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- Item"Against Shameless and Systematic Calumny": Strategies of domination and resistance and their impact on the bodies of the poor in nineteenth-century Ireland(Springer, 2020-01-14) Geber, Jonny; O'Donnabhain, BarraMid-Victorian British characterizations of Ireland and much of its population blamed race and “moral character” for the widespread poverty on the island. The Irish poor were portrayed as a “race apart” whose inherent failings were at least partly to blame for the mortality they suffered during the Great Famine of 1845–1852. Recent excavations at Kilkenny workhouse and Spike Island convict prison have produced skeletal assemblages from this critical period. These collections have enabled bioarchaeological analysis of parameters mentioned by the Victorians as indicative of the distinctiveness of the Irish poor: stature, interpersonal violence, and tobacco use. Bioarchaeological data indicate that the differences between Irish and British populations in stature and risk of violence were exaggerated. Such characterizations, we argue, were part of a strategy of “Othering” that served to legitimize colonial domination. This exertion of power did not go uncontested, as the pattern of tobacco use may be indicative of forms of passive resistance.
- ItemAidan MacDonald M.A. (Cantab), M.Litt. (Oxon), F.S.A. Scot.,1941-2013. Obituary and Bibliography(Scottish Place-Name Society, 2013-09) Taylor, Simon; MacDonald, Aidan D. S.; MacDonald, Aidan D. S.
- ItemArchaeological investigations at Ballylin hillfort, Co. Limerick(Thomond Archaeological and Historical Society, 2016) O'Brien, William; Hogan, Nick; O'Driscoll, JamesBallylin hillfort near Ardagh is the largest prehistoric monument in Co. Limerick. This paper presents the results of an archaeological investigation conducted there in 2012 by a research team from University College Cork. The surface features of the hillfort are presented by aerial LiDAR survey, with geophysical prospection also undertaken at the site. The defences, including one of the original entrances, were excavated to recover dating evidence, and to understand details of design and construction. Radiocarbon results suggest the hillfort was built in or around the twelfth century BC, during the transition from the Middle to Late Bronze Age in Ireland.
- ItemThe Bearnán Chúláin bell-shrine from Glenkeen, Co.Tipperary: an archaeological and historical analysis(Cork Historical & Archaeological Society, 2016) Murray, GriffinThis paper presents the first modern detailed account of the Bearnán Chúláin bell-shrine, one of the most important pieces of medieval Church metalwork to survive from Ireland. Originally from Glenkeen, Co. Tipperary, the shrine may be dated to the period of the late-eleventh/early-twelfth century. The paper principally consists of descriptive and historical analyses of the bell- shrine, as well as contextual discussion around its dating and manufacture. The reliquary is compared to a sword handle from Lough Derg and a recent find from England, all of which are attributed to the same workshop that was conceivably under the royal patronage of Muirchertach Ua Briain.
- ItemCaiseal, Cathair, Dùn, Lios and Ràth in Scotland, I: Dùn(Ulster Place Name Society, 1981) MacDonald, Aidan D. S.
- ItemCaiseal, Cathair, Dùn, Lios and Ràth in Scotland, II: Rath(Ulster Place Name Society, 1982) MacDonald, Aidan D. S.
- ItemCaiseal, Cathair, Dùn, Lios and Ràth in Scotland, III: Lios(Ulster Place Name Society, 1987) MacDonald, Aidan D. S.
- ItemThe character and cultural context of the Inis Cáthaig/Scattery Island silver hoard(Clare Archaeological Society, 2010-07) Sheehan, John
- ItemCoiled armrings: an Hiberno-Viking silver arm-ring type(Wordwell Ltd; Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland, 1991-01) Sheehan, John; National University of Ireland; Royal Irish AcademyThe purpose of this paper is to isolate and discuss a distinctive type of Hiberno-Viking silver armring. Here termed the 'coiled armring', it is dated to the late ninth/early tenth centuries. The methods of manufacture, ornamentation, date and origins of the type are discussed and the objects are assessed against the background of hoard-associated material and related types of silver armrings. A descriptive catalogue of the material is provided.
- ItemThe colonisation of uplands in medieval Britain and Ireland: Climate, agriculture and environmental adaptation(Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-02-16) Costello, Eugene; Stockholms Universitet; Albert and Maria Bergström FoundationThe study of how medieval farmers colonised upland environments, and lived there on a year-round basis, can provide valuable insights on the long-term adaptability and resilience of rural communities. Yet there is a lack of clarity on the extent and chronology of this phenomenon in Britain and Ireland, and how to explain it without simplistic climate, population or market determinism. By undertaking a critical review of the evidence for upland colonisation across medieval Britain and Ireland, this article demonstrates that ‘glocal’ perspectives are crucial. Locally favourable geology, non-agrarian resources, and prior domestication of sites through prehistoric settlement and transhumance all encouraged upland colonisation. Indeed, when combined with regional socio-economic trends, these local factors sometimes overrode wider climatic conditions. As researchers look increasingly to large-scale modelling of land-use change, this article provides a reminder not to lose sight of the local landscape context and environmental knowledge of the peoples they are studying.
- ItemDeposition, discovery and dispersal: a Viking-age hoard from Castlelohort Demesne(Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 2013-05) Sheehan, John
- ItemThe Early Christian and later medieval ecclesiastical site at St Blane's Kingarth, Bute(Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1999-11-30) Laing, Lloyd; Laing, Jennifer; Longley, David; MacDonald, Aidan D. S.; Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba; John and Ruth Howard Charitable Trust, Scotland; Dr J N Marshall Island Of Bute Memorial Trust, ScotlandA reappraisal of the Early Christian monastic site of St Blane's, Kingarth, Isle of Bute, began in 1997. Following a week of field survey including geophysical work a limited area was excavated which had previously been investigated in 1896, south-west of the present churchyard, as well as one small cutting adjacent to the south-east corner of the churchyard. The documentary and other evidence for the early monastery is discussed and the results of both episodes of archaeological work — in 1896 and 1997 — are described. Discusses the 1896 and 1997 archaeological investigations of the monastery and associated structures and reviews the literature and documentation related to the foundation dating back to the sixth century. Comparisons are drawn with Whithorn, Galloway, in terms of the layout of the monastic complex . A D S Macdonald writes on `Early Kingarth' (553--5).
- ItemEarly ecclesiastical sites in Scotland: a field survey, Part 1(Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1968-11-30) MacDonald, Aidan D. S.; Laing, Lloyd
- ItemEarly ecclesiastical sites in Scotland: a field survey, Part II(Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1970-11-30) MacDonald, Aidan D. S.Literary and archaeological evidence is collected together for 30 early ecclesiastical sites in Scotland north of Tay. A Pictish symbol stone from Navidale (Sutherland), a fragmentary cross-shaft from Kirkmuirhill (Lanarkshire) and a cross-slab from Dull (Perthshire) are described and discussed.
- ItemEmbalmed heads of the Celtic Iron Age in the south of France(Elsevier, 2018-11-07) Ghezal, S.; Ciesielski, E.; Girard, B.; Creuzieux, A.; Gosnell, Peter; Mathe, C.; Vieillescazes, C.; Roure, R.; Agence Nationale de la RechercheAncient texts described that one of the most impressive ritual practices of the Celts during the Iron Age was to remove the heads of enemies killed in battle and to embalm them for display in front of the victors dwellings. An archaeological settlement excavation site in Le Cailar, in southern France, has revealed a considerable number of examples of this practice. It was documented by Classical authors and later by the archaeological recording of iconographic representations and skeletal remains of human heads. Weapons were also exhibited alongside the severed heads. Here we report the results of chemical investigations for the characterization of the biomarkers of embalming that are likely to be present in eleven fragments of these human cranial remains. These results may lead to answers to some of the archaeometric questions related to the subject of embalming in 3rd century BC Transalpine Gaul, thus advancing the knowledge of these ritual practices, documented by Greek Classical authors as part of the wider research into the proto-historic societies of the Mediterranean coastal region.
- ItemForest cover estimation in Ireland using radar remote sensing: a comparative analysis of forest cover assessment methodologies(Public Library of Science, 2015) Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O'Halloran, John; Environmental Protection Agency; Irish GovernmentQuantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting.
- ItemFrom Rackham to REVEALS: reflections on palaeoecological approaches to woodland and trees(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2018) Richer, Suzi; Gearey, Benjamin R.; Quaternary Research AssociationIn this paper we reflect on aspects of palaeoecological approaches to understanding past woodland environments. With increasing requirements for interdisciplinarity in research, and an increase in popular interest in the 'natural environment' such as 'new nature writing', we suggest that palaeoecology is potentially well situated to engage with other audiences and disciplines, and inform wider debates. However, in order to achieve this, we tentatively suggest that palaeoecology should be self-reflexive and examine how current methods, terminology and underlying theoretical perspectives inform (and inhibit) our practice. Using insights from Oliver Rackham's influential woodland studies as focal points, we examine selected aspects of method and theory in palaeoecology and suggest an approach to developing a praxis of woodland palaeoecology. In practical terms, this (1) incorporates other information and alternative perspectives, and is willing to question its methods and ways of thinking, (2) takes account of past and present, differences in the perceptions of the environment, (3) looks to build enriched accounts without privileging one perspective/set of 'data' over another by 'flattening out' knowledge hierarchies, potentially making the discipline more flexible in its outlook and applicability. A short case study from Shrawley Woods, Worcestershire, UK, illustrates the approach and includes the first example of historical documents and oral history accounts being used in the construction of a pollen diagram.