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- Item2000 - 2017 inventory of extreme weather events in Ireland(2019-01-01) Pasik, Adam; Hickey, Kieran; Leahy, Paul; Environmental Protection AgencyGlobally, extreme weather events are responsible for far more financial losses than the increase in mean temperature. In the context of climate change, attribution of the ever-increasing losses from these high-impact events is still contested. Some research finds climate change to drive the rising costs while other attributes this trend to socioeconomic factors such as higher population densities, demographical shift, accumulation of wealth and exposure of assets. As of yet no systematic inquiry into this matter has been carried out in Ireland. This research compiles a dataset of extreme weather events in Ireland between 2000 and 2017 based on an applied financial threshold of €30m. The overall annual losses are adjusted for inflation and emerging trends are identified and discussed. Population change and per capita GDP are considered as important variables in this research due to their potential to exacerbate losses even without any change in their frequency or climate. Temporal trends in population and per capita GDP are discussed as well as emerging spatial patterns in population distribution. Furthermore, loss values are normalized by adjusting them for inflation, population rise and GDP growth to better understand the relationship between losses from weather extremes and societal and economic factors. The results are contextualized in relevant peer-reviewed literature and compared to similar studies carried out elsewhere in the world. This study, in agreement with similar research implemented elsewhere, establishes an increasing trend in annual losses from weather extremes in Ireland, while also demonstrating that this trend is nullified by population rise and economic growth. During the study period population of Ireland has increased by 26.4%, resulting in 1 million new residents, meanwhile, the per capita GDP has more than doubled. Larger and wealthier populations hold more assets which can be potentially damaged. Losses from weather extremes in Ireland adjusted for population and wealth increase no longer show a rising trend, highlighting the importance of population densities and wealth accumulation as key factors driving the increase in financial damages stemming from weather and climatic extremes.
- ItemAccess to a floating wind turbine(The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 2017-03) Shanley, Matthew; Wright, Christopher S.; Otter, Aldert; Desmond, Cian J.; Murphy, Jimmy; The Royal Institution of Naval Architects; Lir National Ocean Test Facility, Ireland; Science Foundation IrelandThe offshore wind turbine service industry is now well established with a large number of turbines being successfully operated and maintained. A number of methods and technologies are available to allow the safe transfer of service crews to these primarily fixed monopile installations. The most common of these is the bow transfer method which uses a combination of a high friction fender and a large vessel thrust to minimise relative motion between the bow and the turbine foundation. An upcoming challenge for the offshore wind turbine service industry will be the increasing use of floating foundations in far offshore and deep water sites. A number of structures are currently being developed and the first commercial floating wind farm is expected to be commissioned in late 2017. The use of floating structures will make it more difficult to ensure crew safety and comfort during transfer operations as the interaction between two floating bodies needs to be considered. Thus, the bow transfer method used to access fixed foundations may not be suitable for accessing floating turbine platforms. This paper will use a combination of physical and numerical modelling to assess the ability of a wind farm service vessel to maintain contact with a floating offshore wind turbine structure by use of the bow transfer method.
- ItemAccommodating curvature in a highly ordered functionalized metal oxide nanofiber: synthesis, characterization and multi-scale modeling of layered nanosheets(American Chemical Society Publications, 2012-10) O'Dwyer, Colm; Gannon, G.; McNulty, David; Buckley, D. Noel; Thompson, Damien; Science Foundation Ireland; Higher Education Authority; Irish GovernmentA key element in the rational design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures, is control of surfactant packing and adsorption onto the inorganic phase in crystal growth and assembly. In layered single crystal nanofibers and bilayered 2D nanosheets of vanadium oxide, we show how the chemisorption of preferred densities of surfactant molecules can direct formation of ordered, curved layers. The atom-scale features of the structures are described using molecular dynamics simulations that quantify surfactant packing effects and confirm the preference for a density of 5 dodecanethiol molecules per 8 vanadium attachment sites in the synthesised structures. This assembly maintains a remarkably well ordered interlayer spacing, even when curved. The assemblies of interdigitated organic bilayers on V2O5 are shown to be sufficiently flexible to tolerate curvature while maintaining a constant interlayer distance without rupture, delamination or cleavage. The accommodation of curvature and invariant structural integrity points to a beneficial role for oxide-directed organic film packing effects in layered architectures such as stacked nanofibers and hybrid 2D nanosheet systems.
- ItemAchieving good environmental status in the Black Sea: scale mismatches in environmental management(Resilience Alliance., 2014-02) O'Higgins, Tim G.; Farmer, Andrew M.; Daskalov, Georgi; Knudsen, Ståle; Mee, LaurenceThe Black Sea has suffered severe environmental degradation. Governance of the Black Sea region is complex and results in a series of scale mismatches which constrain management. This paper develops a simple classification of spatial scale mismatches incorporating the driver, pressure, state, welfare, response (DPSWR) framework. The scale mismatch classification is applied to two major environmental problems of the Black Sea, eutrophication and small pelagic fisheries. A number of scale mismatches are described and classified and potential solutions are identified.
- ItemAcoustic activity across a seabird colony reflects patterns of within-colony flight rather than nest density(Wiley, 2019-05-18) Arneill, Gavin E.; Critchley, Emma Jane; Wischnewski, Saskia; Jessopp, Mark J.; Quinn, John L.; Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht; Petroleum Infrastructure Programme, PIP, IrelandPassive acoustic monitoring is increasingly being used as a cost‐effective way to study wildlife populations, especially those that are difficult to census using conventional methods. Burrow‐nesting seabirds are among the most threatened birds globally, but they are also one of the most challenging taxa to census, making them prime candidates for research into such automated monitoring platforms. Passive acoustic monitoring has the potential to determine presence/absence or quantify burrow‐nesting populations, but its effectiveness remains unclear. We compared passive acoustic monitoring, tape‐playbacks and GPS tracking data to investigate the ability of passive acoustic monitoring to capture unbiased estimates of within‐colony variation in nest density for the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus. Variation in acoustic activity across 12 study plots on an island colony was examined in relation to burrow density and environmental factors across 2 years. As predicted fewer calls were recorded when wind speed was high, and on moon‐lit nights, but there was no correlation between acoustic activity and the density of breeding birds within the plots as determined by tape‐playback surveys. Instead, acoustic indices correlated positively with spatial variation in the in‐colony flight activity of breeding individuals detected by GPS. Although passive acoustic monitoring has enormous potential in avian conservation, our results highlight the importance of understanding behaviour when using passive acoustic monitoring to estimate density and distribution.
- ItemAdaptive V2G peak shaving and smart charging control for grid integration of PEVs(Taylor & Francis, 2019) Erden, Faith; Kisacikoglu, Mithat C.; Erdogan, NuhThe stochastic nature of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) driving behavior and distribution grid load profile make it challenging to control vehicle-grid integration in a mutually beneficial way. This study proposes a new adaptive control strategy that manages PEV charging/discharging for peak shaving and load leveling in a distribution grid. For accurate and high fidelity transportation mobility modeling, real vehicle driving test data are collected from the field. Considering the estimated total required PEV battery charging energy, the vehicle-to-grid capabilities of PEVs, and the forecasted non-PEV base load, a reference operating point for the grid is estimated. This reference operating point is updated once at the end of peak hours to guarantee a full final state-of-charge to each PEV. Proposed method provides cost-efficient operation for the utility grid, utmost user convenience free from range anxiety, and ease of implementation at the charging station nodes. It is tested on a real residential transformer, which serves approximately one thousand customers, under various PEV penetration levels and charging scenarios. Performance is assessed in terms of meansquare-error and peak shaving index. Results are compared with those of various reference operating point choices and shown to be superior.
- ItemAdding value to EU energy policy analysis using a multi-model approach with an EU-28 electricity dispatch model(Elsevier Ltd., 2017-05-03) Collins, Seán; Deane, John Paul; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.; Science Foundation IrelandThe European Council has agreed ambitious EU climate and energy targets for 2030, including a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels and a minimum share of 27% renewable energy consumption. This paper investigates the challenges faced by the European power systems as the EU transitions towards a low carbon energy system with increased amounts of variable renewable electricity generation. The research here adds value to, and complements the power systems results of the PRIMES energy systems model that is used to inform EU energy and climate policy. The methodology uses a soft-linking approach that scrutinizes the power system in high temporal and technical detail for a target year. This enables generation of additional results that provide new insights not possible using a single model approach. These results point to: 1) overestimation of variable renewable generation by 2.4% 2) curtailment in excess of 11% in isolated member states 3) EU interconnector congestion average of 24% 4) reduced wholesale electricity pricing and few run hours raising concerns for the financial remuneration of conventional generation 5) maintenance of sufficient levels of system inertia in member states becomes challenging with significant penetrations of variable renewable generation.
- ItemAdditive manufacturing for energy storage: Methods, designs and material selection for customizable 3D printed batteries and supercapacitors(Elsevier, 2020-02-24) Gulzar, Umair; Glynn, Colm; O'Dwyer, Colm; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland; Irish Research CouncilAdditive manufacturing and 3D printing in particular have the potential to revolutionize existing fabrication processes, where objects with complex structures and shapes can be built with multifunctional material systems. For electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries and supercapacitors, 3D printing methods allows alternative form factors to be conceived based on the end use application need in mind at the design stage. Additively manufactured energy storage devices require active materials and composites that are printable, and this is influenced by performance requirements and the basic electrochemistry. The interplay between electrochemical response, stability, material type, object complexity and end use application are key to realising 3D printing for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we summarise recent advances and highlight the important role of methods, designs and material selection for energy storage devices made by 3D printing, which is general to the majority of methods in use currently.
- ItemAdvanced biohydrogen production using pretreated industrial waste: outlook and prospects(Elsevier Ltd., 2018-08-16) Prabakar, Desika; Manimudi, Varshini T.; Subha, Suvetha K.; Sampath, Swetha; Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Rajendran, Karthik; Pugazhendhi, ArivalaganIn order to address existing environmental concerns as a result of non-renewable energy sources and to meet future energy demands, biohydrogen offers a suitable alternative energy reserve. Discrete as well as integrative methods of biohydrogen production have been analyzed over time, optimized for achieving high yields. In addition, key process parameters such as temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time, substrate concentration etc., which influence the rate of production have been clarified. Several studies have exploited industrial waste as feed sources for the production of biohydrogen; however, lower yields from these add an additional requirement for suitable pretreatment methods. The present communication examines various pretreatment methods used to increase the accessibility of industrial wastewater/waste for biohydrogen production. Furthermore, a brief overview addresses challenges and constraints in creating a biohydrogen economy. The impacts of pretreating wastes on biohydrogen generation and the latest trends are also supplied. This study helps in the critical understanding of agro-industrial wastes for biohydrogen production, thereby encouraging future outcomes for a sustainable biohydrogen economy.
- ItemAdvancing beyond static representations of movement in spatial analysis(Geographical Information Science Research UK, 2020) Holloway, PaulMethods used to generate movement and couple it with the environment are strongly integrated within GIScience. This study explores how systematically altering the conceptualisation of movement, environmental space, and temporal resolution affects the results of habitat selection analyses using both real-world case studies and simulated data. Only segment conceptualisations modelled the expected movement-environment relationship with increasing linear feature resistance. This suggests that spatial statistics employed to investigate movement-environment relationships should advance beyond conceptualising movement as the (relatively) static conceptualisation of vectors and moves and replace these with (more) dynamic aggregations of longer-lasting movement processes such as segments and areal representations.
- ItemAerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview(Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2010-09-07) Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, John C.; Healy, Robert M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkila, J.; Kulmala, Markku; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Environmental Protection Agency; Higher Education Authority; European CommissionAs part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm(-3), while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm(-3). The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm(-3), was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were highest in marine tropical air - even higher than in continental air. MSA was present at twice the concentrations of previously-reported concentrations at the same location and the same season. Both continental and marine air exhibited aerosol GFs significantly less than ammonium sulphate aerosol pointing to a significant organic contribution to all air mass aerosol properties.
- ItemAggregate potential of Irish south coast offshore palaeovalleys(University College Cork, 2021-04-28) O'Mahony, Evan; Wheeler, Andrew; Lim, Aaron; Science Foundation Ireland; Petroleum Infrastructure Programme (PIP)The southern shelf of offshore Ireland possesses many developed marine based resources such as hydrocarbons and commercial fisheries. Increasing knowledge of the seabed and the processes that cause large scale variation to the morphology and sedimentology is crucial in determining marine aggregate resource potential on the south coast. Qualitative data was processed using a multiproxy geophysical and sedimentological approach, creating detailed seabed maps using bathymetric data supported by ground truthing sedimentsamples. Surficial sediment deposits display a close fit to industry standard aggregates but considerable temporal variance at depth from vibrocore analysis shows variable marine reworking over time. Marine processes off the south coast diminish the aggregate quality of reworked fluvio-glacial deposits as evidence of increased marine reworking causes the replacement of favorable coarse-grained deposits with shell fragments. The southern shelf, at depth shows potential for marine aggregate exploration but variance within the extractable near surface deposits deems it too variable and accurate prediction of areas with high aggregate yield is diminished.
- ItemAgricultural wastes – a promising source for biogas production in developing countries of the tropical and subtropical regions(TEC Tecnológico de Costa Rica, 2018-12-19) Barz, Mirko; Delivand, Mitra K.; Dinkler, Konstantin; Bundesministerium für Bildung und ForschungMost of the so called developing countries are located in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions whilst in contrast, most of the developed countries are in the temperate climate zones. It is expected that a huge increase in the future global energy consumption will be caused by the demand of the developing countries. Caused by the favourable climate conditions in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions the average productivity of biomass is 4 – 5 times higher than that of biomass grown in the temperate regions. Many of the developing countries today are agricultural and agro-industrial countries producing huge amounts of agricultural residues and wastes that can be used as source for energy generation. It is estimated that if only all process-based agricultural residues alone would be used, they could contribute between 25 % and 40 % of the total primary energy demand in such regions. Until now, the huge amount of agricultural waste generated each year in developing countries is a headache for farmers, who are obliged to get rid of it. Open field burning and improper disposal are omnipresent in many regions and pollute the environment. Converting such waste into bioenergy such as biogas by using anaerobic digestion technologies represents an alternative treatment with a promising potential. Such treatment prevents pollution, is producing valuable and climate friendly energy and will contribute to nutrient recovery by using the digestate as fertilizer. The paper will introduce some of the most promising agricultural residues in tropical and subtropical regions which can be used as substrates or co-substrates for biogas production. Results of a research project carried out in Costa Rica will be used as a case study to show the potential of two of the major agricultural residues (pineapple and banana residues) as sources for biogas production. The opportunities and prospects for the dissemination and implementation of new and more developed technologies to improve the efficiency of the technologies will be shown.
- ItemAmplitude-modulated cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with phase-sensitive detection: A new approach applied to the fast and sensitive detection of NO2(ACS Publications, 2022-02-10) Zhou, Jiacheng; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Bo; Cheng, Feihu; Xu, Xuezhe; Ni, Shichuan; Zhang, Weijun; Ye, Chunxiang; Chen, Weidong; Venables, Dean S.; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research; Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of SciencesAccurate and sensitive measurements of NO2 play an extremely important role in atmospheric studies. Increasingly, studies require NO2 measurements with parts per trillion by volume (pptv-level) detection limits. Other desirable instrument attributes include ease of use, long-term stability, and low maintenance. In this work, we report the development of an amplitude-modulated multimode-diode-laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (AM-CEAS) system operating at 406 nm that uses phase-sensitive detection for extremely sensitive NO2 detection. The laser was TTL-modulated at 35 kHz. The mirror reflectivity was determined to be 99.985% based on the ring-down time measurement. The cavity base length was 47.5 cm, giving an effective absorption pathlength of ∼3.26 km. AM-CEAS achieved a 1σ detection precision of 35 pptv in a 1 s data acquisition time (4.98 × 10–10 cm–1), over 4 times lower than that attained using a ring-down approach and the same optical system. The AM-CEAS precision improved to 8 pptv over a data acquisition time of 30 s (1.14 × 10–10 cm–1). The AM-CEAS method with the multimode diode laser integrates the advantages of high light injection efficiency like on-axis alignment cavity ring-down spectroscopy, low cavity-mode noise like off-axis alignment CEAS, and narrow-bandwidth high-sensitivity weak signal detection of modulation spectroscopy, providing a powerful, straightforward, and general method for ultrasensitive absorption and extinction measurements.
- ItemAnalysing evolutionary pathways for the European power system resulting from climate mitigation policy(University College Cork, 2019) Gaffney, Fiac; Deane, Paul; O'Gallachoir, Brian; Bord Gais EnergyThe need for robust analysis of decarbonisation pathways has never been as high or as demanding. Globally, climate action is picking up pace. Yet, its momentum may hinge on informed policy decisions being made in a timely manner. Energy research must provide the analysis for these informed decisions. However, the scientific field lags others such as medicine or economics in moving to more open and reproducible science. The fact that this research is directly relevant to the urgent policy challenge of rapid energy system decarbonisation makes reproducibility of results particularly important. Aligning with this belief, all models and datasets used as part of this thesis are made openly available and accessible. The central focus of this thesis is to understand the effects of climate mitigation policy on Europe’s power sector. The approach applied in this thesis looks back in time as well as forward to capture the learnings from previous marketplace evolutions that may help avoid similar pitfalls in the future. Coupled with insights from a power system already having to endure complete market transformation while attempting to remain fit-for-purpose, this knowledge is the basis for analysing proposed decarbonisation pathways for Europe in terms of policy, regulation, economics and system operation perspectives. Today, policymakers and society are confronted by important decisions regarding the balance between cost equality, economic growth, energy security and climate action on a global scale. The key contributions of this thesis to that decision making process are new insights into the effects of policy decisions on cost inequalities stemmed from cross-border subsidisation of renewable energies, the risk exposures associated with over-reliance on technological development/readiness and finally a better, more well-rounded understanding of power system operational concerns in this brave, new decarbonised world.
- ItemAnalysis of an 18O and D enhanced water spectrum and new assignments for HD18O and D218O in the near-infrared region (6000–7000 cm−1) using newly calculated variational line lists(Elsevier, 2012-12) Down, Michael J.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Orphal, Johannes; Chelin, Pascale; Ruth, Albert A.; Environmental Protection Agency; European Research Council; Natural Environment Research Council, United KingdomAn experimental infrared spectrum due to Orphal and Ruth (2008)  recorded using isotopically enriched water in the 6000–7000 cm−1 region is analysed and assigned. The assignment procedure is based on the use of known transition frequencies for H216O and H218O, existing variational line lists for HD16O and D216O, and newly calculated variational line lists for HD18O and D218O. These new variational line lists are presented herein. The main absorption comes from HD16O and HD18O, for which there are few previous assignments in the region. Assignments to 426 new HD18O lines are presented. In all 3254 of the 4768 lines observed in the spectrum are assigned, resulting in a number of newly determined energy levels. These assignments are in agreement with the recent work of Mikhailenko et al. (2012) .
- ItemAnodic Formation of Nanoporous Indium Phosphide in KOH Electrolytes: Effects of Temperature and Concentration(Electrochemical Society, 2019-01-12) Quill, Nathan; Buckley, D. Noel; O'Dwyer, Colm; Lynch, Robert P.; Irish Research Council; Seventh Framework Programme; FP7 People: Marie-Curie Actions; Science Foundation Ireland; Higher Education AuthorityAnodization of n-InP electrodes was carried out over a range of temperatures and KOH concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy showed <111>A aligned pore growth with pore width decreasing as the temperature was increased. This variation is explained in terms of the relative rates of electrochemical reaction and hole diffusion and supports the three-step model proposed earlier. As temperature is increased, both the areal density and width of surface pits decrease resulting in a large increase in the current density through the pits. This explains an observed decrease in porous layer thickness: pits sustain mass transport at the necessary rate for a shorter time before precipitation of etch products blocks the pores. As the concentration of KOH is increased, both pore width and layer thickness decrease to minima at ∼9 mol dm−3 after which they again increase. This variation of pore width is also explained by the three-step model and the variation in layer thickness is explained by mass transport effects. Layer porosity follows a similar trend to pore width, further supporting the three-step model. A transition from porous layer formation to planar etching is observed below 2 mol dm−3 KOH, and this is also explained by the three-step model.
- ItemAntimicrobial activities and diversity of sponge derived microbes(University College Cork, 2013) Flemer, Burkhardt; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O'Gara, Fergal; Marine InstituteIn this study, marine sponges collected in Irish waters were analysed for their associated microbiota. Of the approximately 240 bacterial isolates obtained from two sponges several showed antimicrobial activity; among them members of genera which have rarely been shown to produce antimicrobial compounds. Differences observed from the sponge-derived groups of isolates in terms of bioactivity suggests that S. carnosus isolates may be a better source of antibacterial compounds, while Leucosolenia sp. isolates appear to be a better source of antifungal compounds. More than 60% of fungal isolates obtained from 12 sponge samples proved to be bioactive. One of the isolates, which was closely related to Fusarium oxysporum and showed activity against bacteria and fungi, was investigated for its secondary metabolite genes. At least 5 different NRPS genes, with a sequence similarity as low as 50 % to known genes, were identified highlighting the likelihood that this isolate may be capable of producing novel secondary metabolites. A Micromonospora sp. was isolated from a Haliclona simulans sample collected in Irish waters. The isolate inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacterial test strains in three different antimicrobial assays. Employing preparative layer chromatography the compound responsible for the bioactivity could be isolated. According to LC-MS andNMR data the bioactive compound could indeed be novel. Finally, two deep water sponges were shown to host a remarkably different bacterial and archaeal diversity by application of 454 Pyrosequencing. The L. diversichela –proteobacterial community was dominated by a single ƴ-proteobacterial bacterium whereas the S. normani sample hosted a largely sponge specific microbial community, even more diverse than has been previously reported for shallow water sponges. Organisms potentially involved in nitrification, sulphate reduction and secondary metabolite production were found to be spatially distributed in the sponge. Furthermore, a deep sea specific population was implied.
- ItemApplication of Marine Spatial Planning tools for tidal stream farm micro-siting(Elsevier, 2022-02-11) Álvarez, M.; Ramos, V.; Carballo, R.; López, I.; Fouz, D. M.; Iglesias, Gregorio; Xunta de Galicia; Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte; Fundação para a Ciência e a TecnologiaThe operation of tidal stream energy farms may interfere with other uses of the marine space, especially in depth-limited areas (estuaries, rivers, etc.) which are typically subject to multiple demands of use. The Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) was passed by the European Commission in 2014 to ensure a harmonic coexistence between different maritime activities and to protect the marine environment. In this context, the objective of this work is to present a methodology based on MSP tools for tidal-farm siting in depth-limited areas. The methodology is illustrated through a case study: Ria de Ribadeo, a shallow-water estuary in NW Spain. Having considered a number of uses (archaeological, biodiversity, fishing, aquaculture, recreational and navigation), two exploitable tidal farm sites (Areas A and C) with annual energy densities of 1 were found. The estuary is periodically dredged to maintain navigation. Dredging-related risks were analysed using a novel indicator, the Dredging Associated Risk (DAR), based on which Area C was discarded and Area A had its exploitable surface area reduced by 25%. In sum, the methodology proposed was proven to be effective for tidal stream farm planning.
- ItemAn approach to ecosystem-based management in maritime spatial planning process(Elsevier Ltd., 2017-04-21) Ansong, Joseph O.; Gissi, E.; Calado, H.; European CommissionSustainable development is the framing concept assuring that resources are exploited while maintaining the ability of these natural resources to provide for future generations. With human dependence on marine resources increasing, Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) has been identified as a suitable approach to ensure sustainable development. In order to achieve this, the core principles and elements of EBM should be operational in the maritime/marine spatial planning (MSP) process to ensure that human activities in marine space are ordered to attain ecological, economic and social objectives. However, policies from various states and organizations sometimes do not set a clear precedence for translating principles of EBM and present different and complex approaches to an ecosystem-based marine spatial planning (EB-MSP). Again, a feasible methodology for EBM to be operational in MSP is still vague. This paper therefore presents results from a survey and review of MSP initiatives in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Results showed that essential MSP steps and elements such as adaptive management, setting of planning boundaries, understanding and analysing the ecosystem and future conditions are not fully operational. This paper focuses on a methodology for EB-MSP and gives recommendations on how to ensure that EBM is operational at each stage of an MSP process. It stresses the importance of setting planning boundaries beyond jurisdictional borders to consider bio/eco-regions and cover near-shore waters, the need to have a cross-sector integration, understanding the ecosystem through having an ecosystem service perspective and having a legal framework to ensure that results from monitoring and evaluating of plans are adapted through review and revision.