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- ItemThe status of the information systems field: historical perspective and practical orientation(University of Borås, 2000) Adam, Frédéric; Fitzgerald, BrianThis paper provides a detailed assessment of the current status of the Information Systems (IS) field by tracing its historical evolution. It uses lessons drawn from the history of another social science, sociology, to highlight some of the fundamental choices now facing IS researchers. Firstly, the paper identifies the most important tensions and forces that shaped the evolution of the IS field in the 40 or so years of its history. Secondly, it draw a comparison between IS and sociology and uses some selected fundamental patterns of the history of the latter to explain the main aspects of the evolution of IS. Finally, noting that IS researchers do not seem to have succeeded in developing a core of concepts and definitions to enable the accumulation of knowledge in IS and to significantly contribute to the improvement of the business application of information systems, the paper calls for a debate on the future orientations of the field and identifies some of the choices that can be made at this stage of the evolution of the field.
- ItemIntegrating theory and practice in education with business games(Informing Science Institute, 2003) Neville, Karen; Adam, FrédéricThe meaningful integration of theoretical knowledge and industrial practice in Masters level programmes is now more than ever vital to ensure that graduates have the required competence in IT and that they are ready to contribute to the organisations that hired them within a short timeframe. It is also crucial in ensuring ongoing industrial support for academia because Information technology (IT) is regarded as a fundamental component in the success of organisations. This has led to a growing demand for IT specialists, sometimes with hybrid skills, to design, develop, implement, and support IT infrastructures in both the public and private sectors. However, in recent years there has been a shortfall of IT graduates, with essential experience entering the job market. In order to keep up with demand, educational institutions must adopt innovative programmes to increase the skill-set and knowledge base of their IT graduates. One such programme, under the auspices of University College Cork, is a Masters course in Management Information and Managerial Accounting Systems (MIMAS). The programme focuses on IT to suit the needs of industry while also combining IT with other theoretical subjects like managerial accounting and the design of management control systems. One key element of the teaching experience is a business simulation where students create software companies and bid for a large scale development project. As part of this, they experience of broad range of tasks and problems inherent in commercial software development. The business game is designed to encourage students to make use of as much of the theoretical elements taught in the degree as possible and is mediated by the teaching staff through the intermediary of a purpose-designed computer system. Our experience indicates the immense value of such practical components in an IT oriented degree programme. It also shows that the application of new technology in training and education will only truly benefit students when it is associated with high quality material and a high degree of student motivation.
- ItemBenefit realisation through ERP: the re-emergence of data warehousing(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2003-01) Carton, Fergal; Sammon, David; Adam, FrédéricThe need for an integrated enterprise-wide set of management information pronounced Data Warehousing the ‘hot topic’ of the early-to-mid 1990’s, however, it became unfashionable through the mid-to-late 1990s, with the approach of Y2K and with it the widespread implementation of ERP systems. However, in recent times, the re-emergence of Data Warehousing, to address the limitations and unrealised benefits of ERP systems implementation, provides researchers with a new challenge in understanding the ‘double learning curve’ for an organisation, undertaking in quick succession both an ERP systems project and a Data Warehousing project, in an attempt to finally achieve the benefits expected but never realised.
- ItemAnalysing the impact of enterprise resource planning systems roll-outs in multi-national companies(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2003-06) Carton, Fergal; Adam, FrédéricLarge organisations, in particular multi-national corporations, have been at the forefront of the ERP movement since its origins. They have used these highly integrated systems as a way to achieve greater levels of standardisation of business processes across sites and greater centralisation of IT resources. The most common scenario for an ERP implementation in a large multi-national firm is the phased roll-out, whereby the modules of the application are implemented in all the sites in a series of waves. A standard implementation, as designed by Headquarters, is replicated in each site. This standard implementation uses a base configuration, sometimes referred to as a template or blueprint, which cannot be deviated from in any of the sites. These monolithic implementations can be quite traumatic for individual sites where local practices, sometimes quite well established and rich in organizational learning, must be abandoned. This may lead to large scale organisational problems, which must be ironed out if the full potential of the enterprise-wide system is to be obtained. In an attempt to tease out the issues in the global implementation of ERP systems, we carried out a number of case studies at Irish manufacturing sites of multinational firms where management sought ways to defend their hard won local reputation for excellence and efficiency in the face of changes to the organisation due to a corporate ERP implementation. Our study indicates that local managers are given too little scope and time to adequately adapt the template to their site and that the risk of productivity loss is quite high, at least in the short term. We conclude that mechanisms must be put in place to better understand how to accommodate local specificities whilst enforcing the required level of standardisation.
- ItemUnderstanding the impact of enterprise systems on management decision making: an agenda for future research(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2005-09) Carton, Fergal; Adam, FrédéricEnterprise systems have been widely sold on the basis that they reduce costs through process efficiency and enhance decision making by providing accurate and timely enterprise wide information. Although research shows that operational efficiencies can be achieved, ERP systems are notoriously poor at delivering management information in a form that would support effective decision‑making. Research suggests managers are not helped in their decision‑making abilities simply by increasing the flow of information. This paper calls for a new approach to researching the impact of ERP implementations on global organizations by examining decision making processes at 3 levels in the organisation (corporate, core implementation team and local site).
- ItemERP and functional fit: how integrated systems fail to provide improved control.(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2008-06) Carton, Fergal; Adam, FrédéricCompanies have been investing in integrated enterprise applications (such as ERP) for over a decade, without firm evidence of a return from these investments. Much research has centred on the factors which will lead to a successful implementation project (eg: Holland and Light, 1999; Shanks and Seddon, 2000), but to date there appears to be little research on the longer term impact of ERP systems on the organisation (Heili and Vinck, 2008). Although the greater level of system integration brought on by ERP has meant that there is more operational information available to managers than ever before, the information stored in ERP applications requires much off-line manipulation in order to be meaningful to managers. The data held in ERP databases originate in physical processes that evolve over time, and thus inevitably a gap opens between the ERP system, and the reality it is designed to capture (Lee and Lee, 2000). Taking the evaluation of management performance against organisational
- ItemTowards a model for determining the scope of ICT integration in the enterprise: the case of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2009-01) Carton, Fergal; Adam, FrédéricThe question of integration of information systems (IS) into the planning and execution of operational activities has been the focus for researchers from different constituencies. Organisational theorists recognise the need for integrating mechanisms for co‑ordinating the actions of sub‑units within an organisation. Centralisation has been seen as a defensive reaction by organisations when placed under increasing external control, and also as a way to improve the efficiency of information processing, at least for routine tasks. In the meantime, researchers have been sceptical about the ability for structured information systems to deal with the complexity of the information flows within the organisation. Frameworks have also been identifying characteristics of the tasks themselves that have a bearing on the amount of information processing required. The real world is complex and moving, thus managers require flexibility in their interpretation of the mixed signals arising from this complexity. However, managers are working in environments where highly integrated information systems blur the distinction between what is real and what is virtual. There is a need for an integration approach allowing organisations to question which areas of activity are worth integrating, and conversely which areas are better left under local control. Where integrated, managers require processes for the maintenance of data integrity (people, tools, procedures). Based on field work involving two multi‑national manufacturing companies, this paper proposes a framework for ERP integration, which describes the evolution of functionality gaps as an ongoing and inevitable process that requires management.
- ItemThe road from community ideas to organisational innovation: A life cycle survey of idea management systems(Inderscience Publishers, 2011) Westerski, Adam; Iglesias, Carlos A.; Nagle, Tadhg; Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo; Centre for Industrial Technological DevelopmentThis paper introduces a new emerging software component, the idea management system, which helps to gather, organise, select and manage the innovative ideas provided by the communities gathered around organisations or enterprises. We define the notion of the idea life cycle, which provides a framework for characterising tools and techniques that drive the evolution of community submitted data inside idea management systems. Furthermore, we show the dependencies between the community-created information and the enterprise processes that are a result of using idea management systems and point out the possible benefits.
- ItemCharacterising the knowledge approach of a firm: an investigation of knowledge activities in five software SMEs(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2012-01) Heavin, Ciara; Adam, FrédéricAn organisation’s ability to successfully compete in a changing market place is contingent on its ability to manage what it knows, in order to serve the objectives of the firm. While it has been argued that due to their size, knowledge management (KM) is not a concern for smaller organisations, in the current economic climate, it is expected that a more formalised approach to KM allows the company to seize opportunities as they arise, and deal with environmental uncertainty more effectively. In view of this, the objective of this study was to devise a classification of knowledge activities (KAs) which facilitates the exploration of a Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in terms of the type and extent to which knowledge is managed. Furthermore, analysis of KAs provided a greater understanding of the fit between the firm’s objectives and the KM approach pursued. In order to achieve this, five case studies were conducted. Based on the classification of KAs identified, a qualitative analysis approach was used to code each of the twenty eight interviews carried out. Both quantitative and qualitative content analysis methods were applied to facilitate data reduction and generate meaning from the significant volume of data collected. The output from this study includes a classification of KAs which provides rich insight into how SMEs are motivated to deal with knowledge as a means of achieving their organisational objectives. From a practitioner viewpoint, this study seeks to offer an improved understanding of a software SMEs’ approach to KM.
- ItemEvaluating the effectiveness of clinical decision support systems: the case of multimorbidity care(Taylor & Francis, 2013-04-23) Grace, Audrey; Mahony, Carolanne; O'Donoghue, John; Heffernan, Tony; Molony, David; Carroll, ThomasGeneral Practitioners (GPs) and healthcare systems, worldwide, are overwhelmed by the growing number of patients with multimorbidity, particularly in light of the additional complexity and costs involved in treating these patients. While it has been proven that clinical decision support systems (CDSS) play a key role in supporting healthcare decisions, there is little research into their role in the case of multimorbidity. This study examines practice systems currently used in Ireland and evaluates their effectiveness in such circumstances. The findings uncover a number of deficiencies, including: (1) the lack of provision of integrated medical guidelines for multiple chronic diseases within the CDSS, (2) the inability to centralise the patient rather than the disease, (3) the difficulty in seamlessly integrating CDSS into the patient consultation, and (4) the lack of adequate training of GPs on how best to use CDSS in multimorbidity decision making. The study underlines the need for further research into CDSS and multimorbidity, and highlights some of the key issues that must be addressed in order to improve how CDSS support the care of multimorbid patients.
- ItemExploring the alignment of organisational goals with KM: cases in four Irish software SMEs(Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2013-06) Heavin, Ciara; Adam, FrédéricIn the anticipation of the knowledge economy and the organisational pursuit of ‘knowing what we know’ modern organisations have endeavoured to achieve varying levels of KM. It has typically been larger organisations that have possessed the economies of scale i.e. the financial resources to pursue this strategy, where they perceive they will lose their market share if they do not follow the trend. Smaller organisations have not had the same luxury. Ironically however, it is smaller organisations that have successfully managed knowledge for centuries. However there remains an absence of empirical evidence that highlights how SMEs operationalise their approach to KM, particularly in the high-technology sectors. In view of the current financial instability, never has it been more important to focus on the knowledge capabilities of software SMEs where managing organisational knowledge is essential to the continued success of an SME. Pursuing a qualitative analysis approach using multiple case studies in four Irish software SMEs, this study identifies sources of knowledge and occurrences of knowledge activities (KAs) as a means of understanding the firm’s approach to knowledge management (KM) and how this may be closely aligned to the organisation’s greater strategic objectives thus providing them with greater flexibility to deal with environmental uncertainty. At the level of the cases, it was evident that software SMEs leverage KAs to serve their knowledge transfer needs. Unexpectedly, the findings from this study indicate that these software SMEs were not good at knowledge creation activity. This may be attributed to the nature of the SME where a small number of key players i.e. founder/manager/head of development assumed responsibility for this type of activity. Fundamentally, these software SMEs choose to leverage knowledge and KAs in order to serve the greater needs of the firm such as the need to develop a new software product, improve their customer relationships or ensure their position as an important cog in a larger organisation.
- ItemA novel approach to challenging consensus in evaluations: The Agitation Workshop(Academic Publishing International Ltd., 2013-06) McAvoy, John; Nagle, Tadhg; Sammon, David; Sammon, David; Nagle, TadhgAs researchers evaluate organisations, projects, and teams, there is a desire for a consensus from those within the organisations who are participating in the research. A common consensual perspective from a team appears to reflect an optimal state where those being evaluated have a common understanding of the current state of events within the context of their environment. The question arises, though, whether an evaluation finding consensus reflects the reality: there are a variety of reasons why a common understanding may be false consensus. Hidden behind this false consensus may be a variety of unaddressed issues which are actually the core of the problem. This paper proposes an evaluation method incorporating the principles of sensemaking and devil’s advocate, where a consensus of perspectives is challenged before they are considered valid. This is achieved in a workshop where participants reflect on their own perception of reality and represent this reality in a matrix of influencing and relevant factors. The individual matrices are then combined and used to highlight disparities in the participants’ perspectives through a single matrix visualisation. Discussion in the workshop then focusses on the areas, highlighted by the matrix, where differences of perspectives are identified. In effect, the consensus presented by those being evaluated will be challenged, and a new common understanding will have to be created. Problems such as groupthink can create a false consensus, and it is proposed herein that the workshop provides a mechanism for challenging this. The objective of the research herein was to determine the feasibility and potential benefits of the proposed workshop. The workshop itself is evaluated in this paper, to determine if it has value. The benefits of such a workshop are described, showing how an organisation went from a false consensus concerning problems within the organisation, to the start of a process to address the real underlying issues.
- ItemEffects of centrally acting ACE inhibitors on the rate of cognitive decline in dementia(BMJ Publishing Group, 2013-07-22) Gao, Yang; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Healy, Liam; Kerins, David M.; Eustace, Joseph A.; Guyatt, Gordon; Sammon, David; Molloy, D. William; Atlantic Philanthropies; Health Service Executive, Ireland; Irish Hospice Foundation; Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchObjectives: There is growing evidence that antihypertensive agents, particularly centrally acting ACE inhibitors (CACE-Is), which cross the blood–brain barrier, are associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline. Given this, we compared the rates of cognitive decline in clinic patients with dementia receiving CACE-Is (CACE-I) with those not currently treated with CACE-Is (NoCACE-I), and with those who started CACE-Is, during their first 6 months of treatment (NewCACE-I). Design: Observational case–control study. Setting: 2 university hospital memory clinics. Participants: 817 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, vascular or mixed dementia. Of these, 361 with valid cognitive scores were included for analysis, 85 CACE-I and 276 NoCACE-I. Measurements: Patients were included if the baseline and end-point (standardised at 6 months apart) Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) or Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) scores were available. Patients with comorbid depression or other dementia subtypes were excluded. The average 6-month rates of change in scores were compared between CACE-I, NoCACE-I and NewCACE-I patients. Results: When the rate of decline was compared between groups, there was a significant difference in the median, 6-month rate of decline in Qmci scores between CACE-I (1.8 points) and NoCACE-I (2.1 points) patients (p=0.049), with similar, non-significant changes in SMMSE. Median SMMSE scores improved by 1.2 points in the first 6 months of CACE treatment (NewCACE-I), compared to a 0.8 point decline for the CACE-I (p=0.003) group and a 1 point decline for the NoCACE-I (p=0.001) group over the same period. Multivariate analysis, controlling for baseline characteristics, showed significant differences in the rates of decline, in SMMSE, between the three groups, p=0.002. Conclusions: Cognitive scores may improve in the first 6 months after CACE-I treatment and use of CACE-Is is associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline in patients with dementia.
- ItemScreening for markers of frailty and perceived risk of adverse outcomes using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC)(Biomed Central Ltd., 2014-09-19) O'Caoimh, Rónán; Gao, Yang; Svendrovski, Anton; Healy, Elizabeth; O'Connell, Elizabeth; O'Keeffe, Gabrielle; Cronin, Una; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Cornally, Nicola; Molloy, D. William; Health Service Executive, IrelandBACKGROUND: Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC). METHODS: A cohort of 803 community dwelling older adults were scored for frailty by their public health nurse (PHN) using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and for risk of three adverse outcomes: i) institutionalisation, ii) hospitalisation and iii) death, within the next year, from one (lowest) to five (highest) using the RISC. Prior to scoring, PHNs stated whether they regarded patients as frail. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 80 years (interquartile range 10), of whom 64% were female and 47.4% were living alone. The median Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) was 10 (0) and Barthel Index was 18/20 (6). PHNs regarded 42% of patients as frail, while the CFS categorized 54% (scoring ≥5) as frail. Dividing patients into low-risk (score one or two), medium-risk (score three) and high-risk (score four or five) using the RISC showed that 4.3% were considered high risk of institutionalization, 14.5% for hospitalization, and 2.7% for death, within one year of the assessment. There were significant differences in median CFS (4/9 versus 6/9 versus 6/9, p < 0.001), Barthel Index (18/20 versus 11/20 versus 14/20, p < 0.001) and mean AMTS scores (9.51 versus 7.57 versus 7.00, p < 0.001) between those considered low, medium and high risk of institutionalisation respectively. Differences were also statistically significant for hospitalisation and death. Age, gender and living alone were inconsistently associated with perceived risk. Frailty most closely correlated with functional impairment, r = −0.80, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients in this community sample were perceived to be low risk for adverse outcomes. Frailty, cognitive impairment and functional status were markers of perceived risk. Age, gender and social isolation were not and may not be useful indicators when triaging community dwellers. The RISC now requires validation against adverse outcomes.
- ItemContextual barriers to mobile health technology in African countries: a perspective piece(Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine Inc., 2015-01) O'Connor, Yvonne; O'Donoghue, John; Seventh Framework ProgrammeOn a global scale, healthcare practitioners are now beginning to move from traditional desktop-based computer technologies towards mobile computing environments. Consequently, such environments have received immense attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore these promising opportunities, apparent limitations, and implications for both theory and practice. The application of mobile IT within a medical context, referred to as mobile health or mHealth, has revolutionised the delivery of healthcare services as mobile technologies offer the potential of retrieving, modifying and entering patient-related data/information at the point-of-care. As a component of the larger health informatics domain mHealth may be referred as all portable computing devices (e.g. mobile phones, mobile clinical assistants and medical sensors) used in a healthcare context to support the delivery of healthcare services.
- ItemThe Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC): a new instrument for predicting risk of adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults(Biomed Central Ltd., 2015-07-30) O'Caoimh, Rónán; Gao, Yang; Svendrovski, Anton; Healy, Elizabeth; O'Keeffe, Gabrielle; Cronin, Una; Igras, Estera; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Fitzgerald, Carol; Weathers, Elizabeth; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Cornally, Nicola; Molloy, D. William; Health Service Executive, IrelandBACKGROUND: Predicting risk of adverse healthcare outcomes, among community dwelling older adults, is difficult. The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a short (2-5 min), global subjective assessment of risk created to identify patients' 1-year risk of three outcomes: institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death. METHODS: We compared the accuracy and predictive ability of the RISC, scored by Public Health Nurses (PHN), to the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older adults (n = 803), in two Irish PHN sectors. The area under the curve (AUC), from receiver operating characteristic curves and binary logistic regression models, with odds ratios (OR), compared the discriminatory characteristics of the RISC and CFS. RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 801 patients. The 1-year incidence of institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death were 10.2, 17.7 and 15.6 % respectively. Patients scored maximum-risk (RISC score 3,4 or 5/5) at baseline had a significantly greater rate of institutionalisation (31.3 and 7.1 %, p < 0.001), hospitalisation (25.4 and 13.2 %, p < 0.001) and death (33.5 and 10.8 %, p < 0.001), than those scored minimum-risk (score 1 or 2/5). The RISC had comparable accuracy for 1-year risk of institutionalisation (AUC of 0.70 versus 0.63), hospitalisation (AUC 0.61 versus 0.55), and death (AUC 0.70 versus 0.67), to the CFS. The RISC significantly added to the predictive accuracy of the regression model for institutionalisation (OR 1.43, p = 0.01), hospitalisation (OR 1.28, p = 0.01), and death (OR 1.58, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Follow-up outcomes matched well with baseline risk. The RISC, a short global subjective assessment, demonstrated satisfactory validity compared with the CFS.
- ItemHealth and social care: towards an understanding of wellness management and the role of IS(Elsevier, 2015-09-15) Grace, Audrey; Gleasure, RobertPublicly provided healthcare systems are coming under increasing pressure worldwide because of aging populations, increased prevalence of chronic disease and spiralling healthcare costs. This pressure can be alleviated by focusing on community-based healthcare and empowering people to proactively manage their own general wellness. To this end, many employee wellness programmes have been launched, as have many technologies to measure specific aspects of wellness. However, wellness is a poorly understood concept and effective wellness-management is elusive and lacking in metrics. In light of this deficit, this research-in-progress draws on activity theory and attribute substitution theory to propose a preliminary model describing how wellness is managed by various actors (e.g. the individual, family carers, healthcare professionals) in the collaborative wellness management activity. The study's empirical data gathering reveals that wellness management is often inhibited because of an inability of these actors to access and reflect on the contextual factors that mediate the activity of managing wellness (i.e. the rules that guide them, the division of roles and responsibilities, and the tools that are utilised in managing wellness).
- ItemStarting with small health data opportunities for mHealth in Africa(WIT Press, 2016) Heavin, Ciara; O'Connor, Yvonne; Irish Research CouncilThe need to obtain data to understand effective and available child mortality-reducing control measures in rural areas of developing countries is great. Evidence shows that this challenge can potentially be overcome with the increased availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support the data/information/ knowledge needs of healthcare delivery services in low resource settings. Recognising the benefits of ICT and the need for improvements in the Nigerian health sector, this paper outlines the plans for the technical feasibility assessment of the IMPACT (usIng Mobile Phones for Assessing, Classifying and Treating sick children) smartphone application to capture, store and analyse of child health assessment data. IMPACT is a secure, scalable, user friendly mobile health (mHealth) innovation that is being developed to support ‘small data’ capabilities within the context of healthcare in the community in Enugu State, Nigeria, Africa. Notwithstanding the heightened focus on ‘big data’ in health, this research is interested in investigating the opportunities associated with doing ‘small healthcare data’ well, with the long term view of building to the big data scenario for healthcare in the community in Enugu. This paper outlines the plan for the IMPACT project considering the implications for health data, knowledge management in healthcare and the big data opportunities to support disease surveillance, healthcare delivery and resourcing and healthcare practitioner education.
- ItemA categorisation framework for a feature-level analysis of social network sites(Taylor & Francis, 2016-06-16) O'Riordan, Sheila; Feller, Joseph; Nagle, TadhgSocial media (SM) have enabled new forms of communication, interaction, and connectivity that affect individuals on a personal and professional level. But SM is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of technologies with both distinct and shared capabilities. In addition, while there is an agreed-upon definition of these systems, a comprehensive list of features and their affordances does not exist. Hence, this study sought to create a feature-level categorisation framework for analysing the use of social network sites (SNS). This categorisation was undertaken using the concept of affordances, which framed the high-level characteristics as well as distinct SNS features, to better understand the divergence in SNS capabilities and inform the study of different types of SM. The framework was created from an analysis of the literature on SNS affordances and a system investigation into three types of SNS (Facebook, YouTube and Twitter). The comprehensive review was undertaken using two families of SNS affordances (social and content affordances) identified in the literature to categorise and compare the platforms. The study reveals a diverse collection of features which afford behaviour in six areas of activity: profile building, social connectivity, social interactivity, content discovery, content sharing and content aggregation. Finally, the framework provides a basis from which the usage and management of SM within organisations can be more rigorously investigated.
- ItemAn integrated patient journey mapping tool for embedding quality in healthcare service reform(Taylor & Francis, 2016-06-16) McCarthy, Stephen; O'Raghallaigh, Paidi; Woodworth, Simon; Lim, Yoke Lin; Kenny, Louise C.; Adam, Frédéric; Science Foundation IrelandThe healthcare sector is a highly regulated environment that is subject to numerous constraints. Standards around medical protocol, medical device certification, and data protection ensure that the wellbeing and privacy of patients is protected during all encounters with the healthcare system. However, a gap has opened up between the need to meet these constraints, improve performance, and also deliver good patient experience. For example, the medical protocol for hypertension during pregnancy establishes a set of clinically validated treatment guidelines, but does not consider the unique nature of patient experience. We assert that design research principles can be used to create visual tools that pay homage to these constraints and performance improvement goals without compromising patient experience. In this paper, we describe such a tool that has been developed during a healthcare project using a human-centred design research approach. The integrated tool for patient journey mapping addresses the shortcomings of existing methodologies by supporting multidisciplinary practitioners in designing healthcare solutions that meet the demands of existing constraints, performance improvement, and patient experience. In addition, we document how patient journey maps were used on the project to facilitate collaboration among a team of multidisciplinary stakeholders.