Browsing Anatomy and Neuroscience - Journal Articles by Subject "Adolescence"
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- ItemA biological framework for emotional dysregulation in alcohol misuse: from gut to brain(Springer Nature Ltd., 2020-12-07) Carbia, Carina; Lannoy, Séverine; Maurage, Pierre; López-Caneda, Eduardo; O'Riordan, Kenneth J.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Horizon 2020; Belgian American Educational Foundation; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS; Fundação para a Ciência e a TecnologiaAlcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with impairments in social and emotional cognition that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of addiction. Repeated alcohol intoxications trigger inflammatory processes and sensitise the immune system. In addition, emerging data point to perturbations in the gut microbiome as a key regulator of the inflammatory cascade in AUD. Inflammation and social cognition are potent modulators of one another. At the same time, accumulating evidence implicates the gut microbiome in shaping emotional and social cognition, suggesting the possibility of a common underlying loop of crucial importance for addiction. Here we propose an integrative microbiome neuro-immuno-affective framework of how emotional dysregulation and alcohol-related microbiome dysbiosis could accelerate the cycle of addiction. We outline the overlapping effects of chronic alcohol use, inflammation and microbiome alterations on the fronto-limbic circuitry as a convergence hub for emotional dysregulation. We discuss the interdependent relationship of social cognition, immunity and the microbiome in relation to alcohol misuse- from binge drinking to addiction. In addition, we emphasise adolescence as a sensitive period for the confluence of alcohol harmful effects and emotional dysregulation in the developing gut-brain axis.
- ItemBorn this way: Hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan(Wiley, 2019-09-02) Kozareva, Danka A.; Cryan, John F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Science Foundation IrelandThe capability of the mammalian brain to generate new neurons through the lifespan has gained much attention for the promise of new therapeutic possibilities especially for the aging brain. One of the brain regions that maintains a neurogenesis-permissive environment is the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here, new neurons are generated from a pool of multipotent neural progenitor cells to become fully functional neurons that are integrated into the brain circuitry. A growing body of evidence points to the fact that neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is necessary for certain memory processes, and in mood regulation, while alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis have been associated with a myriad of neurological and psychiatric disorders. More recently, evidence has come to light that new neurons may differ in their vulnerability to environmental and disease-related influences depending on the time during the life course at which they are exposed. Thus, it has been the topic of intense research in recent years. In this review, we will discuss the complex process and associated functional relevance of hippocampal neurogenesis during the embryonic/postnatal period and in adulthood. We consider the implications of hippocampal neurogenesis during the developmentally critical periods of adolescence and older age. We will further consider the literature surrounding hippocampal neurogenesis and its functional role during these critical periods with a view to providing insight into the potential of harnessing neurogenesis for health and therapeutic benefit.
- ItemChronic intrahippocampal interleukin-1β overexpression in adolescence impairs hippocampal neurogenesis but not neurogenesis-associated cognition(Elsevier Inc., 2019-10-08) Pawley, Lauren C.; Hueston, Cara M.; O'Leary, James D.; Kozareva, Danka A.; Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Science Foundation IrelandBoth neuroinflammation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) are implicated in many neurodegenerative disorders as well as in neuropsychiatric disorders, which often become symptomatic during adolescence. A better knowledge of the impact that chronic neuroinflammation has on the hippocampus during the adolescent period could lead to the discovery of new therapeutics for some of these disorders. The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to altered concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), with elevated levels implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and stress-related disorders such as depression. The effect of acutely and chronically elevated concentrations of hippocampal IL-1β have been shown to reduce AHN in adult rodents. However, the effect of exposure to chronic overexpression of hippocampal IL-1β during adolescence, a time of increased vulnerability, hasn’t been fully interrogated. Thus, in this study we utilized a lentiviral approach to induce chronic overexpression of IL-1β in the dorsal hippocampus of adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats for 5 weeks, during which time its impact on cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis were examined. A reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis was observed along with a reduced level of neurite branching on hippocampal neurons. However, there was no effect of IL-1β overexpression on performance in pattern separation, novel object recognition or spontaneous alternation in the Y maze. Our study has highlighted that chronic IL-1β overexpression in the hippocampus during the adolescent period exerts a negative impact on neurogenesis independent of cognitive performance, and suggests a degree of resilience of the adolescent hippocampus to inflammatory insult.
- ItemDeletion of TLX and social isolation impairs exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adolescent hippocampus(Wiley, 2017-10-03) Kozareva, Danka A.; O'Leary, Olivia F.; Cryan, John F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Science Foundation IrelandAdolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences and the surrounding environment can have profound effects on the brain. Neurogenesis is a neurodevelopmental process of generating functional neurons from neural stem cells. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain. While mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been widely studied, less is known on how hippocampal neurogenesis is affected during adolescence. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both TLX and isolation stress on exercise-induced increases in neurogenesis in running and sedentary conditions during adolescence. Single- (i.e. isolation stress) wild type and Nr2e1-/- or pair-housed wild type mice were housed in sedentary conditions or allowed free access to running wheels for 3 weeks during the adolescent period. A reduction of neuronal survival was evident in mice lacking TLX, and exercise did not increase hippocampal neurogenesis in these Nr2e1-/- mice. This suggests that TLX is necessary for the pro-neurogenic effects of exercise during adolescence. Interestingly, although social isolation during adolescence did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis, it prevented an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus. Together these data demonstrate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in promoting an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis at this key point in life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- ItemEnduring effects of an unhealthy diet during adolescence on systemic but not neurobehavioural measures in adult rats(Taylor & Francis Group, 2020-07-29) Nicolas, Sarah; Ó Léime, Ciarán S.; Hoban, Alan E.; Hueston, Cara M.; Cryan, John F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Science Foundation Ireland; Irish Research CouncilIntroduction: Adolescence is an important stage of maturation for various brain structures. It is during this time therefore that the brain may be more vulnerable to environmental factors such as diet that may influence mood and memory. Diets high in fat and sugar (termed a cafeteria diet) during adolescence have been shown to negatively impact upon cognitive performance, which may be reversed by switching to a standard diet during adulthood. Consumption of a cafeteria diet increases both peripheral and central levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is also implicated in cognitive impairment during the ageing process. It is unknown whether adolescent exposure to a cafeteria diet potentiates the negative effects of IL-1β on cognitive function during adulthood. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed a cafeteria diet during adolescence after which time they received a lentivirus injection in the hippocampus to induce chronic low-grade overexpression of IL-1β. After viral integration, metabolic parameters, circulating and central pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and cognitive behaviours were assessed. Results: Our data demonstrate that rats fed the cafeteria diet exhibit metabolic dysregulations in adulthood, which were concomitant with low-grade peripheral and central inflammation. Overexpression of hippocampal IL-1β in adulthood impaired spatial working memory. However, adolescent exposure to a cafeteria diet, combined with or without hippocampal IL-1β in adulthood did not induce any lasting cognitive deficits when the diet was replaced with a standard diet in adulthood. Discussion: These data demonstrate that cafeteria diet consumption during adolescence induces metabolic and inflammatory changes, but not behavioural changes in adulthood.
- ItemThe microbiome-gut-brain axis regulates social cognition and craving in young binge drinkers(Elsevier B.V., 2023-03-10) Carbia, Carina; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Iannone, Luigi Francesco; García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; Boscaini, Serena; Berding, Kirsten; Strain, Conall R.; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Noonan, John F.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation IrelandBackground: Binge drinking is the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This pattern of consumption is highly prevalent during the crucial developmental period of adolescence. Recently, the severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been linked with microbiome alterations suggesting a role for the gut microbiome in its development. Furthermore, a strong link has emerged too between microbiome composition and socio-emotional functioning across different disorders including AUD. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential link (and its predictive value) between alcohol-related altered microbial profile, social cognition, impulsivity and craving. Methods: Young people (N = 71) aged 18–25 reported their alcohol use and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. Craving was measured at baseline and three months later. Diet was controlled for. Blood, saliva and hair samples were taken for inflammatory, kynurenine and cortisol analysis. Stool samples were provided for shotgun metagenomic sequencing and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured. Findings: Binge drinking was associated with distinct microbiome alterations and emotional recognition difficulties. Associations were found for several microbiome species with emotional processing and impulsivity. Craving showed a strong link with alterations in microbiome composition and neuroactive potential over time. Interpretation: In conclusion, this research demonstrates alterations in the gut microbiome of young binge drinkers (BDs) and identifies early biomarkers of craving. Associations between emotional processing and microbiome composition further support the growing literature on the gut microbiome as a regulator of social cognition. These findings are of relevance for new gut-derived interventions directed at improving early alcohol-related alterations during the vulnerability period of adolescence.
- ItemOutrunning a bad diet: Interactions between exercise and a Western-style diet for adolescent mental health, metabolism and microbes(Elsevier B.V., 2023-04-06) Nota, Minke H. C.; Nicolas, Sarah; O’Leary, Olivia F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Irish Research Council; Science Foundation IrelandAdolescence is a period of biological, psychological and social changes, and the peak time for the emergence of mental health problems. During this life stage, brain plasticity including hippocampal neurogenesis is increased, which is crucial for cognitive functions and regulation of emotional responses. The hippocampus is especially susceptible to environmental and lifestyle influences, mediated by changes in physiological systems, resulting in enhanced brain plasticity but also an elevated risk for developing mental health problems. Indeed, adolescence is accompanied by increased activation of the maturing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sensitivity to metabolic changes due to increased nutritional needs and hormonal changes, and gut microbiota maturation. Importantly, dietary habits and levels of physical activity significantly impact these systems. In this review, the interactions between exercise and Western-style diets, which are high in fat and sugar, on adolescent stress susceptibility, metabolism and the gut microbiota are explored. We provide an overview of current knowledge on implications of these interactions for hippocampal function and adolescent mental health, and speculate on potential mechanisms which require further investigation.
- ItemStress and adolescent hippocampal neurogenesis: diet and exercise as cognitive modulators(Nature Publishing Group, 2017-04-04) Hueston, Cara M.; Cryan, John F.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Science Foundation IrelandAdolescence is a critical period for brain maturation. Deciphering how disturbances to the central nervous system at this time affect structure, function and behavioural outputs is important to better understand any long-lasting effects. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs during development and continues throughout life. In adulthood, integration of these new cells into the hippocampus is important for emotional behaviour, cognitive function and neural plasticity. During the adolescent period, maturation of the hippocampus and heightened levels of hippocampal neurogenesis are observed, making alterations to neurogenesis at this time particularly consequential. As stress negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, and adolescence is a particularly stressful time of life, it is important to investigate the impact of stressor exposure at this time on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Adolescence may represent not only a time for which stress can have long-lasting effects, but is also a critical period during which interventions, such as exercise and diet, could ameliorate stress-induced changes to hippocampal function. In addition, intervention at this time may also promote life-long behavioural changes that would aid in fostering increased hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. This review addresses both the acute and long-term stress-induced alterations to hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition during the adolescent period, as well as changes to the stress response and pubertal hormones at this time which may result in differential effects than are observed in adulthood. We hypothesise that adolescence may represent an optimal time for healthy lifestyle changes to have a positive and long-lasting impact on hippocampal neurogenesis, and to protect against stress-induced deficits. We conclude that future research into the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of the adolescent hippocampus to stress, exercise and diet and the consequent effect on cognition may provide insight into why adolescence may be a vital period for correct conditioning of future hippocampal function.
- ItemStress during puberty exerts sex-specific effects on depressive-like behavior and monoamine neurotransmitters in adolescence and adulthood(Elsevier Inc., 2022-10-07) Harris, Erin P.; Villalobos-Manriquez, Francisca; Melo, Thieza G.; Clarke, Gerard; O'Leary, Olivia F.; Health Research Board; Science Foundation IrelandPsychiatric disorders including major depression are twice as prevalent in women compared to men. This sex difference in prevalence only emerges after the onset of puberty, suggesting that puberty may be a sensitive period during which sex-associated vulnerability to stress-related depression might become established. Thus, this study investigated whether stress occurring specifically during the pubertal window of adolescence may be responsible for this sex difference in depression vulnerability. Male and female rats were exposed to a three-day stress protocol during puberty (postnatal days 35–37 in females, 45–47 in males) and underwent behavioral tests in adolescence or adulthood measuring anhedonia, anxiety-like behavior, locomotor activity and antidepressant-like behavior. Brainstem and striatum tissue were collected from a separate cohort of behavioral test-naïve rats in adolescence or adulthood to quantify the effect of pubertal stress on monoamine neurotransmitters. Pubertal stress increased immobility behavior in the forced swim test in both sexes in adolescence and adulthood. In adolescence, pubertal stress altered escape-oriented behaviors in a sex-specific manner: decreasing climbing in males but not females and decreasing swimming in females but not males. Pubertal stress decreased adolescent brainstem noradrenaline specifically in females and had opposing effects in adolescent males and females on brainstem serotonin turnover. Pubertal stress induced anhedonia in the saccharin preference test in adult males but not females, an effect paralleled by a male-specific decrease in striatal dopamine turnover. Pubertal stress did not significantly impact anxiety-like behavior or locomotor activity in any sex at either age. Taken together, these data suggest that although pubertal stress did not preferentially increase female vulnerability to depressive-like behaviors compared to males, stress during puberty exerts sex-specific effects on depressive-like behavior and anhedonia, possibly through discrete neurotransmitter systems.