Browsing Psychiatry by Subject "Ageing"
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- ItemMonocyte mobilisation, microbiota & mental illness(Elsevier, 2019-07-19) van de Wouw, Marcel; Boehme, Marcus; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation IrelandThe gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a key player in regulating brain and behaviour. This has led to the strategy of targeting the gut microbiota to ameliorate disorders of the central nervous system. Understanding the underlying signalling pathways in which the microbiota impacts these disorders is crucial for the development of future therapeutics for improving CNS functionality. One of the major pathways through which the microbiota influences the brain is the immune system, where there is an increasing appreciation for the role of monocyte trafficking in regulating brain homeostasis. In this review, we will shed light on the role of monocyte trafficking as a relay of microbiota signals in conditions where the central nervous system is in disorder, such as stress, peripheral inflammation, ageing, traumatic brain injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. We also cover how the gastrointestinal microbiota is implicated in these mental illnesses. In addition, we aim to discuss how the monocyte system can be modulated by the gut microbiota to mitigate disorders of the central nervous system, which will lead to novel microbiota-targeted strategies.
- ItemRevisiting Metchnikoff: Age-related alterations in microbiota-gut-brain axis in the mouse(Elsevier, 2017-02-04) Scott, Karen A.; Ida, Masayuki; Peterson, Veronica L.; Prenderville, Jack A.; Moloney, Gerard M.; Izumo, Takayuki; Murphy, Kiera; Murphy, Amy; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Mead Johnson Nutrition; Suntory Wellness Ltd. JapanOver the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of ageing and alterations in the gut microbiome. To this end, we assessed the behavioural, physiological and caecal microbiota profile of aged male mice. Older mice (20–21 months old) exhibited deficits in spatial memory and increases in anxiety-like behaviours compared to younger mice (2–3 months old). They also exhibited increased gut permeability, which was directly correlated with elevations in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, stress exacerbated the gut permeability of aged mice. Examination of the caecal microbiota revealed significant increases in phylum TM7, family Porphyromonadaceae and genus Odoribacter of aged mice. This represents a shift of aged microbiota towards a profile previously associated with inflammatory disease, particularly gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Furthermore, Porphyromonadaceae, which has also been associated with cognitive decline and affective disorders, was directly correlated with anxiety-like behaviour in aged mice. These changes suggest that changes in the gut microbiota and associated increases in gut permeability and peripheral inflammation may be important mediators of the impairments in behavioural, affective and cognitive functions seen in ageing.