callaghan, Yvonne C.; O'Brien, Nora M.Oxysterols are products of cholesterol oxidation, which may be produced endogenously or may be absorbed from the diet where they are commonly found in foods of animal origin. Oxysterols are known to be cyctotoxic to cells in culture and mode of toxicity has been identified as apoptosis in certain cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the oxysterols 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH) and 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OH) was examined in two human cell lines, HepG2, a hepatoma cell line, and U937, a monocytic cell line. Both 25-OH and 7β-OH were cytotoxic to the HepG2 cell line but apoptotic cells were not detected and it was concluded that cells underwent necrosis. 25-OH was not cytotoxic to the U937 cell line but it was found to have a cytostatic effect. 7β-OH was shown to induce apoptosis in the U937 line. The mechanism of oxysterol-induced apoptosis has not yet been fully elucidated, however the generation of an oxidative stress and the depletion of glutathione have been associated with the initial stages of the apoptotic process. The concentration of cellular antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in association with 7β-OH induced apoptosis in the U937 cell line. There was no change in the glutathione concentration or the SOD activity of HepG2 cells, which underwent necrosis in the presence of 7β-OH. Many apoptotic pathways center on the activation of caspase-3, which is the key executioner protease of apoptosis. Caspase-3 activity was also shown to increase in association with 7β-OH-induced apoptosis in U937 cells but there was no significant increase in caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation is regarded as the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis, therefore the comet assay as a measure of DNA fragmentation was assessed as a measure of apoptosis. The level of DNA fragmentation induced by 7β-OH, as measured using the comet assay, was similar for both cell lines. Therefore, it was concluded that the comet assay could not be used to distinguish between 7β-OH-induced apoptosis in U937 cells and 7β-OH-induced necrosis in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity and apoptotic potency of oxysterols 25-OH, 7β-OH, cholesterol- 5a,6a-epoxide (a-epoxide), cholesterol-5β,6β-epoxide (β-epoxide), 19-hydroxy-cholesterol (19-OH), and 7-ketocholesterol (7-keto) was compared in the U937 cell line. 7 β-OH, β-epoxide and 7-keto were found to induce apoptosis in U937 cells. 7β-OH-induced apoptosis was associated with a decrease in the cellular glutathione concentration and an increase in SOD activity, 7-keto and β-epoxide did not affect the glutathione concentration or the SOD activity of the cells.a-Epoxide, 19-OH and 25-OH were not cytotoxic to the U937 cell line.
- ItemLongitudinal study of changes in body mass index, anthropometric measures, dietary intake and physical activity in cohorts of school-going Irish adolescents(University College Cork, 2009-05) O'Connor, Mairead; O'Brien, Nora M.; O'Connor, Thomas P.The prevalence of obesity worldwide has increased dramatically over the last few decades. Poor dietary habits and low levels of exercise in adolescence are often maintained into adulthood where they can impact on the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases. A 3-year longitudinal study of anthropometric, dietary and exercise parameters was carried out annually (2005 - 2007) in 3 Irish secondary schools. Anthropometric measurements were taken in each year and analysed longitudinally. Overweight and obesity were at relatively low levels in these adolescents. Height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and TST increased significantly over the 3 years. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased significantly over time. Boys were significantly taller than girls across the 3 years. A 3-day weighed food diary was used to assess food intake by the adolescents. Analysis of dietary intake data was determined using WISP©. Mean daily energy and nutrient intakes were reported. Mean daily energy and macronutrient intakes were analysed longitudinally. The adolescents’ diet was characterised by relatively high saturated fat intakes and insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. The dietary pattern did not change significantly over the 3 years. Boys consumed more energy than girls over the study period. A validated questionnaire was used to assess physical activity and sedentary activity levels. Boys were substantially more active and had higher energy expenditure estimates than girls throughout the study. A significant longitudinal decrease in physical activity levels among the adolescents was observed. Both genders spent more than the recommended amount of time (hrs/day) pursing sedentary activities. The dietary pattern in these Irish adolescents is relatively poor. Of additional concern is the overall longitudinal decrease in physical activity levels. Promoting consumption of a balanced diet and increased exercise levels among adolescents will help to reduce future public health care costs due to weight-related diseases.
- ItemStudies on equine milk and comparative studies on equine and bovine milk systems(University College Cork, 2011-06) Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; Mulvihill, Daniel M.; Fox, Patrick F.The composition of equine milk differs considerably from that of the milk of the principal dairying species, i.e., the cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. Because equine milk resembles human milk in many respects and is claimed to have special therapeutic properties, it is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe, where it is produced on large farms in several countries. Equine milk is considered to be highly digestible, rich in essential nutrients and to possess an optimum whey protein:casein ratio, making it very suitable as a substitute for bovine milk in paediatric dietetics. There is some scientific basis for the special nutritional and health-giving properties of equine milk but this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the composition and physico-chemical properties of equine milk which is required to fully exploit its potential in human nutrition. Quantification and distribution of the nitrogenous components and principal salts of equine milk are reported. The effects of the high concentration of ionic calcium, large casein micelles (~ 260 nm), low protein, lack of a sulphydryl group in equine β-lactoglobulin and a very low level of κ-casein on the physico-chemical properties of equine milk are reported. This thesis provides an insight into the stability of equine casein micelles to heat, ethanol, high pressure, rennet or acid. Differences in rennet- and acid-induced coagulation between equine and bovine milk are attributed not only to the low casein content of equine milk but also to differences in the mechanism by which the respective micelles are stabilized. It has been reported that β-casein plays a role in the stabilization of equine casein micelles and proteomic techniques support this view. In this study, equine κ-casein appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by calf chymosin but equine β-casein was readily hydrolysed. Resolution of equine milk proteins by urea-PAGE showed the multi-phosphorylated isoforms of equine αs- and β-caseins and capillary zone electrophoresis showed 3 to 7 phosphorylated residues in equine β-casein. In vitro digestion of equine β-casein by pepsin and Corolase PP™ did not produce casomorphins BCM-5 or BCM-7, believed to be harmful to human health. Electron microscopy provided very clear, detailed images of equine casein micelles in their native state and when renneted or acidified. Equine milk formed flocs rather then a gel when renneted or acidified which is supported by dynamic oscillatory analysis. The results presented in this thesis will assist in the development of new products from equine milk for human consumption which will retain some of its unique compositional and health-giving properties.
- ItemNational food consumption surveys: micronutrient intakes and the role of fortified foods in the diets of Irish pre-school children and adults(University College Cork, 2013) Hennessy, Áine; Flynn, Albert; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandThis research investigated the micronutrient intakes of Irish pre-school children (1-4 years) and adults (18-64 years) and the role that fortified foods (FFs) play in the diets of these population groups. Dietary intake data were collected as part of the National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (NPNS) (2010-2011) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) using 4-day food and beverage records. Nutrient intakes were estimated using WISP©, which encompasses McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods and the Irish Food Composition Database. A FF is one in which one or more micronutrients are added. Key dietary sources of micronutrients in NPNS and NANS were “milk”, “meat & meat products”, “breakfast cereals”, “fruit & fruit juices” and “breads”. In general, intakes of most micronutrients were adequate with the exception of iron (1 year old children and adult women) and vitamin D (in all population groups). Small proportions of the pre-school population had intakes which exceeded the upper level (UL) (zinc: 11%, folic acid: 5%, retinol: 4%, copper: 2%). Less than 2% of adults had intakes of iron, copper, zinc and vitamin B6 which exceeded the UL. FFs were consumed by 97% of pre-school children and 82% of adults, representing 17% and 9% of mean daily energy intake respectively. Relative to energy intake, FFs contributed substantially greater proportions to intakes of key micronutrients, such as iron and vitamin D. FFs were effective in reducing the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in these population groups, particularly for iron in women and 1 year old children. FFs made a significant contribution to folate intake in women of childbearing age (72µg). FFs contributed greater proportions of carbohydrate and lower proportions of fat to the diets of consumers. Voluntary addition of nutrients to foods did not contribute appreciably to intakes exceeding the UL in these population groups.
- ItemFundamental studies on the application of enzymes when brewing with unmalted oats and sorghum(University College Cork, 2013) Schnitzenbaumer, Birgit; Arendt, Elke K.; InBev-Baillet Latour Fund, BelgiumThe use of unmalted oats or sorghum in brewing has great potential for creating new beer types/flavors and saving costs. However, the substitution of barley malt with oat or sorghum adjunct is not only innovative but also challenging due to their specific grain characteristics. The overall objectives of this Ph.D. project were: 1) to investigate the impact of various types and levels of oats or sorghum on the quality/processability of mashes, worts, and beers; 2) to provide solutions as regards the application of industrial enzymes to overcome potential brewing problems. For these purposes, a highly precise rheological method using a controlled stress rheometer was developed and successfully applied as a tool for optimizing enzyme additions and process parameters. Further, eight different oat cultivars were compared in terms of their suitability as brewing adjuncts and two very promising types identified. In another study, the limitations of barley malt enzymes and the benefits of the application of industrial enzymes in high-gravity brewing with oats were determined. It is recommended to add enzymes to high-gravity mashes when substituting 30% or more barley malt with oats in order to prevent filtration and fermentation problems. Pilot-scale brewing trials using 10–40% unmalted oats revealed that the sensory quality of oat beers improved with increasing adjunct level. In addition, commercially available oat and sorghum flours were implemented into brewing. The use of up to 70% oat flour and 50% sorghum flour, respectively, is not only technically feasible but also economically beneficial. In a further study on sorghum was demonstrated that the optimization of industrial mashing enzymes has great potential for reducing beer production costs. A comparison of the brewing performance of red Italian and white Nigerian sorghum clearly showed that European grown sorghum is suitable for brewing purposes; 40% red sorghum beers were even found to be very low in gluten.
- ItemDevelopment and assessment of new sensor systems in food packaging applications(University College Cork, 2013) Borchert, Nicolas Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, IrelandThe use of optical sensor technology for non-invasive determination of key quality pack parameters improved package/product quality. This technology can be used for optimization of packaging processes, improvement of product shelf-life and maintenance of quality. In recent years, there has been a major focus on O2 and CO2 sensor development as these are key gases used in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of food. The first and second experimental chapters (chapter 2 and 3) describe the development of O2, pH and CO2 solid state sensors and its (potential) use for food packaging applications. A dual-analyte sensor for dissolved O2 and pH with one bi-functional reporter dye (meso-substituted Pd- or Ptporphyrin) embedded in plasticized PVC membrane was developed in chapter 2. The developed CO2 sensor in chapter 3 was comprised of a phosphorescent reporter dye Pt(II)- tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) and a colourimetric pH indicator α-naphtholphthalein (NP) incorporated in a plastic matrix together with a phase transfer agent tetraoctyl- or cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TOA-OH or CTA-OH). The third experimental chapter, chapter 4, described the development of liquid O2 sensors for rapid microbiological determination which are important for improvement and assurance of food safety systems. This automated screening assay produced characteristic profiles with a sharp increase in fluorescence above the baseline level at a certain threshold time (TT) which can be correlated with their initial microbial load and was applied to various raw fish and horticultural samples. Chapter 5, the fourth experimental chapter, reported upon the successful application of developed O2 and CO2 sensors for quality assessment of MAP mushrooms during storage for 7 days at 4°C.
- ItemEvaluation of microbial adjuncts and their effect on the ripening of cheddar cheese(University College Cork, 2013) Ristagno, Diletta; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandA bacteriocin-producing strain of Lactobacillus paracasei DPC 4715 was used as an adjunct culture in Cheddar cheese in order to control the growth of “wild” nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. No suppression of growth of the indicator strain was observed in the experimental cheese. The bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei DPC 4715 was sensitive to chymosin and cathepsin D and it may have been cleaved by the rennet used for the cheese manufactured or by indigenous milk proteases. A series of studies were performed using various microbial adjuncts to influence cheese ripening. Microbacterium casei DPC 5281, Corynebacterium casei DPC 5293 and Corynebacterium variabile DPC 5305 were added to the cheesemilk at level of 109 cfu/ml resulting in a final concentration of 108 cfu/g in Cheddar cheese. The strains significantly increased the level of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen, total free amino acids after 60 and 180 d of ripening and some individual free amino acids after 180 d. Yarrowia lipolytica DPC 6266, Yarrowia lipolytica DPC 6268 and Candida intermedia DPC 6271 were used to accelerate the ripening of Cheddar cheese. Strains were grown in YG broth to a final concentration of 107 cfu/ml, microfluidized, freeze-dried and added to the curd during salting at level of 2% w/w. The yeasts positively affected the primary, secondary proteolysis and lipolysis of cheeses and had aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, esterase and 5’ phosphodiestere activities that contributed to accelerate the ripening and improve the flavor of cheese. Hafia alvei was added to Cheddar cheesemilk at levels of 107 cfu/ml and 108 cfu/ml and its contribution during ripening was evaluated. The strain significantly increased the level of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen, total free amino-acids, and some individual free amino-acids of Cheddar cheese, whereas no differences in the urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (urea-PAGE) electrophoretograms of the cheeses were detected. Hafia alvei also significantly increased the level of some biogenic amines. A low-fat Cheddar cheese was made with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, strain BB-12® at level of 108 cfu/ml, as a probiotic adjunct culture and Hi-Maize® 260 (resistant high amylose maize starch) at level of 2% and 4% w/v, as a prebiotic fiber which also played the role of fat replacer. Bifidobacterium BB-12 decreased by 1 log cycle after 60 d of ripening and remained steady at level of ~107 cfu/g during ripening. The Young’s modulus also increased proportionally with increasing levels of Hi-maize. Hencky strain at fracture decreased over ripening and increased with increasing in fat replacer. A cheese based medium (CBM) was developed with the purpose of mimicking the cheese environment at an early ripening stage. The strains grown in CBM showed aminopeptidase activity against Gly-, Arg-, Pro- and Phe-p-nitroanalide, whereas, when grown in MRS they were active against all the substrates tested. Both Lb. danicus strains grown in MRS and in CBM had aminotransferase activity towards aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and also branched-chain amino acids (Leu and Val). Esterase activity was expressed against p-nitrophenyl-acetate (C2), pnitrophenyl- butyrate (C4) and p-nitrophenyl-palmitate (C16) and was significantly higher in CBM than in MRS.
- ItemEnhancing the health-status of processed meats through ingredient manipulation and its effects on sensory and physiochemical product attributes(University College Cork, 2013) Tobin, Brian David; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Department of Agriculture and Food, IrelandAn important component of this Ph.D. thesis was to determine the European consumers’ views on processed meats and bioactive compounds. Thus a survey gathered information form over 500 respondents and explored their perceptions on the healthiness and purchase-ability for both traditional and functional processed meats. This study found that the consumer was distrustful towards processed meat, especially high salt and fat content. Consumers were found to be very pro-bioactive compounds in yogurt style products but unsure of their feelings on the idea of them in meat based products, which is likely due to the lack of familiarity to these products. The work in this thesis also centred on the applied acceptable reduction of salt and fat in terms of consumer sensory analysis. The products chosen ranged in the degree of comminution, from a coarse beef patty to a more fine emulsion style breakfast sausage and frankfurter. A full factorial design was implemented which saw the production of twenty beef patties with varying concentrations of fat (30%, 40%, 50%, 60% w/w) and salt (0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%, 1.5% w/w). Twenty eight sausage were also produced with varying concentrations of fat (22.5%, 27.5%, 32.5%, 37.5% w/w) and salt (0.8%, 1%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 2%, 2.4% w/w). Finally, twenty different frankfurters formulations were produced with varying concentrations of fat (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% w/w) and salt (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3% w/w). From these products it was found that the most consumer acceptable beef patty was that containing 40% fat with a salt level of 1%. This is a 20% decrease in fat and a 50% decrease in salt levels when compared to commercial patty available in Ireland and the UK. For sausages, salt reduced products were rated by the consumers as paler in colour, more tender and with greater meat flavour than higher salt containing products. The sausages containing 1.4 % and 1.0 % salt were significantly (P<0.01) found to be more acceptable to consumers than other salt levels. Frankfurter salt levels below 1.5% were shown to have a negative effect on consumer acceptability, with 2.5% salt concentration being the most accepted (P<0.001) by consumers. Samples containing less fat and salt were found to be tougher, less juicy and had greater cooking losses. Thus salt perception is very important for consumer acceptability, but fat levels can be potentially reduced without significantly affecting overall acceptability. Overall it can be summarised that the consumer acceptability of salt and fat reduced processed meats depends very much on the product and generalisations cannot be assumed. The study of bio-actives in processed meat products found that the reduced salt/fat patties fortified with CoQ10 were rated as more acceptable than commercially available products for beef patties. The reduced fat and salt, as well as the CoQ10 fortified, sausages were found to compare quite well to their commercial counterparts for overall acceptability, whereas commercial frankfurters were found to be the more favoured in comparison to reduced fat and CoQ10 fortified Frankfurters.
- ItemSugar matrices in stabilization of bioactives by dehydration(University College Cork, 2013) Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandDevelopment of functional foods with bioactive components requires component stability in foods and ingredients. Stabilization of sensitive bioactive components can be achieved by entrapment or encapsulation of these components in solid food matrices. Lactose or trehalose was used as the structure-forming material for the entrapment of hydrophilic ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride or the encapsulation of oil particles containing hydrophobic α-tocopherol. In the delivery of hydrophobic components, milk protein isolate, soy protein isolate, or whey protein isolate were used as emulsifiers and, in some cases, applied in excess amount to form matrices together with sugars. Dehydrated amorphous structures with bioactives were produced by freezing and freeze-drying. Experimental results indicated that: (i) lactose and trehalose showed similar water sorption and glass transition but very different crystallization behavior as pure sugars; (ii) the glass transition of sugar-based systems was slightly affected by the presence of other components in anhydrous systems but followed closely that of sugar after water plasticization; (iii) sugar crystallization in mixture systems was composition-dependent; (iv) the stability of bioactives was better retained in the amorphous matrices, although small losses of stability were observed for hydrophilic components above glass transition and for hydrophobic components as a function of water activity; (v) sugar crystallization caused significant loss of hydrophilic bioactives as a result of the exclusion from the continuous crystalline phase; (vi) loss of hydrophobic bioactives upon sugar crystallization was a result of dramatic change of emulsion properties and the exclusion of oil particles from the protecting structure; (vii) the double layers at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces improved the stability of hydrophobic bioactives in dehydrated systems. The present study provides information on the physical and chemical stability of sugar-based dehydrated delivery systems, which could be helpful in designing foods and ingredients containing bioactive components with improved storage stability.
- ItemCellular and in-vitro models to assess antioxidant activities of seaweed extracts and the potential use of the extracts as ingredients(University College Cork, 2013) O'Sullivan, Anthoney Michael Naim; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Brien, Nora M.; Marine Institute; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandSeaweeds contain a range of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, sulphated polysaccharides and vitamins and have the potential to be used as ingredients in neutraceuticals. The antioxidant activity of crude 60% methanol extracts prepared from five Irish seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus were examined using in-vitro assays and a cell model system to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracts and their ability to protect against H2O2 and tert-BOOH-induced DNA damage and alterations in cellular antioxidant status in the human adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cell line. To optimise the extraction of antioxidant compounds from seaweeds, an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used in combination with food grade solvents. The antioxidant activity of these extracts against H2O2 and tert-BOOH-induced DNA damage and alterations in cellular antioxidant status was also assessed. Extracts that exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, A. nodosum (100% water and 80% ethanol extracts) and F. vesiculosus (60% ethanol extract) were selected as ingredients for incorporation into fluid milk and yogurt at concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%. The addition of the seaweed extracts to milk and yogurt did not affect the pH or shelf-life properties of the products. Seaweed addition did however significantly influence the colour properties of the milk and yogurt. Yellowness values were significantly higher in yogurts containing F. vesiculosus at both concentrations and A. nodosum (80% ethanol) at the 0.5% concentration. In milk, the F. vesiculosus (60% ethanol) and A. nodosum (80% ethanol) at both the 0.25% and the 0.5% concentrations had higher greenness and yellowness values than the milk containing A. nodosum (100% water). Sensory analysis revealed that appearance and flavour governed the overall acceptability of yogurts with the control yogurt, and yogurts containing A. nodosum (100% water) were the most preferred samples by panellists. However, in the milk trial the perception of a fishy taste was the determining factor in the negative perception of milk. The unsupplemented control and the milk containing A. nodosum (100% water) at a concentration of 0.5% were the most overall accepted milk samples by the sensory panellists. The antioxidant activity of the extracts in milk and yogurt remained stable during storage as determined by the in-vitro assays. Seaweed supplemented milk and yogurt were also subjected to an in-vitro digestion procedure which mimics the human digestive system. The milk and yogurt samples and their digestates were added to Caco-2 cells to investigate their antioxidant potential however neither the undigested or digested samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells.
- ItemVitamin D status and requirements during pregnancy and lactation(University College Cork, 2013) Zhang, Yue; Kiely, Mairead; Health Research Board; Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ireland; Higher Education AuthorityVitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, lactation, and early infancy has been widely reported. Current understanding of vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete, and to date, experimental data to support vitamin D requirements for these life stages are scarce. There is a shortage of nationally representative data and appropriate reference ranges for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) during pregnancy, lactation and infancy, including in umbilical cord blood. This thesis described concentrations of total 25OHD and individual metabolites including 25OHD3, 25OHD2, and 3-epi-25OHD3 at 15 weeks’ gestation in a large seasonally balanced pregnancy cohort study (n 1768), carried out in Cork, Ireland (52oN). The prevalence of low 25OHD concentrations in pregnant women was higher than published reports in other Caucasian women, and was highest among non-users of vitamin D-containing supplements during winter. A longitudinal pregnancy study was included which suggested gestational stages had an impact on the total serum 25OHD concentration. This thesis incorporated a randomized controlled trial carried out among 100 women across 3 intervention groups using 20 μg/day of vitamin D3 with or without 500 mg calcium, or placebo, over 12-weeks of lactation to investigate the vitamin D requirement for lactating mothers and the vitamin D content of human milk. A daily intake of 25 μg/day was suggested to meet the requirement of lactating women to maintain a 25OHD levels above 50 nmol/L in 97.5% of the population at 52oN all year around. However, vitamin D content in human milk did not increase in response to supplementation. Serum 25OHD concentration has been used as a predictor of a number of health outcomes. This thesis reported large differences in serum 25OHD concentrations using different methods in 86 umbilical cord samples. The need for international standardization of serum 25OHD measurements was re-emphasized in this thesis.
- ItemDevelopment of food ingredients for modulation of glycemia(University College Cork, 2013) Kett, Anthony Paul; O'Mahony, Seamus Anthony; Fenelon, Mark A.; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; TeagascStarches are a source of digestible carbohydrate and are frequently used in formulated food products in the presence of other carbohydrates, proteins and fat. This thesis explored the effect of addition of neutral (Konjac glucomannan) or charged (milk proteins) polymers on the physical characteristics and digestion kinetics of waxy maize starch. The aim was to identify mechanisms to modulate the pasting properties and subsequent susceptibility to amylolytic digestion. Addition of αs- or β-caseinate protein fractions to waxy maize starch restricted granular swelling during gelatinisation, increasing granule integrity. It was shown that, while β-caseinate can adsorb to starch granules during pasting, αscaseinate can be absorbed into maize starch granules. The resultant effect was a reduction in granule size after heating, more intact granules and a subsequent decrease in starch digestion in vitro as determined by analysis of reducing sugars. The ability of αs-caseinate to reduce the level of amylolytic digestion was confirmed through in vivo pig (Teagasc, Moorepark) and human (University of Surrey, UK) trials. The scope of the thesis extended to the development of a new automated cell for attachment to a rheometer to measure digestion kinetics of starch-protein mixtures. In conclusion, the thesis offers new approaches to modulation of the physical characteristics of unmodified starch during gelatinisation and suggests that the type of protein and/or polysaccharide used in starch-based food systems may influence the ability of the food to modulate glycemia. This is an important consideration in the design of foods with positive health benefits.
- ItemFundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads(University College Cork, 2013) Wolter, Anika; Arendt, Elke K.The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) formed the EPS dextran (a α-1,6-glucan) from sucrose in situ with a molecular size of 106 to 107 kDa. EPS formation in all breads was analysed using size exclusion chromatography and highest amounts were formed in buckwheat (4 g/ kg) and quinoa sourdough (3 g/ kg). The facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp) was identified as strong acidifier and was chosen due to its ubiquitous presence in gluten-free as well as wheat sourdoughs (Vogelmann et al. 2009). Both Wc and Lp, showed highest total titratable acids in buckwheat (16.8 ml; 26.0 ml), teff (16.2 ml; 24.5 ml) and quinoa sourdoughs (26.4 ml; 35.3 ml) correlating with higher amounts of fermentable sugars and higher buffering capacities. Sourdough incorporation reduced the crumb hardness after five days of storage in buckwheat (Wc -111%), teff (Wc -39%) and wheat (Wc -206%; Lp -118%) sourdough breads. The rate of staling (N/ day) was reduced in buckwheat (Ctrl 8 N; Wc 3 N; Lp 6 N), teff (Ctrl 13 N; Wc 9 N; Lp 10 N) and wheat (Ctrl 5 N; Wc 1 N; Lp 2 N) sourdough breads. Bread dough softening upon Wc and Lp sourdough incorporation accounted for increased crumb porosity in buckwheat (+10.4%; +4.7), teff (+8.1%; +8.3%) and wheat sourdough breads (+8.7%; +6.4%). Weissella cibaria MG1 sourdough improved the aroma quality of wheat bread but had no impact on aroma of gluten-free breads. Microbial shelf life however, was not prolonged in any of the breads regardless of the starter culture used. Due to the high prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus particular amongst coeliac patients, glycaemic control is of great (Berti et al. 2004). The in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads with and without sourdough addition was analysed to predict the GI (pGI). Sourdough can decrease starch hydrolysis in vitro, due to formation of resistant starch and organic acids. Predicted GI of gluten-free control breads were significantly lower than for the reference white wheat bread (GI=100). Starch granule size was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and was significantly smaller in quinoa flour (<2 μm). This resulted in higher enzymatic susceptibility and hence higher pGI for quinoa bread (95). Lowest hydrolysis indexes for sorghum and teff control breads (72 and 74, respectively) correlate with higher gelatinisation peak temperatures (69°C and 71°C, respectively). Levels of resistant starch were not increased by addition of Weissella cibaria MG1 (weak acidifier) or Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (strong acidifier). The pGI was significantly decreased for both wheat sourdough breads (Wc 85; Lp 76). Lactic acid can promote starch interactions with gluten hence decreasing starch susceptibility (Östman et al. 2002). For most gluten-free breads, the pGI was increased upon sourdough addition. Only sorghum and teff Lp sourdough breads (69 and 68, respectively) had significantly decreased pGI. Results suggest that the increase of starch hydrolysis in gluten-free breads was related to mechanism other than presence of organic acids and formation of resistant starch.
- ItemNovel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products(University College Cork, 2013) McCarthy, Aoife Louise; O'Brien, Nora M.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandFunctional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of phenolic extracts from both pale (P1 - P4) and black (B1 – B4) BSG were examined. Black BSG extracts significantly (P < 0.05) protected against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracts with the highest total phenolic content (TPC) protected against 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1)-induced oxidative DNA damage, measured by the comet assay. Cellular antioxidant activity assays were used to measured antioxidant potential in the U937 cell line. Extracts P1 – P3 and B2 - B4 demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant activity, measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and gluatathione (GSH) content assays. Phenolic extracts P2 and P3 from pale BSG possess anti-inflammatory activity measured in concanavalin-A (conA) stimulated Jurkat T cells by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); significantly (P < 0.05) reducing production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4, P2 only), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Black BSG phenolic extracts did not exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HA) have previously been shown to be the phenolic acids present at highest concentration in BSG; therefore the HA profile of the phenolic extracts used in this research, the original barley (before brewing) and whole BSG was characterised and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of HA present in the samples was in the order of ferulic acid (FA) > p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives > FA derivatives > p-CA > caffeic acid (CA) > CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Protein hydrolysates from BSG were also screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. A total of 34 BSG protein samples were tested. Initial analyses of samples A – J found the protein samples did not exert DNA protective effects (except hydrolysate H) or antioxidant effects by the comet and SOD assays, respectively. Samples D, E, F and J selectively reduced IFN-γ production (P < 0.05) in Jurkat T cells, measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Further testing of hydrolysates K – W, including fractionated hydrolysates with molecular weight < 3, < 5 and > 5 kDa, found that higher molecular weight (> 5 kDa) and unfractionated hydrolysates demonstrate greatest anti-inflammatory effects, while fractionated hydrolysates were also shown to have antioxidant activity, by the SOD activity assay. A commercially available yogurt drink (Actimel) and snack-bar and chocolate-drink formulations were fortified with the most bioactive phenolic and protein samples – P2, B2, W, W < 3 kDa, W < 5 kDa, W > 5 kDa. All fortified foods were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal in vitro digestion procedure and bioactivity retention in the digestates was determined using the comet and ELISA assays. Yogurt fortified with B2 digestate significantly (P < 0.05) protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells. Greatest immunomodulatory activity was demonstrated by the snack-bar formulation, significantly (P < 0.05) reducing IFN-γ production in con-A stimulated Jurkat T cells. Hydrolysate W significantly (P < 0.05) increased the IFN-γ reducing capacity of the snack-bar. Addition of fractionated hydrolysate W < 3 kDa and W < 5 kDa to yogurt also reduced IL-2 production to a greater extent than the unfortified yogurt (P < 0.05).
- ItemCereal products for specific dietary requirements. Evaluation and improvement of technological and nutritional properties of gluten free raw materials and end products(University College Cork, 2013) Hager, Anna-Sophie; Arendt, Elke K.; Irish Research CouncilCoeliac disease is one of the most common food intolerances worldwide and at present the gluten free diet remains the only suitable treatment. A market overview conducted as part of this thesis on nutritional and sensory quality of commercially available gluten free breads and pasta showed that improvements are necessary. Many products show strong off-flavors, poor mouthfeel and reduced shelf-life. Since the life-long avoidance of the cereal protein gluten means a major change to the diet, it is important to also consider the nutritional value of products intending to replace staple foods such as bread or pasta. This thesis addresses this issue by characterising available gluten free cereal and pseudocereal flours to facilitate a better raw material choice. It was observed that especially quinoa, buckwheat and teff are high in essential nutrients, such as protein, minerals and folate. In addition the potential of functional ingredients such as inulin, β-glucan, HPMC and xanthan to improve loaf quality were evaluated. Results show that these ingredients can increase loaf volume and reduce crumb hardness as well as rate of staling but that the effect diverges strongly depending on the bread formulation used. Furthermore, fresh egg pasta formulations based on teff and oat flour were developed. The resulting products were characterised regarding sensory and textural properties as well as in vitro digestibility. Scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy was used throughout the thesis to visualise structural changes occurring during baking and pasta making
- ItemMicronutrient intakes and the role of nutritional supplements in the diets of Irish adults and pre-school children(University College Cork, 2013) Browne, Fiona A.; Flynn, Albert; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandTo investigate micronutrient intakes and the role of nutritional supplements in the diets of Irish adults aged 18-64 years and pre-school children aged 1-4 years. Analysis is based on data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (n=1274) and the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (NPNS) (n=500). Food and beverage intakes and nutritional supplement use were recorded using 4-day food records. Nutrients were estimated using WISP© which is based on McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 6thEd and the Irish Food Composition Database. “Meats”, “milk/yoghurt”, “breads”, “fruit/fruit juices” and “breakfast cereals” made important contributions to the intakes of a number of micronutrients. Micronutrient intakes were generally adequate, with the exception of iron (in adult females and 1 year olds) and vitamin D (in all population groups). For iron, zinc, copper and vitamin B6, up to 2% of adults had intakes that exceeded the upper limit (UL). Small proportions of children had intakes of zinc (11%), copper (2%), retinol (4%) and folic acid (5%) exceeding the UL. Nutritional supplements (predominantly multivitamin and/or mineral preparations) were consumed by 28% of adults and 20% of pre-school children. Among users, supplements were effective in reducing the % with inadequate intakes for vitamins A and D (both population groups) and iron (adult females only). Supplement users had a lower prevalence of inadequate intakes for vitamin A and iron compared to non-users. In adults only, users had a lower prevalence of inadequate intakes for magnesium, calcium and zinc, and displayed better compliance with dietary recommendations and lifestyle characteristics compared with non-users. There is poor compliance among women of childbearing age for the recommendation to take a supplement containing 400µg/day of folic acid. These findings are important for the development of nutrition policies and future recommendations for adults and pre-school children in Ireland and the EU.
- Item“Green preservatives” – combating fungi in the food industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria(University College Cork, 2013) Pawlowska, Agata; Arendt, Elke K.Fungal spoilage is the most common type of microbial spoilage in food leading to significant economical and health problems throughout the world. Fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the oldest and most economical methods of producing and preserving food. Thus, LAB can be seen as an interesting tool in the development of novel bio-preservatives for food industry. The overall objective of this study was to demonstrate, that LAB can be used as a natural way to improve the shelf-life and safety of a wide range of food products. In the first part of the thesis, 116 LAB isolates were screened for their antifungal activity against four Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. commonly found in food. Approximately 83% of them showed antifungal activity, but only 1% showed a broad range antifungal activity against all tested fungi. The second approach was to apply LAB antifungal strains in production of food products with extended shelf-life. L. reuteri R29 strain was identified as having strong antifungal activity in vitro, as well as in sourdough bread against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Penicillium expansum. The ability of the strain to produce bread of good quality was also determined using standard baking tests. Another strain, L. amylovorus DSM19280, was also identified as having strong antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo. The strain was used as an adjunct culture in a Cheddar cheese model system and demonstrated the inhibition of P. expansum. Significantly, its presence had no detectable negative impact on cheese quality as determined by analysis of moisture, salt, pH, and primary and secondary proteolysis. L. brevis PS1 a further strain identified during the screening as very antifungal, showed activity in vitro against common Fusarium spp. and was used in the production of a novel functional wortbased alcohol-free beverage. Challenge tests performed with F. culmorum confirmed the effectiveness of the antifungal strain in vivo. The shelf-life of the beverage was extended significantly when compared to not inoculated wort sample. A range of antifungal compounds were identified for the 4 LAB strains, namely L. reuteri ee1p, L. reuteri R29, L. brevis PS1 and L. amylovorous DSM20531. The identification of the compounds was based on liquid chromatography interfaced to the mass spectrometer and PDA detector