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- ItemImpact of mobile health applications on self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Protocol of a systematic review(BMJ Publishing Group, 2019-06-25) Bene, Benard Ayaka; O'Connor, Siobhan; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Majeed, Azeem; Fadahunsi, Kayode Philip; O'Donoghue, John; National Institute for Health ResearchIntroduction: The emergence of mobile health (mHealth) solutions, particularly mHealth applications (apps), has shown promise in self-management of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While majority of the previous systematic reviews have focused on the effectiveness of mHealth apps in improving treatment outcomes in patients with T2DM, there is a need to also understand how mHealth apps influence self-management of T2DM. This is crucial to ensure improvement in the design and use of mHealth apps for T2DM. This protocol describes how a systematic review will be conducted to determine in which way(s) mHealth apps might impact on self-management of T2DM.Methods: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to April 2019: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Health Management Information Consortium database, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess methodological quality. The primary outcome measures to be assessed will be ‘change in blood glucose’. The secondary outcomes measures will be ‘changes in cardiovascular risk markers’ (including blood pressure, body mass index and blood lipids), and self-management practices. Others will include: health-related quality of life, economic data, social support, harms (eg, death or complications leading to hospital admissions or emergency unit attendances), death from any cause, anxiety or depression and adverse events (eg, hypoglycaemic episodes).Ethics and dissemination: This study will not involve the collection of primary data and will not require ethical approval. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a one-page summary of the findings will be shared with relevant organisations. Presentation of findings will be made at appropriate conferences.Trial registration number: CRD42017071106.