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- ItemBridge-builder feminism: the feminist movement and conflict in Northern Ireland(Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-02-03) O'Keefe, TheresaWhile gender has been widely used as an analytical category to understand the dynamics of conflict transformation in Northern Ireland, surprisingly little has been written on the ways in which the conflict has shaped or constrained feminist organising. Singular focus on groups or initiatives like the Northern Ireland Women's Coalition, Peace People or the Women's Support Network has overshadowed the contested history and intricacies of the wider feminist movement. Adopting a more holistic view, this article takes the concept of ‘bridge-builders' as conceptualised by Ruane and Todd in The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland (1996) to examine the fractured development of the feminist movement in the North. It charts how ‘bridge-builder feminism' became a distinguishable feature of the feminist movement during the Troubles and was used as a mechanism to transgress what Todd calls the ‘grammars of nationality’ (Todd, 2015). I argue that although this organising approach pioneered some changes in Northern Irish society, it overlooked key feminist struggles and thrived at the expense of an inclusive, intersectional feminism. Though the movement has undergone significant changes in the last two decades, the legacy of bridge-builder feminism continues to impact the capacities of the movement to address key feminist issues.
- ItemCreating a community of praxis: integrating global citizenship and development education across campus at University College Cork(UCL Press, 2022-12-13) Cotter, Gertrude; Bonenfant, Yvon; Butler, Jenny; Caulfield, Marian; Doyle Prestwich, Barbara; Griffin, Rosarii; Khabbar, Sanaa; Mishra, Nita; Hally, Ruth; Murphy, Margaret; Murphy, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maeve; Phelan, Martha; Reidy, Darren; Schneider, Julia C.; Isaloo, Amin Sharifi; Turner, Brian; Usher, Ruth; Williamson Sinalo, Caroline; Irish AidThe Praxis Project, established at University College Cork (UCC), Ireland, in 2018, seeks to assess possible models of best practice with regard to the integration of global citizenship and development education (GCDE) into a cross-disciplinary, cross-campus, interwoven set of subject area pedagogies, policies and practices. This study – the first part of an eventual three-part framework – asserts that the themes, theories, values, skills, approaches and methodologies relevant to transformative pedagogical work are best underpinned by ongoing staff dialogue in order to build communities of support around such systemic pedagogical change. This article is based on a collaborative study with the first cohort of UCC staff (2020–1), which demonstrates many ways in which staff and students realised that smaller actions and carefully directed attention to specific issues opened doors to transformative thinking and action in surprising ways. From this viewpoint, the striking need emerged for taking a strategic approach to how GCDE is, and should be, integrated into learning across subject areas.
- ItemCyber as an enabler of terrorism financing, now and in the future(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2018-08-20) Carroll, Paul; Windle, JamesThe objective of this paper is to conduct a critical analysis of whether there is, or could be an incremental use of cyber in the raising and transfer of terrorism finance, compared against traditional terrorism finance practices already in place. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts. They were initially dismissive of any significant use of cyber within terrorism finance, whilst acknowledging that the lack of quality data means that there may be more terrorism finance activity within the cyber domain than is empirically known. Some participants offered examples of how cyber might be utilised by providing impromptu ‘what if’ scenarios. We suggest that this may be symbolic of how primitive the thought process around the current and future use of cyber in terrorism finance is. It was also acknowledged that the current gap in empirical data might be addressed through bespoke training of both security services personnel and wider organisations in identifying terrorism finance ‘red flag’ indicators.
- ItemDoing peace: the role of ex-political prisoners in violence prevention initiatives in Northern Ireland(Taylor & Francis Inc, 2017) Joyce, Carmel; Lynch, Orla; European CommissionWhile a considerable amount of research has been conducted on community-based initiatives aimed at preventing violence, including the role of the ex-political prisoner community in preventative and counterterrorism work, little is known about how the ex-prisoners themselves manage their identity transition between the role they occupied during the conflict and their current role in violence prevention. We argue that it is important to consider the perspective of ex-prisoners who are both architects of their own process of desistance from political violence, as well active leaders of bespoke desistance programs. While many researchers have recognized the utility of the role of ex-prisoners in violence prevention work, theoretically, the way in which ex-prisoners do violence prevention through their use of language and intergroup contact and other resources, is poorly understood. Ultimately, the aim of the article is twofold: to understand the resources (discursive or otherwise) that the community of ex-political prisoners use in their preventative work and (2) to understand how this community understand their role in desistance programs in the context of their personal involvement in violent conflict, including the ways in which participants manage their identity transition.
- ItemFive areas which make the Irish organized crime milieu distinctive(SAGE Publications, 2022-11-26) Windle, JamesThis article critically assesses five areas that may together make the Irish organized crime milieu distinctive. First, there is minimal research. Second, organized crime groups and illicit enterprises are often characterized as “family-gangs.” Third, some violent conflicts are framed as family feuds. Fourth, a broad range of paramilitary groups have influenced Irish organized crime, in a variety of ways. Fifth, many organized crime groups and illicit enterprises are internationally mobile. Three types of mobility are identified: those commuting to other countries for one-off jobs, those migrating for longer periods, and mobile illicit enterprises. Allum’s push/pull model of criminal migration is employed to offer some suggestions as to why Irish criminals migrate and the choice of destination. The final section argues that some of the features that make Irish organized crime distinctive are changing or may have already changed. The article highlights key areas of further research needed to clarify the structure of organized crime in Ireland.
- ItemHow a moral panic influenced the world’s first blanket ban on new psychoactive substances(Taylor & Francis, 2021-04-05) Windle, James; Murphy, Paul; University College CorkIreland passed the world’s first blanket ban on new psychoactive substance in 2010. This article traces the historical processes culminating in the Criminal Justice (Psychoactive Substances) Act (2010) through a systematic review of Irish media articles published between 2000 and 2010 (N = 338). The review found that head shops were largely tolerated when they sold cannabis paraphernalia (2000–2008), possibly indicating the normalisation of cannabis in Ireland. Some mild condemnatory language emerges between 2008 and 2009 when head shops began selling some new psychoactive substances. The review suggests that the 2010 Act was partly a product of a moral panic, driven and managed by a range of moral entrepreneurs and, involving both peaceful and violent protests. Unlike some traditional moral panics, young people were not identified as folk devils but rather as under threat from a new drug distribution model (head shops) and new drugs (NPS).
- ItemHow a Taliban ban on opium could affect the Irish drugs market(Raidió Teilifís Éireann, 2021-08-23) Windle, James
- Item'I could have went down a different path': Talking to people who used drugs problematically and service providers about Irish drug policy alternatives(Elsevier, 2020-08-06) Leonard, James; Windle, JamesBackground: People who use drugs problematically are consistently left out of consultations and deliberation on drug policy. This article explores how people who formerly used drugs problematically and service providers view Ireland's current drug policy and if alternative policies could be successful in an Irish context. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight people who used drugs problematically and six practitioners working with people who use drugs in Cork city, Ireland. All people who used drugs problematically had at least one year of abstinence and had been criminalised because of their drug use, all but one had served at least one custodial sentence. Participants were asked their opinions on safe injecting facilities, heroin assisted treatment, decriminalisation of drugs for personal use, depenalisation of cannabis and, the relationships between economic deprivation and problematic drug use. Results: Respondents stressed that, in Cork city, problematic drug use is closely linked with economic deprivation and social exclusion. There was a near consensus that criminalisation and penalisation do not deter consumption and produce unintended consequences. All participants supported safe injecting facilities and the decriminalisation of drugs for personal use. Participants were less certain about the utility of heroin assisted treatment and depenalisation of cannabis. Many discussions drifted away from alternatives policies towards the need for improved treatment provision. Conclusion: Several participants were clear that none of the alternative policies discussed are silver bullets. Participates felt that, while they could reduce the harms caused by drugs and drug policies, the government's longer-term objectives should be increased treatment provision and, reduced social exclusion and economic deprivation.
- ItemThe impact of the Celtic Tiger and Great Recession on drug consumption(Emerald Publishing, 2022-12-29) Windle, James; Cambridge, Graham; Leonard, James; Lynch, OrlaPurpose: This paper aims to explore how the Celtic Tiger economic boom and Great Recession influenced drug and alcohol use in one Irish city. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people, living in Cork City, who had previously used drugs and/or alcohol problematically. All participants had engaged with services for their problematic use and had at least one year of abstinence at time of interview. Findings: Some participants reported that their drug and/or alcohol consumption increased during the economic boom; others, who were already in (self-defined) active addiction, reported how full employment lessened some of the harms of their problematic use. For others, problematic use struck once the economy entered a downturn and, heavy drink and drug use became a means of soothing the strains of economic recession. Originality/value: The paper provides two key contributions. Methodologically, it demonstrates how large-scale national quantitative data can mask local idiosyncratic tendencies, suggesting the need for mixed-method approaches for understanding drug market trends. The paper also provides insights into the impact of global and local economic conditions on drug and alcohol consumption in Ireland.
- ItemThe impact of the Great Recession on the Irish drug market(Sage Publications, 2017-11-10) Windle, JamesThis article analyses 10 years (2004–2014) of An Garda Síochána controlled drug data to investigate the impact of economic recession and globalization on the Irish illicit drug market. The limited international literature on recessions and drug markets suggests that economic downturns can increase both drug consumption and dealing. Gardaí data may, however, suggest that the 2008 Great Recession reduced drug use and dealing, yet increased the cultivation and manufacture of drugs: trends which largely conflict with the international literature. Two testable hypotheses are drawn from the data: (1) net consumption and trade of illicit drugs were reduced by emigration triggered by the Great Recession; (2) the Great Recession forced an adaptation in the market which sped up the process towards import substitution of cannabis cultivation. The article concludes by investigating how recent changes highlight the globalized nature of Irish drug markets before proposing avenues for further research.
- ItemReview: Mafia Raj The Rule of Bosses in South Asia(Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2020-03) Windle, James
- ItemUnmasking the 'criminal justice voluntary sector' in the Republic of Ireland: towards a research agenda(Probation Service, Ireland / Probation Board for Northern Ireland, 2018-10) Swirak, KatharinaVoluntary sector organisations (VSOs) play a pivotal, but as yet unevaluated role in the Irish criminal justice system. The aim of this paper is to address some of the key issues and debates discussed in the extensive international literature on the criminal justice voluntary sector and to consider how they might be translated into an Irish context. After presenting the contours of the Irish criminal justice voluntary sector and discussing the difficulties of scoping a complex and diverse field, the paper highlights key strengths and weaknesses discussed in the international literature. The Irish criminal justice voluntary sector ultimately has to be interpreted as an element of broader Irish penal and social policy. Making it visible as a distinct field of intervention and research is important if we want to highlight some of the sectorâ s undeniable strengths. However, it is also timely to critically interrogate some of its tensions and contradictions in a way that will ultimately be useful to service users, practitioners and policy-makers alike.
- ItemThe victimisation of farms in Ireland: fear of crime, social isolation and crime prevention(Springer, 2022-06-18) O'Brien, Margueriete; Windle, JamesThis paper explores farmer’s experiences of crime and their attitudes towards crime prevention in one rural hinterland. Farmer’s attitudes about safety and crime present a dichotomy: fear of victimisation was relatively high, yet few participants reported having been victimised, and there was a perception that agricultural crime was high in Ireland but low in their locality. Feelings of insecurity were partly influenced by the closure of rural Garda stations and uneven distribution of information technology. Participants were most concerned with theft of small machinery, violent coercion connected to fraudulent work, illegal dumping and trespassing, rather than thefts of expensive machinery and livestock. Participants reported being unable to afford some crime prevention measures and/or having insufficient time to implement them. The paper concludes by highlighting the relevance of Farrell and Tilley’s (2020) concept of elegant security to farm crime and discussing the role of community policing.
- Item'Vulnerable' kids going country: children and young people's involvement in county lines drug dealing(Sage Publications, 2020-02-06) Windle, James; Moyle, Leah; Coomber, RossThis article employs a range of sources to critically explore the role of children and young people in county lines drug dealing, the potential harms they are exposed to and the difficulties of protecting them. As county lines centre upon the movement and exploitation of vulnerable peoples, we utilise the human trafficking literature for further insights into the dynamics of county lines and current policy responses. The article concludes by discussing the challenges of safeguarding young people, particularly that over-worked and under-resourced frontline practitioners can experience difficulties identifying the vulnerability of young people caught up in county lines, particularly beneath their tough exteriors.
- ItemWho researches organised crime? A review of organised crime authorship trends (2004-2019)(Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2021-10-23) Hosford, Kevin; Aqil, Nauman; Windle, James; Gundur, R. V.; Allum, FeliaThis article presents a review of organised crime authorship for all articles published in Trends in Organized Crime and Global Crime between 2004 and 2019 (N = 528 articles and 627 individual authors). The results of this review identify a field dominated by White men based in six countries, all in the Global North. Little collaboration occurs; few studies are funded, and few researchers specialise in the area. Organised crime research, however, does have a degree of variety in national origin, and therefore linguistic diversity, while the number of female researchers is growing. The article concludes that authorship trends are influenced by the challenges of data collection, funding availability, and more entrenched structural factors, which prevent some from entering into, and staying active within, the field.
- ItemWhy drug dealing and drug use will increase after Covid-19(Raidió Teilifís Éireann, 2020-09-15) Windle, James; Drew, Sinéad; Leonard, JamesIreland is likely to enter a severe economic recession. A relatively small body of international research shows that drug consumption and dealing have previously increased during recessions and economic downturns, although there are important variations across national and local markets. Separate studies in Greece, Italy and Spain during the last recession found: increased problematic drug use (Greece), increase cannabis consumption (Spain), and, reduced heroin and cocaine consumption coupled with increased cannabis and amphetamine consumption (Italy). Whereas, Ireland witnessed a decline in net drug consumption, partly because of the large numbers who emigrated for work (that is, some may have consumed more drugs, but they did so in London and Toronto rather than Dublin and Cork). We also witnessed increases in cannabis cultivation and, heroin and Xanax consumption in some areas.