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- ItemAfterword: Ireland's mysterious minority - A French-Irish comparison(Cork University Press, 2019-02-11) Ruane, Joseph; d’Alton, Ian; Milne, IdaHow Irish Protestants see themselves and their place in the wider society is one of the remaining mysteries of Irish life. In a society where virtually every social category and institution has been brought into focus, meditated on and moralised about, this one remains elusive. It might be attributed to their very small numbers. But they loom larger in the public imagination than the numbers alone might warrant. They are central to the history of the island; their imprint is on the landscape and on its cultural institutions; their churches, schools and hospitals occupy central places in its cities and towns; they occupy leading positions in key sectors of the society; they are formally represented at public events; their historic university - Trinity College - remains at the centre of Irish cultural life; their cathedrals and once great houses are must-see places for foreign tourists. There is more than enough to talk about. Instead there is a wariness and a silence that points to a reluctance on both sides to engage with the issue. Protestants prefer to deal with matters of concern privately and discreetly, and Catholics are happy to oblige. This is consistent with the general pattern of majority-minority relations. Majorities tend not to think of minorities unless they are powerful, influential, or troublesome. Minorities feel vulnerable and dislike drawing attention to themselves. But there are also issues specific to the Irish case: the long history of Catholic-Protestant conflict on the island, the circumstances in which independence was secured, the question of how Southern Protestants were treated by the new state. One consequence has been a reluctance on the part of Protestants to be too explicit about how they see themselves, the wider society, and their place within it.
- ItemThe causes and consequences of gangland violence in the Republic of Ireland(Nova Science Publishers, 2019-09) Windle, James; Lombardo, Robert M.While the Republic of Ireland is a relatively peaceful country, with a homicide rate significantly lower than the global average, it has experienced a number of violent feuds between criminal gangs. This chapter will explore the consequences and causes of these gangland feuds. While gangland feuding is often identified as a form of systematic drug market violence, this chapter argues that the roots of feuding can be found in a historical context of colonialism combined with the contemporary decline in traditional working-class jobs, at a time of increased pressure to exhibit the trappings of the financial success of the family. It is argued that feuding is concentrated in small pockets of economically disadvantaged urban areas where alternative sources of income are, or were, scarce and violent subcultures have emerged. The second half of the chapter identifies some of the significant psychological, physical and social harms which have inflicted family members involved in the feuds, local communities and the Republic of Ireland itself. It has been suggested that the long-term impact of these feuds may be felt when children who are raised in these contexts, experience multiple forms of trauma, and grow into adults themselves in the absence of pro-social supports.
- ItemCritical theory and communicative action: The challenge of legitimation in a world at risk(Palgrave Macmillan, 2018) Desmond, Elaine; Giri, Ananta Kumar
- ItemDiffuse disciplining: On the pervasive nature of autonomous systems and its consequences(Springer Nature Ltd., 2021) Cuffe, James B.; Završnik, Aleš; Badalič, VasjaThis chapter introduces the term diffuse disciplining as a means to articulate the increasingly ubiquitous and pervasive nature of technologies of social control. In particular, the term diffuse draws attention to how borders become porous, legal mechanisms ineffective, and, accountability and responsibility obfuscated. Three proto-case studies are presented that highlight different aspects on how diffuse disciplining can be observed. These case studies (USA, China, Ireland) show how the use of mediative technologies can discipline thoughtlessly without regard to intentions by proponents, and how technical systems can discipline and influence social action without regard to political or cultural systems. This chapter asks us to question what unintended disciplinary effects such systems may have and where, if anywhere, we might locate agents of responsibility. The chapter concludes that criminological research needs to expand in both scope and area to cope with technological innovation in an area marked by learning algorithms, autonomous systems, and diffuse disciplining. If focusing solely on traditional areas of criminal justice and criminology we can miss the wider effects of technological deployment in the age of connectivity, big data, and augmented intelligences.
- ItemEconomics, social neuroscience, and mindshaping(Routledge, 2020-09-24) Ross, Don; Stirling, Wynn; Harbecke, Jens; Herrmann-Pillath, CarstenWe consider the potential contribution of economics to an interdisciplinary research partnership between sociology and neuroscience (‘social neuroscience’ or ’social neuroeconomics’). We correct a misunderstanding in previous literature over the understanding of humans as ‘social animals’, which has in turn led to misidentification of the potential relevance of game theory and the economics of networks to the social neuroscience project. Specifically, it has been suggested that these can be used to model mindreading. We argue that mindreading is at best a derivative and special basis for social coordination, whereas the general and pervasive phenomenon on which it depends is mindshaping. We then outline the foundations of Conditional Game Theory as a mathematical model of mindshaping, which extends game theory without displacing its classic solution concepts, and which exploits economists’ experience in modeling networks.
- ItemFundraising, organised crime and terrorist financing(Routledge, 2018-09-03) Windle, James; Silke, AndrewRunning a terrorist organisation can be expensive, especially if a group engages in a prolonged campaign or assumes state functions in areas under their authority. This chapter explores how terrorism is financed, and investigates the several most widely used methods of raising funds. It shows that many sources of funding provide additional, non-monetary rewards. There are five main sources of finance open to terrorists: legitimate investments, state sponsorship, donations/extortion, charities, and crime. The chapter reviews how terrorist financing has adapted to counter-measures and globalisation. As organised crime can be important for financial, symbolic and operational goals, it interrogates the relationship between terrorism and organised crime by exploring Makarenko's crime–terror continuum. The chapter concludes by challenging the belief that ideology prevents the formation of alliances between criminals and terrorists, or the development of hybrid crime/terror groups.
- ItemHawking the historical method in organised crime and terrorism studies(Routledge, 2018-03) Windle, James; Morrison, John F.; Winter, Aaron; Silke, Andrew; Windle, James; Morrison, John F.; Winter, Aaron; Silke, AndrewThis introductory chapter evaluates the similarities and differences between terrorism and organized crime from an historical perspective. It then discusses the usefulness of historical research for understanding and responding to contemporary threats and phenomena. The chapter concludes by drawing out some of the key ‘lessons learned’, from individual chapters, which stood out to the editors.
- Item'He just wasn't the bloke I used to know': Social capital and the fragmentation of a British organised crime network(Routledge, 2018-03-01) Windle, James; Windle, James; Morrison, John F.; Winter, Aaron; Silke, AndrewTo the author's best knowledge there have been few empirical studies on the fragmentation of organised crime groups.1 This is not surprising when you consider that the internal dynamics of co-offending groups are largely hidden from official records and, while studies on organised crime employing direct observations and interviews are valuable, recruitment of willing participants can be difficult. Such studies can be also expensive, time consuming, potentially risky, and present ethical barriers. As argued in the introduction to this volume, historical sources can provide an important alternative to these traditional social science methods. This chapter employs (auto)biographies as an historical source to investigate the formation and fragmentation of an organised crime network operational in Essex and London between the late-1980s and 1995. The overlapping sociological theories of trust and social capital are used to guide analysis of the historical data. It is suggested that the network under investigation (Tuckers Firm or the Firm) fragmented when the core clique’s actions and attitudes reduced their social capital with others operating within the network. This supports previous research that violence and dishonesty can be unhelpful for criminal entrepreneurs. The next section will discuss the usefulness and limitations of (auto)biographies as historical sources for the study of organised crime.
- ItemIntroduction: ‘Nothing about us without us’, a history and application for criminology(Policy Press, 2021-09-03) Ahmed, Yasmine; Windle, James; Lynch, Orla; Ahmed, Yasmin; Windle, James; Lynch, Orla‘Nothing about us without us’ surmises a burgeoning movement in criminology that is about giving voice to diverse perspectives and a way of doing research. Primarily it refers to the importance of an approach to criminology that is inclusive of those voices that have historically been hushed, marginalised, silenced or ignored. It also refers to the need for researchers to work with state and grassroots practitioners, especially those who provide a conduit to peoples most impacted by social injustice and crime. This edited volume will explore the importance of diversity and inclusivity in criminological discourses and, consider how researchers might bridge the gap between theory and lived experience, and how the authenticity of the voices of those who have been silenced can be incorporated into a meaningful criminology. This introductory chapter will explore the conceptual history of ‘nothing about us without us’ before summarising some of the key themes explored in this volume.
- ItemMigration, memory and place: Arts and walking as convivial methodologies in participatory research - A visual essay(UCL Press, 2019) O'Neill, Maggie; Giaquinto, Bea; Hasedžic, Fahira; Berg, Mette Louise; Nowicka, Magdalena
- ItemThe Militarisation of Behaviours: Introduction(Springer, 2022-10-31) Kaucz, BłażejThis chapter is devoted to an introduction to the process of the militarisation of behaviours. It is a mass process of social control employed by the state (and less often by non-state entities) where civilians are subjected to a treatment like that designed for soldiers. When this process is utilised, it leads sections of a society to be subdued to the will of the state officials. It can be a robust power-gaining mechanism used at the expense of the citizens. To build a framework to discuss this process, Ireland and Poland, the two states which are a part of the enquiry are introduced and initially compared. That is done to create a context for an analysis of the historical development of the twentieth-century criminal law in Poland and Ireland in the following two chapters. These two states, at first sight, might not have too much in common especially since both chose somewhat different paths to achieve the militarisation of behaviours. However, both Poland and Ireland promote individualism, self-determinism, and individual agency and it is easier to introduce the militarisation of behaviours in countries supporting these values.
- ItemRobbing the revenue: accounting for deviant behaviour(Institute of Public Adminstration. IPA, 2002-05-28) McCullagh, Ciaran; Corcoran, Mary P.; Peillon, Michel
- ItemThe social manifold(Routledge, 2019) Cuffe, James B.Chapter Five then brings the insights from preceding chapters together we can say something more of the impact of technology as a techno-social force in social change. Social development is necessarily dialogical so the task is then to account or seek a model for the transmission of experiential understanding from those who-have to those who-have-not. The proposed model is for a social manifold through which movements and openings provide mediated arenas for liminal characters so that experiential understanding can be communicated via interpretation rather than explanation. The proposed fields of incongruency is a descriptive term that portrays a role for communication in human cultural transmission that once communicated supersedes conventional understanding in favour of resonance i.e. congruence between lived experiences. Chapter five introduces the first case study looking at the Grass Mud Horse. Introducing some anthropological concepts and establishing a framework for understanding the cultural function of liminal characters and their role in social change, the chapter shows how communications technology radically facilitates the field for such vectors to converge and dissipate and therefore such liminal characters can have vastly exaggerated influence in our technologically complex social systems.
- ItemTwo-tier society; two-tier crime; two tier justice.(First Law/Lonsdale Law Publishing, 2010-11) McCullagh, Ciaran; Kilcommins, Shane; Kilkelly, Ursula