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- ItemAdequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements(Cambridge University Press, 2013-02-27) Black, Lucinda J.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead E.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Sixth Framework Programme; European CommissionObjective: To describe vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers and the contribution from supplements and fortified foods in addition to the base diet. Design: Analysis of 7 d weighed food records collected during the Children's and Teens’ National Nutrition Surveys in Ireland. Food composition data for vitamin D were updated from international analytical sources. Setting: Nationally representative cross-sectional dietary surveys. Subjects: Children (n 594; 5–12 years) and teenagers (n 441; 13–17 years). Results: Median vitamin D intakes were 1·9, 2·1 and 2·4 μg/d in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 21, 16 and 15 % in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds and median intakes in users ranged from 6·0 to 6·7 μg/d. The prevalence of inadequate intakes, defined as the percentage with mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement of 10 μg/d, ranged from 88 to 96 % in supplement users. Foods fortified with vitamin D, mainly breakfast cereals, fat spreads and milk, were consumed by 71, 70 and 63 % of 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds. Non-supplement users who consumed vitamin D-fortified foods had median intakes of 1·9–2·5 μg/d, compared with 1·2–1·4 μg/d in those who did not consume fortified foods. Conclusions: It is currently not possible for children consuming the habitual diet to meet the US Institute of Medicine dietary reference intake for vitamin D. In the absence of nationally representative 25-hydroxyvitamin D data in children, the implications of this observation for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and health consequences are speculative.
- ItemAdherence to the infant vitamin D supplementation policy in Ireland(Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020-07-17) Hemmingway, Andrea; Fisher, Dawn; Berkery, Teresa; Murray, Deirdre M.; Kiely, Mairead E.; Science Foundation Ireland; European Regional Development Fund; National Children’s Research Centre, IrelandPurpose: From September 2010 until November 2019, Ireland’s infant vitamin D supplementation policy recommended administration of 5 μg/day of vitamin D3 from birth to 12 months to all infants, regardless of feeding method. This study aims to examine policy adherence. Methods: In the prospective COMBINE birth cohort study (recruited 2015–2017), detailed longitudinal supplement data were examined in 364 infants across the first year of life, according to product type, dose, frequency, and duration. Vitamin D supplement use at 2, 6, and 12 months in COMBINE was compared with the BASELINE cohort (recruited 2008–2011, n = 1949). Results: In COMBINE, 92% of infants initiated supplementation at birth. The median supplementation duration was 51 (40, 52) weeks, with a range of 3–52 weeks. While supplementing, most parents (92%) used an exclusive vitamin D supplement as recommended and 88% gave 5 µg/day. Half (51%) gave vitamin D daily and a further 33% supplemented at least 3–6 times/week. Overall, 30% adhered fully to the policy, providing 5 µg vitamin D3 daily from birth to 12 months. A further 16% were broadly compliant, giving 5 µg frequently for the full 12 months. Vitamin D supplement use at 2, 6, and 12 months in COMBINE was 93%, 89%, and 72%, considerably higher than our earlier BASELINE cohort at 49%, 64%, and 44% at the same time points (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: We report a high level of vitamin D supplementation initiation at birth, with full to broad policy adherence among more than half of infants. There is scope to improve overall compliance by focusing on supplementation frequency.
- ItemAdiposity associated plasma linoleic acid is related to demographic, metabolic health and haplotypes of FADS1/2 genes in Irish adults(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018-02-01) Li, Kaifeng; Brennan, Lorraine; Bloomfield, Jack F.; Duff, Dan J.; McNulty, Breige A.; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Health Research Board; China Scholarship CouncilScope: This study examined to what extent plasma linoleic acid (LA) is modified by adiposity, and explored any association between plasma LA, demographics, dietary intakes, markers of metabolic health and haplotypes of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1/2 genes. Methods and results: 820 participants with fasting blood samples from Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey were studied. Plasma fatty acids were determined using GC-MS. 15 SNPs of FADS 1/2 genes were genotyped. Plasma LA decreased while γ-linoleic acid and dihomo-γ-linoleic acid increased in overweight/obese participants (P ≤ 0.002). Participants in the highest quartile of plasma LA showed decreased plasma markers of de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance and of inflammation (TNF-α, PAI-1) (P ≤ 0.005). Adiposity (waist circumference and body fat) was strongly inversely associated with plasma LA accounting for 11.8% of variance observed, which was followed by FADS1/2 haplotypes (3.9 %), quantity and quality of carbohydrate intakes (3.8 %), dietary PUFA intakes (3.7 %), systolic blood pressure (3.6 %) and age (3.2 %). Conclusion: Plasma LA was inversely associated with adiposity, followed by haplotypes of FADS1/2 genes, carbohydrate intakes and dietary PUFA intakes. The association observed between plasma LA and adiposity may be linked to decreased de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance and inflammation.
- ItemAnalysis of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (Ireland) and the Food4Me nutrition survey databases to explore the development of food labelling portion sizes for the European Union(MDPI AG, 2018-12-20) Gibney, Michael J.; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Hannelore, Daniel; Manios, Yannis; Martinez, Alfredo; Saris, Wim H. M.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Uzhova, Irina; Evolved Nutrition Label (ENL); European Commission; Health Research Board; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Mars; PepsiCo; Coca-Cola; Unilever; NestléThe present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary versus food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) versus a seven-country survey based on the pan EU study Food4Me), (c) food quantification (multiple options versus solely photographic album) and (d) duration (4 consecutive days versus recent month). Using data from these studies, portion size was determined for 15 test foods, where portion size was defined as the median intake of a target food when consumed. The median values of the portion sizes derived from both the NANS and Food4Me surveys were correlated (r = 0.823; p < 0.00) and the mean of the two survey data sets were compared to US values from the Recognized as Customarily Consumed (RACC) database. There was very strong agreement across all food categories between the averaged EU and the US portion size (r = 0.947; p < 0.00). It is concluded that notwithstanding the variety of approaches used for dietary survey data in the EU, the present data supports using a standardized approach to food portion size quantification for food labelling in the EU.
- ItemAntenatal vitamin D status is not associated with standard neurodevelopmental assessments at age 5 Years in a well-characterized prospective maternal-infant cohort(Oxford University Press, 2018-08-30) McCarthy, Elaine K.; Malvisi, Lucio; Kiely, Mairead E.; Murray, Deirdre M.; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Irvine, Alan D.; Kenny, Louise C.; Seventh Framework Programme; National Children’s Research Centre, Ireland; Health Research Board; Science Foundation IrelandBackground: Although animal studies show evidence for a role of vitamin D during brain development, data from human studies show conflicting signals. Objective: We aimed to explore associations between maternal and neonatal vitamin D status with childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Comprehensive clinical, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected prospectively in 734 maternal-infant dyads from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were quantified at 15 weeks of gestation and in umbilical cord sera at birth via a CDC-accredited liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Children were assessed at age 5 y through the use of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (2nd Edition, KBIT-2) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Linear regression was used to explore associations between 25(OH)D and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Results: 25(OH)D concentrations were <30 nmol/L in 15% of maternal and 45% of umbilical cord sera and <50 nmol/L in 42% of mothers and 80% of cords. At age 5 y, the mean ± SD KBIT-2 intelligence quotient (IQ) composite score was 104.6 ± 8.6; scores were 107.2 ± 10.0 in verbal and 99.8 ± 8.8 in nonverbal tasks. Developmental delay (scores <85) was seen in <3% of children across all domains. The mean ± SD CBCL total problem score was 21.3 ± 17.5; scores in the abnormal/clinical range for internal, external, and total problem scales were present in 12%, 4%, and 6% of participants, respectively. KBIT-2 and CBCL subscale scores at 5 y were not different between children exposed to low antenatal vitamin D status, either at 30 or 50 nmol/L 25(OH)D thresholds. Neither maternal nor cord 25(OH)D (per 10 nmol/L) were associated with KBIT-2 IQ composite scores [adjusted β (95% CI): maternal –0.01 (−0.03, 0.02); cord 0.01 (−0.03, 0.04] or CBCL total problem scores [maternal 0.01 (−0.04, 0.05); cord 0.01 (−0.07, 0.09)]. Conclusion: In this well-characterized prospective maternal-infant cohort, we found no evidence that antenatal 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 y. The BASELINE Study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01498965; the SCOPE Study was registered at http://www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12607000551493
- ItemAnti-yeast activity and characterisation of synthetic radish peptides Rs-AFP1 and Rs-AFP2 against food spoilage yeast: Synthetic radish peptides against food spoilage yeast(Elsevier Ltd., 2020-02-22) Shwaiki, Laila N.; Arendt, Elke K.; Lynch, Kieran M.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandFood spoilage resulting from the presence of yeast is a common problem in the food industry. The development of natural food preservatives is a growing area of interest for the food industry. The application of antimicrobial peptides derived from plants can be a simple and natural method of preserving food. This study looked at the antiyeast activity of two chemically synthesised radish antimicrobial peptides, Rs-AFP1 and Rs-AFP2, for their inhibitory effect against different yeast species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both peptides was generated. Two mechanisms of action were studied (membrane permeabilisation and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and both were found to occur with Rs-AFP2, while only the overproduction of ROS was detected for Rs-AFP1. The effect of the peptides on the yeast cells was also visualised by scanning electron microscopy. Their safety in terms of human consumption was studied and no adverse effects were found. Lastly, the stability of the peptides in different conditions, such as high salt, heat and a range of pH were studied in addition to their antiyeast activity in different food matrices such as soft drink, fruit juices and salad dressing, further supporting the peptides' potential for use in food preservation.
- ItemAntifungal activity of synthetic cowpea defensin Cp-thionin II and its application in dough(Elsevier, 2018-01-09) Thery, Thibaut; Arendt, Elke K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Food Institutional Research MeasurePlant defensins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides of the immune system found in several organs during plant development. A synthetic peptide, KT43C, a linear analogue of the native Cp-thionin II found in cowpea seeds, was evaluated for its antifungal potential. It was found that KT43C displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger. Like native plant defensins, KT43C showed thermostability up to 100 °C and cation sensitivity. The synthetic peptide decreased the fungal growth without inducing morphogenic changes in the fungal hyphae. Non-inhibitory concentrations of the peptide induced permeabilization of the fungal membrane. In addition, high concentrations of KT43C induced the production of reactive oxygen species in the granulated cytoplasm. To investigate potential applications, the peptide was used as an additive in the preparation of dough which did not contain yeast. This peptide delayed the development of fungal growth in the dough by 2 days. Furthermore, KT43C did not induce red blood cell lysis up to a concentration of 200 μg.ml−1. These results highlight the potential for the use of synthetic antimicrobial defensins for shelf-life extension of food products.
- ItemAntioxidant potential of kvasses(Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Union of Chemists in Bulgaria, 2019) Amarowicz, R.; Janiak, M.; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju; Horizon 2020This study was aimed at determination of antioxidant capacity of commercial kvasses. Four different beverages (“Obolon”, “Wileński”, “Gubernija”, and Eko-Natura”) were purchased in local shops in Poland, one beverage (“Brottrunk Biovegan”) originated from the German market. Antioxidan capacity of the beverages was investigated using ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assays. The content of total phenolic compounds was determined using a FolinCiocalteu’s phenol reagent. The profile of phenolic compounds were determined using an HPLC method. The content of total phenolics ranged from 0.083 to 0.372 mg/ml; the TEAC values from 0.133 to 1.001 μmol Trolox/ml; the FRAP values from 0.893 to 3.079 μmol Fe2+/ml. The antiradical activity against DPPH radical ranged from 0.097 to 0.463 μmol Trolox/ml. A strong correlation was noted between the contents of total phenolics and results of antioxidant assays. The presence of benzoic acid in one beverage was confirmed using the HPLC method.
- ItemApplication of a cascade membrane filtration process to standardise serum protein depleted cheese milk for cheddar cheese manufacture(Elsevier Ltd., 2020-07-02) Xia, Xiaofeng; Tobin, John T.; Sharma, Prateek; Fenelon, Mark; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Teagasc; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandA cascade membrane filtration process including microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) was used to fractionate skim milk into different streams. Significant quantities of lactose and minerals were removed to permeate after MF at 0.14 μm. Cheese milk, of similar casein content to the raw milk, was standardised simultaneously for casein, lactose, ash and total calcium from the membrane streams without requiring CaCl2 and lactose addition. Serum protein depleted cheese milk of typical casein content had similar rennet coagulability, cheese composition, texture and yield to the control; milk of 1.5 × casein content had a faster coagulation rate and resulted in cheese of lower moisture content. On a dry matter basis, the serum protein content of MF permeate concentrated by UF was significantly higher than that in cheese whey (51.54% versus 5.63–9.45%), with significantly lower contents of ash (0.95% versus 7.11–7.53%) and lactose (9.50% versus 61.98–70.35%).
- ItemApplication of chemometrics to assess the influence of ultrasound frequency, Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying on beef jerky manufacture: Impact on amino acid profile, organic acids, texture and colour(Elsevier, 2017-06-23) Ojha, K. Shikha; Granato, Daniel; Rajuria, Gaurav; Barba, Francisco J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K.The effects of ultrasound (US) frequency, addition of Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying time on key nutritional (protein, amino acids, and organic acids) and physicochemical properties (texture and colour) of cultured and uncultured beef jerky were evaluated. Cultured and uncultured jerky samples were subjected to US frequencies of 25 kHz, 33 kHz and 45 kHz for 30 min prior to marination and drying. Principal component analysis demonstrated a significant effect of beef jerky processing conditions on physicochemical properties. Taurine content of jerky samples was found to increase with an increase in ultrasonic frequencies for cultured samples. No significant changes in colour values were observed for ultrasound pre-treated and control samples. Interactive effects of culture treatment, drying and ultrasonic frequency were observed. This study demonstrates that the nutritional profile of beef jerky can be improved through the incorporation of L. sakei.
- ItemApplication of non-saccharomyces yeasts isolated from kombucha in the production of alcohol-free beer(MDPI AG, 2018-08-17) Bellut, Konstantin; Michel, Maximilian; Zarnkow, Martin; Hutzler, Mathias; Jacob, Fritz; De Schutter, David P.; Daenen, Luk; Lynch, Kieran M.; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.Alcohol-free beer (AFB) is no longer just a niche product in the beer market. For brewers, this product category offers economic benefits in the form of a growing market and often a lower tax burden and enables brewers to extend their product portfolio and promote responsible drinking. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are known for their flavor-enhancing properties in food fermentations, and their prevailing inability to ferment maltose and maltotriose sets a natural fermentation limit and can introduce a promising approach in the production of AFB (≤0.5% v/v). Five strains isolated from kombucha, Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora vineae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis were compared to a commercially applied AFB strain Saccharomycodes ludwigii and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer’s yeast. The strains were characterized for their sugar utilization, phenolic off-flavors, hop sensitivity and flocculation. Trial fermentations were analyzed for extract reduction, ethanol formation, pH drop and final beers were analyzed for amino acids utilization and fermentation by-products. The performance of non-Saccharomyces strains and the commercial AFB strain were comparable during fermentation and production of fermentation by-products. An experienced sensory panel could not discriminate between the non-Saccharomyces AFB and the one produced with the commercial AFB strain, therefore indicating their suitability in AFB brewing.
- ItemThe application of pureed butter beans and a combination of inulin and Rebaudioside A for the replacement of fat and sucrose in sponge cake: Sensory and physicochemical analysis(MDPI, 2021-01-26) Richardson, Aislinn M.; Tyuftin, Andrey A.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Gallagher, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandDetermining minimum levels of fat and sucrose needed for the sensory acceptance of sponge cake while increasing the nutritional quality was the main objective of this study. Sponge cakes with 0, 25, 50 and 75% sucrose replacement (SR) using a combination of inulin and Rebaudioside A (Reb A) were prepared. Sensory acceptance testing (SAT) was carried out on samples. Following experimental results, four more samples were prepared where fat was replaced sequentially (0, 25, 50 and 75%) in sucrose-replaced sponge cakes using pureed butter beans (Pbb) as a replacer. Fat-replaced samples were investigated using sensory (hedonic and intensity) and physicochemical analysis. Texture liking and overall acceptability (OA) were the only hedonic sensory parameters significantly affected after a 50% SR in sponge cake (p < 0.05). A 25% SR had no significant impact on any hedonic sensory properties and samples were just as accepted as the control sucrose sample. A 30% SR was chosen for further experiments. After a 50% fat replacement (FR), no significant differences were found between 30% sucrose-replaced sponge cake samples in relation to all sensory (hedonic and intensity) parameters investigated. Flavour and aroma intensity attributes such as buttery and sweet and, subsequently, liking and OA of samples were negatively affected after a 75% FR (p < 0.05). Instrumental texture properties (hardness and chewiness (N)) did not discriminate between samples with increasing levels of FR using Pbb. Moisture content increased significantly with FR (p < 0.05). A simultaneous reduction in fat (42%) and sucrose was achieved (28%) in sponge cake samples without negatively affecting OA. Optimised samples contained significantly more dietary fibre (p < 0.05).
- ItemApproaches for improving the flowability of high-protein dairy powders post spray drying - a review(Elsevier B.V., 2021) Hazlett, Ryan; Schmidmeier, Christiane; O'Mahony, James A.; Enterprise Ireland; Dairy Processing Technology CentreChallenges are commonly encountered in the bulk handling and application of high-protein dairy powders, and are strongly influenced by their poor flowability. Powder flowability can be defined as the ability of a powder to flow under set environmental or processing conditions and it is ultimately determined by the type and extent of interparticle interactions occurring in the bulk powder (e.g., van der Waals and electrostatic interactions). High-protein powders are particularly susceptible to the occurrence of interparticle interactions, resulting in increased cohesive forces being experienced in the bulk powder, thereby reducing powder flowability. This review summarises the major factors responsible for poor flowability in high-protein dairy powders and critiques traditional (e.g., agglomeration) and some of the more relevant novel approaches (e.g., dry- and wet-coating and roller compaction) available for improving the flowability of powders post-spray drying. This review material will be of considerable interest to dairy scientists, technologists and engineers challenged with understanding, predicting and controlling the bulk handling and flowability of high-value dairy protein powders.
- ItemAroma generation in sponge cakes: The influence of sucrose particle size and sucrose source(Elsevier Ltd., 2023-03-21) Garvey , Emer C.; O'Sullivan , Maurice G.; Kerry , Joseph P.; Kilcawley , Kieran N.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandThe influence of sucrose source and particle size was investigated in relation to the volatile and aromatic properties of sponge cakes. Six sponge cake formulations were studied using two sucrose sources (sugarbeet and sugarcane), at two particle sizes (large and small) with controls. Volatiles profiles and odour active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and olfactometry. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified, incorporating twenty five odour active compounds/co-eluting compounds, with 5 odours perceived without any corresponding volatile. Particle size had the greatest impact on volatile abundance, with particle size especially influencing pyrazine abundance. Five odour active volatiles (methional, furfural, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, heptanal and (E)-2-octenal) contributed most to the aroma of these sponge cakes. Small particle size particularly from sugarbeet yielded higher levels of some Maillard and caramelisation reaction compounds, such as furfural (spicy/ bready), where larger particle size supressed volatile abundance in comparison to the control.
- ItemAssessment of performance of the industrial process of bulk vacuum packaging of raw meat with nondestructive optical oxygen sensing systems(MDPI AG, ) Kelly, Caroline; Cruz-Romero, Malco C.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the MarineThe commercially-available optical oxygen-sensing system Optech-O2 Platinum was applied to nondestructively assess the in situ performance of bulk, vacuum-packaged raw beef in three ~300 kg containers. Twenty sensors were attached to the inner surface of the standard bin-contained laminate bag (10 on the front and back sides), such that after filling with meat and sealing under vacuum, the sensors were accessible for optical interrogation with the external reader device. After filling and sealing each bag, the sensors were measured repetitively and nondestructively over a 15-day storage period at 1 °C, thus tracking residual oxygen distribution in the bag and changes during storage. The sensors revealed a number of unidentified meat quality and processing issues, and helped to improve the packaging process by pouring flakes of dry ice into the bag. Sensor utility in mapping the distribution of residual O2 in sealed bulk containers and optimising and improving the packaging process, including handling and storage of bulk vacuum-packaged meat bins, was evident.
- ItemAssessment of the biological activity of fish muscle protein hydrolysates using in vitro model systems(Elsevier Ltd., 2021-04-20) Heffernan, Shauna; Giblin, Linda; O'Brien, Nora; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Science Foundation IrelandThe generation of biologically active fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) is a useful technique to produce value-added products with potential application in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. Fish muscle is an attractive substrate for the production of protein hydrolysates due to its rich protein content, containing 15-25% of total fish protein. This paper reviews the production of protein hydrolysates from fish muscle, most commonly via enzymatic hydrolysis, and their subsequent bioactivities including anti-obesity, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities as measured by in vitro testing methods. Disease prevention with FPH potentially offers a safe and natural alternative to synthetic drugs. Small molecular weight (MW) FPHs generally exhibit favourable bioactivity than large MW fractions via enhanced absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. This review also discusses the relationship between amino acid (AA) composition and AA sequence of FPH and peptides and their exhibited in vitro bioactivity.
- ItemAn assessment of the influence of the industry distribution chain on the oxygen levels in commercial modified atmosphere packaged cheddar cheese using non-destructive oxygen sensor technology(MDPI, 2016-06-20) O'Callaghan, Karen A. M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Irish Research Council for Science Engineering and TechnologyThe establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.
- ItemBarley protein properties, extraction and applications, with a focus on brewers’ spent grain protein(MDPI, 2021-06-16) Jaeger, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele; Sahin, Aylin W.; Arendt, Elke K.; Horizon 2020Barley is the most commonly used grain in the brewing industry for the production of beer-type beverages. This review will explore the extraction and application of proteins from barley, particularly those from brewers’ spent grain, as well as describing the variety of proteins present. As brewers’ spent grain is the most voluminous by-product of the brewing industry, the valorisation and utilisation of spent grain protein is of great interest in terms of sustainability, although at present, BSG is mainly sold cheaply for use in animal feed formulations. There is an ongoing global effort to minimise processing waste and increase up-cycling of processing side-streams. However, sustainability in the brewing industry is complex, with an innate need for a large volume of resources such as water and energy. In addition to this, large volumes of a by-product are produced at nearly every step of the process. The extraction and characterisation of proteins from BSG is of great interest due to the high protein quality and the potential for a wide variety of applications, including foods for human consumption such as bread, biscuits and snack-type products.
- ItemBehavioral consequences at 5 y of neonatal iron deficiency in a low-risk maternal-infant cohort.(Oxford University Press, 2021-01-29) McCarthy, Elaine K.; Murray, Deirdre M.; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Kenny, Louise C.; Irvine, Alan D.; Kiely, Mairead E.; National Children's Research Centre; Health Research Board; Science Foundation IrelandBackground: Iron is critical to the developing brain, but fetal iron accretion is compromised by several maternal and pregnancy-related factors. Little consideration has been given to the long-term neurologic consequences of neonatal iron deficiency, especially in generally healthy, low-risk populations. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between neonatal iron deficiency and neurologic development at 2 and 5 y of age. Design: We measured umbilical cord serum ferritin concentrations in the prospective maternal–infant Cork BASELINE (Babies after SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints) Birth Cohort. Lifestyle and clinical data were collected from 15 weeks of gestation to 5 y of age. Standardized neurologic assessments were performed at 2 y [Bayley Scales of Infant Development/Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)] and 5 y (Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test/CBCL). Results: Among 697 maternal–infant pairs, median (IQR) cord ferritin concentrations were 200.9 (139.0, 265.8) µg/L; 8% had neonatal iron deficiency (ferritin <76 µg/L). Using fully adjusted models, there was no association between neonatal iron deficiency and cognitive or behavioral outcomes at 2 or 5 y. We conducted an a priori sensitivity analysis in 306 high-risk children, selected using known risk factors for neonatal iron deficiency (smoking/obesity/cesarean section delivery/small-for-gestational age birth). In this high-risk subgroup, children with iron deficiency at birth (12%) had similar cognitive outcomes, but the behavioral assessments showed higher internalizing [9.0 (5.3, 12.0) compared with 5.0 (3.0, 10.0), P = 0.006; adjusted estimate (95% CI): 2.8 (0.5, 5.1), P = 0.015] and total [24.5 (15.3, 40.8) compared with 16.0 (10.0, 30.0), P = 0.009; adjusted estimate (95% CI): 6.6 (0.1, 13.1), P = 0.047] problem behavior scores at 5 y compared with those born iron sufficient. Conclusions: We have demonstrated lasting behavioral consequences of neonatal iron deficiency in high-risk children from our generally healthy, low-risk maternal–infant cohort. Although larger investigations are warranted, this study provides strong association data to suggest that interventions and strategies targeting the fetal and neonatal period should be prioritized for the prevention of iron deficiency and associated neurologic consequences.
- ItemBioaccessibility and bioavailability of a marine-derived multimineral, Aquamin-Magnesium(MDPI AG, 2018) Felice, Valeria D.; O'Gorman, Denise M.; O'Brien, Nora M.; Hyland, Niall P.; Marigot Ltd; Irish Research Council; Science Foundation IrelandIntroduction: Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in a range of key biochemical pathways. Several magnesium supplements are present on the market and their degree of bioavailability differs depending on the form of magnesium salt used. Aquamin-Mg is a natural source of magnesium, containing 72 additional trace minerals derived from the clean waters off the Irish coast. However, the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Aquamin-Mg in comparison with other supplement sources of magnesium has yet to be tested. Method: Aquamin-Mg, magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were subjected to gastrointestinal digestion according to the harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method and in vitro bioavailability tested using the Caco-2 cell model. Magnesium concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Magnesium recovery from both Aquamin-Mg and MgCl2 was greater than for MgO. Magnesium from all three sources was transported across the epithelial monolayer with Aquamin-Mg displaying a comparable profile to the more bioavailable MgCl2. Conclusions: Our data support that magnesium derived from a marine-derived multimineral product is bioavailable to a significantly greater degree than MgO and displays a similar profile to the more bioavailable MgCl2 and may offer additional health benefits given its multimineral profile.