Browsing Anatomy and Neuroscience - Journal Articles by Subject "Addiction"
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- ItemThe neuroendocrinology of the microbiota-gut-brain axis: a behavioural perspective(Elsevier, 2018-05-10) Cussotto, Sofia; Sandhu, Kiran V.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board; Seventh Framework ProgrammeThe human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways. In this review, we will focus on how the intestinal microorganisms interact with elements of the host neuroendocrine system to modify behaviours relevant to stress, eating behaviour, sexual behaviour, social behaviour, cognition and addiction.
- ItemSex-dependent associations between addiction-related behaviors and the microbiome in outbred rats(Elsevier, 2020-05) Peterson, Veronica L.; Richards, Jerry B.; Meyer, Paul J.; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Tripi, Jordan A.; King, Christopher P.; Polesskaya, Oksana; Baud, Amelie; Chitre, Apurva S.; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Woods, Leah Solberg; Crispie, Fiona; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cotter, Paul D.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Cryan, John F.; National Institutes for Drug Abuse; Science Foundation Ireland; Wellcome TrustBackground: Multiple factors contribute to the etiology of addiction, including genetics, sex, and a number of addiction-related behavioral traits. One behavioral trait where individuals assign incentive salience to food stimuli (â sign-trackersâ , ST) are more impulsive compared to those that do not (â goal-trackersâ , GT), as well as more sensitive to drugs and drug stimuli. Furthermore, this GT/ST phenotype predicts differences in other behavioral measures. Recent studies have implicated the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, and have shown that many microbiota-associated changes occur in a sex-dependent manner. However, few studies have examined how the microbiome might influence addiction-related behaviors. To this end, we sought to determine if gut microbiome composition was correlated with addiction-related behaviors determined by the GT/ST phenotype. Methods: Outbred male (N=101) and female (N=101) heterogeneous stock rats underwent a series of behavioral tests measuring impulsivity, attention, reward-learning, incentive salience, and locomotor response. Cecal microbiome composition was estimated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Behavior and microbiome were characterized and correlated with behavioral phenotypes. Robust sex differences were observed in both behavior and microbiome; further analyses were conducted within sex using the pre-established goal/sign-tracking (GT/ST) phenotype and partial least squares differential analysis (PLS-DA) clustered behavioral phenotype. Results: Overall microbiome composition was not associated to the GT/ST phenotype. However, microbial alpha diversity was significantly decreased in female STs. On the other hand, a measure of impulsivity had many significant correlations to microbiome in both males and females. Several measures of impulsivity were correlated with the genus Barnesiella in females. Female STs had notable correlations between microbiome and attentional deficient. In both males and females, many measures were correlated with the bacterial families Ruminocococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Conclusions: These data demonstrate correlations between several addiction-related behaviors and the microbiome specific to sex.