Browsing Government - Masters by Research Theses by Title
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- ItemChanges in practice of diplomacy 2000-2020, case study: Ireland's Department of Foreign Affairs(University College Cork, 2022) Ní Fhallúin, Deirdre; Cottey, AndrewAs the practice of diplomacy has undergone dramatic change in the first two decades of the 21st century, this thesis examines to what extent those changes have had an impact on Ireland’s Department of Foreign Affairs as the principal actor in Irish diplomacy and foreign policy. Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of serving senior Irish diplomats to investigate how the Irish foreign service – the Department of Foreign Affairs and its diplomats – has responded in a time of challenge and change. A study of the literature suggested that the changes to the practice of international diplomacy could be categorised under three headings – actors, issues and systems. A wide- range of state and non-state actors now participate in international diplomacy, meaning that foreign ministries engage with a far greater range of stakeholders than heretofore. As the distinction between domestic and foreign policy issues becomes less clear and as the diplomatic agenda widens well beyond the traditional areas of international peace and security, foreign ministries are dealing with more complex and cross-cutting issues than ever before. These changes have impacted on both the foreign ministry as an organisation and the individual diplomat practitioner. A review of the literature on Irish diplomacy revealed a gap in respect of how these changes have influenced the role and work of the Department of Foreign Affairs since 2000. By interviewing serving diplomats, insights and analysis were obtained that might not otherwise have been available. The research uncovered developments in the relationships between the Department of Foreign Affairs and other state actors such as the Department of the Taoiseach, other government departments, the state agencies and the parliament. Interaction with non-state actors such as the Irish public, the diaspora and civil society were also considered. The widening of the diplomatic agenda was also reflected in the research in relation to newer issues like values-based diplomacy, climate change and migration, while more long- standing areas of focus such as economic and trade diplomacy, consular work and security and defence issues were also examined. Changes to both the size and organisational culture of the Department of Foreign Affairs emerged as significant themes in the research. Finally, topics related to the individual diplomat were considered including the rise of public diplomacy and whether the characteristics and skills that diplomats have traditionally prioritised enable them to operate successfully in this more complex and challenging environment.
- ItemCitizens in uniform: an examination of the Irish military representation in comparison with European military trade unionism and the ideals of the European social charter(University College Cork, 2019-10-03) de Barra, Ruairí; Cottey, AndrewÓglaigh na hÉireann is experiencing a crisis in the recruitment and retention of personnel, with the crisis having greater effect on the enlisted personnel. There has been a deluge of claims and counterclaims of failures by the state to provide suitable levels of remuneration and conditions of service in order to ensure the Irish Defence Forces can meet all the tasks assigned to them by Government. These claims have played out across the national media over the past number of years. With these claims growing ever more serious, to a point where there are now claims that the national security of the Irish state could be compromised if solutions are not swiftly found to the current crisis. This thesis seeks to examine these claims by primarily looking at the industrial relations mechanisms and arrangement available to the Irish Defence Forces, through their representative bodies, and to explore if these arrangements are adequate to provide the means through which appropriate levels of remuneration and conditions of service can be achieved. Are these structures adequate in the context of recent case law, and the recent Defence Forces Conciliation and Arbitration scheme review? Can they function correctly while the representative bodies remain within the bounds of current Defence Forces Regulation and Government policy on military representation and military trade unionism? By examining key concepts of the relationships between governments, their armed forces, and the state they serve, the human rights of the European citizen and those of the armed forces member, a view of the importance of the relationship of trust between a state and its armed service personnel is presented here. Then the Irish military representative bodies and arrangement will be compared with the systems in place and afforded to their European counterparts, and some International counterparts, and the ideals and aspirations of the European Social Charter are used to measure the current situation, and what the future vision may hold. There is no easy answer or single solution to this complex crisis. Indeed, the current DF crisis is not unique to the just to the DF in Ireland, many other public sector workers face many similar issues. Across Europe, many militaries are suffering from the struggle to recruit enough personnel for their armed forces, as under-funding of militaries in general and the ever-increasing cost of military personnel (as a percentile of overall armed forces funding) place huge pressure on strained resources. The current symptoms of dysfunctionality within the DF representative system, may be more reflective of the larger economic challenges within in Ireland and across the EU, than a true reflection of a systemic failure. It will take great effort, determination, and co-operation to navigate the DF through the current crisis. It can and it must be done, and strong effective DF representation associations are a core part of those solutions. The representative bodies are on a par with any in the EU, with due regards to certain limitations and restrictions, and they will grow stronger and more effective as the reforms proposed are being implemented over the coming months and years. The relationships with the official side must be reset and rejuvenated, it is of vital importance to all sides that the members of the DF have confidence in the system which is meant to provide for their welfare and rights. The storm clouds of BREXIT and a possible global recession are gathering, and the DF must consolidate and be ready for whatever comes. The security of the state requires a full functioning, appropriately staffed, highly skilled, highly trained, and highly motivated DF to continue to serve the nation, as they have for decades. In order for the DF be as best prepared for any eventuality, this current crisis must be halted and brought to a swift a conclusion as possible. The volunteers of Óglaigh na hÉireann are citizens in uniform and they are proud to be the first to serve.
- ItemDefence planning in Ireland(University College Cork, 2022-10-06) Crummey, Declan; Cottey, AndrewThis research explores defence planning in Ireland, establishing incrementalism as the theory of public policy that best reflects decision-making in Ireland’s defence policy. The research also establishes the institutions and actors that are involved, how they are organised and what relationship exists between them, while identifying Ireland’s defence planning model. The challenge of how a society plans for and manages defence, and defence planning as a practice to meet this challenge, has existed throughout history. Most modern democratic states maintain the ability to organise a collective military force. The procedures and processes that determine what that military force consists of, and what it can do, is defence planning. Effective and efficient defence planning is more concerned with the form and function of the future military force than the deployment of the current one. The research was conducted from a mixed-method, concurrent quantitative and qualitative design position utilising the phenomenological approach. Three (3) primary methods of data collection were identified by the researcher in this mixed-methods research design – document review, interviews, and a web-based survey. The findings indicate that structured defence planning occurs in Ireland. Defence planning in Ireland recognises specific national challenges in relation to threat perception, a traditionally low defence spend and the lack of a national discourse on defence matters. There is a clearly defined structure for the management of defence planning in Ireland from the Government through the Minister for Defence to the civil and military elements of the Department of Defence. The primary tool utilised for defence policy is a White Paper process but there is uncertainty about how this policy will be expressed in the future. There have only been two (2) White Papers on Defence in the history of the State. From a historical reluctance to formulate defence policy, incrementalism has emerged as the prevailing theory of public policy underpinning defence in Ireland. The civil-military relationship in Ireland is not clearly defined. As a result, there are different interpretations, understandings and perspectives between civil and military personnel. Threat based planning is stated to be the planning framework for defence policy but the research indicates that a combination of resource constrained planning and incremental planning is more accurate. There is influence from, and engagement with, International Organisations evident in Ireland’s defence planning but a NATO or EU approach is not adopted. A critical gap identified in the historical and current context, is the lack of clearly defined and stated threats and subsequent tasks for the military force. This should exist as a high-level policy parameter such as a National Security Strategy to which a subordinate defence policy can be nested and clear tasks and objectives can be determined for the military.
- ItemThe influence of EU aviation policy on the strategic direction of Irish international and regional airports(University College Cork, 2021) Daly, Bill; Murphy, Mary C.Since 1993, the stepped introduction of a liberalised air transport market within the European Union has dramatically altered the regulatory and economic landscape of air transport in Europe. Ireland’s participation in the single aviation market has benefited both business and consumers and opened access to a previously restricted, uncompetitive market. As an island nation Irish airports are critical to national infrastructure. The purpose and overarching objective of this research is to explore the impact of EU aviation regulation after 1993 on state owned Irish airports, in particular the effect of such regulation on the smaller regional airports of Cork and Shannon. The aim is to examine the main benefits and challenges posed by the current regulatory framework and whether it supports or hinders Irish airports. Using a qualitative approach, in the form of semi-structured interviews, data was collected from a small purposive sample group that consisted of eight senior management staff from the three state owned airports, Dublin, Cork and Shannon. The impact of EU air transport regulation over the past 30 years is examined through the lens of the varied managerial experience of each contributor. The responses are carefully analysed and considered in the context of liberalisation and the proposed objectives and advantages of a single aviation market within the EU. The findings point to some of the key benefits of participation in the single market but also expose some challenges in implementing the regulations. This supports some of the main findings in current literature pertaining to the effects of liberalisation and the on- going issues experienced by airports throughout the EU. My research appears to confirm that the smaller regional airports in Ireland are finding it increasingly difficult to absorb the costs of implementing EU regulation and a number of factors, in particular, challenge the viability of the regional airports, namely: 1. Security, as the requirement to consistently update and maintain security systems is a costly prerequisite to participation in the market. 2. Ireland’s commercially operated airports are geographically located in close proximity to one another. The airports are competing within the same catchment areas and seeking to capture similar tourism markets. 3. Cork and Shannon airport lack the capacity of Dublin and have lower bargaining power when dealing with larger, well-established airlines. While the number of airlines continues to decrease worldwide, successful mergers, acquisitions and alliances have led to the emergence of increasingly dominant, commercially strong operators capable of exerting increased pressure as they seek to reduce costs. Without access to state funding, and the cushioning support of state aid, Irish airports continue to explore opportunities to generate revenue as they attempt to become viable self-contained businesses operating in an increasingly competitive EU market. The principle conclusion of the research is that Irish airports, particularly smaller regional airports, are under increasing pressure to survive in a very turbulent industry. Irish airports need to validate their viability in the global and EU market and employ measures to counteract the increasing power of low-cost airlines. In addition, the devastating impact of the current global pandemic presents a range of new unprecedented challenges in an industry not necessarily braced for such extensive and rapid change.
- ItemThe influence of interest groups on the system of carbon leakage protection in the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)(University College Cork, 2021-01-15) Goodwin, Niall; Cottey, AndrewThe research looks at the role interest groups had on the process of forming the final legislation in the basic act of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS), which sets out the parameters for the inclusion of sectors and subsectors on the Carbon Leakage List. By examining the initial proposal of the of the EU ETS Carbon Leakage List, as presented by the European Commission in 2015, and more specifically its Articles 10a and 10b which set out these parameters, and following the legislative process up to the adoption of the legislation in 2017 and its subsequent publication in the Official Journal of the EU in 2018, the research aims to demonstrate the level of influence interest groups have on the formulation of EU legislation. More specifically, the research question examines the role the interest groups representing relevant industries have had on the European Parliament in its work on Articles 10a and 10b of the ETS legislation and proposes that one of the factors for the adopted changes at the European Parliament level could have been lax transparency regulations concerning the work and influence of interest groups.
- ItemThe Irish Sudden Infant Death Association: what type of interest group is it, and how did it contribute to the establishment of the National Sudden Infant Death Register?(University College Cork, 2019-11-06) Mernagh, Andrew; Reidy, Theresa; Murphy, Mary C.On November 27th 1975, Eimear Berry discovered her fourteen-week old son Brendan dead in his cot, the death was silent, sudden unpredictable and of unknown cause – classic Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). In search of answers, Berry saw a TV documentary about SIDS which referenced the Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths (FSID) in England, whom Berry contacted in the hope of establishing a similar group in Ireland. On February 3rd 1977 the Irish Sudden Infant Death Association (ISIDA) was formally established, cited its’ general aims were to increase public awareness of the problem of SIDS and bring pressure to bear on the appropriate authorities to supply the necessary funds and facilities for further research into SIDS in Ireland. On July 16th 1987, the then Minister for Health, Dr Rory O’Hanlon TD, Fianna Fáil (FF), announced the formal establishment of the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR).
- ItemKeeping it local: an investigation of the phenomenon of ‘friends and neighbours’ voting at the Irish general elections of 2011 and 2016(University College Cork, 2019-10-04) Mullaney, Cathal; Weeks, LiamThrough use of tally data, this research considers the standing of the 'friends and neighbours' effect at two Irish general elections, 2011 and 2016. It does so through an examination of the 'friends and neighbours' effect and how it is impacted by a number of different variables, in order to provide an added insight into an element of voting behaviour that has permeated throughout the generations in Irish politics.
- ItemLocal diversity: a cause for suspicion? Autonomy and cultural provision in Irish local government – a case study of Cork City Council(University College Cork, 2021-06-30) Ronayne, William Mary; Quinlivan, Aodh; Duggan, Niall; Cork City CouncilLocal self-government – the “right and the ability of local authorities, within the limits of the law, to regulate and manage a substantial share of public affairs under their own responsibility and in the interests of the local population” (European Charter of Local Self-government) - is important because local government touches the lives and livelihoods of every citizen, in Ireland and elsewhere. To be meaningful and effective, local self-government requires a high degree of local autonomy and of subsidiarity, in terms both of legislation and financial provision. While it is generally accepted that the degree of local autonomy in Ireland is low by European standards, heretofore little research has been carried out on this important topic. No research has been carried out on its impact on cultural services. The gap in research and knowledge is addressed in this thesis. The literature on local government, with special reference to subsidiarity and the theory of local government, is reviewed. The recent evolution and current situation of Irish local government is discussed, with a particular focus on the question of local autonomy, and on cultural services. New research is brought to bear on the topic. The objective framework developed by Ladner, Keuffer, and Baldersheim (2016) is used to measure autonomy in Irish local government according to 11 variables; this demonstrates that Ireland ranks second lowest of 39 European countries surveyed. A series of structured interviews with practitioners in local cultural services is evaluated. The research shows that autonomy is crucial for local democracy, but that the level of autonomy in Irish local government is low. Local government in Ireland is less effective than it should be, and frequently does not meet the needs of local communities. Finally, suggestions are made for further research.
- ItemPlenty of fish in the sea? Brexit and the Irish seafood sector(University College Cork, 2019-10) Hayes, Paschal; Harris, ClodaghBrexit is one of the defining political events of our time. Ireland, more than any other EU member state, will be profoundly impacted by Brexit. While there are many ways in which the impact of Brexit will be felt in many aspects of Irish life it is likely that the Irish seafood sector will be impacted to greater extent than most. This thesis examines the impact of Brexit on the Irish seafood sector and provides a timely and comprehensive overview of the many and complex challenges confronting the Irish seafood sector following the UK decision to leave the EU. It is important for Ireland that any post-Brexit solution protects the Irish seafood sector and fosters the goals of the European Union’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). This thesis examines the development of the CFP, the structure of the Irish fishing fleet and fishing opportunities, Brexit and its impact on the seafood sector, and fisheries in the International context. The thesis identifies and critically examines five different scenarios for the Irish seafood sector and determines which are optimal for Ireland. The thesis presents an analysis of literature and primary and secondary information sources. Scenarios are developed, analysed and ranked in order of suitability to establish if an optimal solution that can be adopted by Ireland. The core goal of the thesis is to establish if there is an optimum post-Brexit solution that fosters the principles of the CFP while underpinning the fabric of coastal communities, protecting the environment and guaranteeing a thriving seafood sector in Ireland into the future by exploiting fish stocks at a sustainable level to guarantee a thriving seafood sector in Ireland into the future.
- ItemPolicing the problem? Irish domestic violence policy and the role of the police, 1994-2018(University College Cork, 2022-02-01) Fitzgibbon, Gerard; Reidy, TheresaThe purpose of this thesis will be to examine the development of domestic violence policy in Ireland from 1994 to 2018, with a specific focus on the role of the national police service, An Garda Síochána. This examination will track the emergence of domestic violence as a societal issue in Ireland from the mid-1990s, and will consider how and why a policy framework developed in response, using theory and an analytical lens. The role of non-governmental organisations in framing the issue will be analysed, with focus on their views on the nature and penetration of preferred criminal justice responses, specifically policing. The gradual centralisation of domestic violence policy co-ordination will also be considered, with a focus on how this too sought to influence policing responses. Having considered the growth of an overarching policy framework, this thesis will then examine if and how An Garda Síochána adapted its policies and internal culture towards domestic violence policing. This question will centre on how Irish police policy on domestic violence compared to international and academic best practice, how successful An Garda Síochána was in implementing it, and what lessons can be gleaned regarding police culture.
- ItemA study of the outcome of Irish agriculture policy on Ireland’s climate change obligations compared to other countries with similar agriculture sectors(University College Cork, 2022-12-14) Corbett, James G.; Duggan, NiallThe Kyoto Protocol, while not successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, established the main actions required to control emissions. Its successor the Paris Agreement sets a target of climate neutrality by 2050. The EU has adopted a climate leadership position with an interim target of a 40% (or 55%) reduction by 2030. This thesis examines the evolution of Irish GHG emissions over the period of the Kyoto Protocol compared to a selected group of countries with comparable agriculture sectors. It demonstrates that Ireland’s overall emissions increased over the period from 1990 to 2020, with agricultural emissions remaining flat during the same period. Other EU countries have largely complied with their emission reduction commitments and look set to meet future targets. Government policy is shown to be the main causal factor for emission outcomes. An increase in climate and environmental concerns is leading to new, more comprehensive environmental policies to reduce emissions. An aware public, backed by legal precedent, is forcing governments to act. In pursuing a policy of continued growth for the current agricultural model, it is difficult to see how Irish agriculture can avoid forced cuts in GHG emissions with so little progress made in its other emitting sectors.