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- ItemFactors influencing the variation in GMS prescribing expenditure in Ireland(BioMed Central Ltd, 2016-03-29) ConwayLenihan, Aisling; Ahern, S.; Moore, Stephen; Cronin, Jodi; Woods, NoelBackground: Pharmaceutical expenditure growth is a familiar feature in many Western health systems and is a real concern for policymakers. A state funded General Medical Services (GMS) scheme in Ireland experienced an increase in prescription expenditure of 414 % between 1998 and 2012. This paper seeks to explore the rationale for this growth by investigating the composition (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Group level 1 & 5) and drivers of GMS drug expenditure in Ireland in 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on the Health Service Executive-Primary Care Reimbursement Service (HSE-PCRS) population prescribing database (n = 1,630,775). Three models were applied to test the association between annual expenditure per claimant whilst controlling for age, sex, region, and the pharmacology of the drugs as represented by the main ATC groups. Results: The mean annual cost per claimant was €751 (median = €211; SD = €1323.10; range = €3.27–€298,670). Age, sex, and regions were all significant contributory factors of expenditure, with gender having the greatest impact (β = 0.107). Those aged over 75 (β =1.195) were the greatest contributors to annual GMS prescribing costs. As regards regions, the South has the greatest cost increasing impact. When the ATC groups were included the impact of gender is diluted by the pharmacology of the products, with cardiovascular prescribing (ATC ‘C’) most influential (β = 1.229) and the explanatory power of the model increased from 40 % to 60 %. Conclusion: Whilst policies aimed at cost containment (co-payment charges; generic substitution; reference pricing; adjustments to GMS eligibility) can be used to curtail expenditure, health promotional programs and educational interventions should be given equal emphasis. Also policies intended to affect physicians’ prescribing behaviour include guidelines, information (about price and less expensive alternatives) and feedback, and the use of budgetary restrictions could yield savings in Ireland and can be easily translated to the international context.
- ItemA cost-effectiveness analysis of community water fluoridation for schoolchildren.(Springer, 2021-03-25) Cronin, Jodi; Moore, Stephen; Harding, Máiréad; Whelton, Helen; Woods, Noel; Health Research BoardBackground: Community water fluoridation (CWF), the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply for the prevention of dental caries (tooth decay), is considered a safe and effective public health intervention. The Republic of Ireland (Ireland) is the only country in Europe with a legislative mandate for the fluoridation of the public water supply, a key component of its oral health policy. However, more recently, there has been an increase in public concern around the relevance of the intervention given the current environment of multiple fluoride sources and a reported increase in the prevalence of enamel fluorosis. The aim of this economic analysis is to provide evidence to inform policy decisions on whether the continued public investment in community water fluoridation remains justified under these altered circumstances. Methods: Following traditional methods of economic evaluation and using epidemiological data from a representative sample of 5-, 8-, and 12-year-old schoolchildren, this cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted from the health-payer perspective, compared the incremental costs and consequences associated with the CWF intervention to no intervention for schoolchildren living in Ireland in 2017. A probabilistic model was developed to simulate the potential lifetime treatment savings associated with the schoolchildren’s exposure to the intervention for one year. Results: In 2017, approximately 71% of people living in Ireland had access to a publicly provided fluoridated water supply at an average per capita cost to the state of €2.15. The total cost of CWF provision to 5-, 8-, and 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 148,910) was estimated at €320,664, and the incremental cost per decayed, missing, or filled tooth (d3vcmft/D3vcMFT) prevented was calculated at €14.09. The potential annual lifetime treatment savings associated with caries prevented for this cohort was estimated at €2.95 million. When the potential treatment savings were included in the analysis, the incremental cost per d3vcmft/D3vcMFT prevented was -€115.67, representing a cost-saving to the health-payer and a positive return on investment. The results of the analysis were robust to both deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: Despite current access to numerous fluoride sources and a reported increase in the prevalence of enamel fluorosis, CWF remains a cost-effective public health intervention for Irish schoolchildren.
- ItemComparing oral health systems for children in six European countries to identify lessons learned for universal oral health coverage: A study protocol.(2022-01-17) McAuliffe, Úna; Woods, Noel; Barrett, Shauna; Cronin, Jodi; Whelton, Helen; Harding, Máiréad; Eaton, Kenneth; Burke, Sara; Health Research BoardBackground: Oral diseases have the highest global prevalence rate among all diseases, with dental caries being one of the most common conditions in childhood. A low political priority coupled with a failure to incorporate oral health within broader health systems has contributed to its neglect in previous decades. In response, calls are emerging for the inclusion of oral health within the universal healthcare domain (UHC). This protocol outlines the methodology for a cross-country comparative analysis of publicly funded oral health systems for children across six European countries, reporting on oral health status in line with the indicators for UHC. Methods: This study will follow Yin’s multiple case study approach and employ two strands of data collection, analysis, and triangulation: a systematic documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with elite participants local to each country. The countries chosen for comparison and providing a representative sample of European dental systems are Denmark, Hungary, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, Scotland, and Spain. A systematic search of five electronic databases and four additional electronic resources will be undertaken, in addition to grey literature and other publicly available sources, with the outcomes verified and further informed by local experts. The WHO Universal Health Coverage Cube will be used to guide data collection and analysis. Conclusions: This research will provide policy makers with an in-depth analysis and comparison of publicly funded oral health systems for children in Europe, including consideration of effective preventive strategies, oral health system reform, and indicators of universal oral health coverage. It is anticipated that the outcomes may help in positioning oral health on governmental health agendas and support its integration into wider health systems’ reform in an accessible and affordable manner.
- ItemAll you need to know about 'buy now, pay later' services(Raidió Teilifís Éireann, 2021-11-16) McCarthy, Olive
- ItemThe role of multinational and trading enterprises in employment and the gender pay gap: evidence from Finland(UNCTAD, 2018-12) Luomaranta, Henri; Cantu-Bazaldua, Fernando; MacFeely, Stephen; Peltola, AnuThis paper constructs and analyses a set of novel indicators on gender equality in the business sector, which focus on multinational enterprises and foreign traders in Finland. The descriptive analysis reveals large differences in the share of women and men employed in the best paying professions, especially in multinationals. Dynamic analysis shows that foreign investment typically results in pay increases for males, while this is not true for women. These disparities are strongest among managers and professionals working in the most profitable firms. A blueprint is provided for linking business statistics and social statistics to enable analyses of gender inequalities in the labour market