ItemProduction of advanced gaseous biomethane transport fuel in an integrated circular bioenergy system(Environmental Protection Agency, 2023-04) Kang, Xihui; Lin, Richen; Wu, Benteng; Dobson, Alan; Murphy, Jerry D.; Environmental Protection AgencyThis report proposes an anaerobic digestion (AD)-centred integrated circular bioeconomy system for the production of advanced fuels (biomethane or biomethanol), medium-chain fatty acids (such as caproic acid), biofertiliser and biochar (with potential application for negative emission technology). ItemLooking for a simplified approach for the propagation of systematic uncertainty in the motion response of a floater(IOP Publishing, 2022-11) Gueydon, S.; Lyden, Eoin; Judge, Frances M.; O'Shea, Michael; Murphy, Jimmy; Horizon 2020This new research considers the 3 main motions of the moored floater (surge, heave and pitch) in head waves and it explores ways to estimate the systematic uncertainties on the RAOs, and 2 other metrics for these signals. Based on linear hydrostatics and the linear potential flow theory, simple relations can be found that bind the main characteristics of a floater. These relations are transformed using linear algebra to express how uncertainty bias on the main characteristics of the tested system can be propagated to the motion responses of the floater. Thanks to this approach, variations of the mooring stiffness, position of the centre of mass, radia of gyration can be represented through simple formulations that allow to very effectively assess their impact of the motion RAOs and other metrics. This approach is verified by comparing simulation and test results of the semisubmersible of the MARINET2 floating wind round robin campaign to approximations deduced from these theoretical relations. ItemComparative realistic objectives oriented optimization framework for EV charging scheduling in a distribution system(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022-05-18) Güldorum, Hilmi Cihan; Erenoğlu, Ayşe Kübra; Erdinç, Ozan; Şengör, İbrahim; Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu; Türkiye Bilimler AkademisiThe integration of large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) into the distribution system has emerged as a critical topic of research with the proliferation of EVs over the years. To mitigate the negative effects of EVs on the distribution system (DS), in this study, the optimal operation of an EVPL is investigated with a model in the form of mixed-integer quadratic constrained programming (MIQCP) that aims to minimize a variety of realistic objectives including active power losses, charging cost or voltage deviations while taking DS constraints into account. Also, uncertain behavior of the EVPL has been considered via machine-learning based forecasting by using historic data. The effectiveness of the proposed model has been evaluated using a 33-bus test system with 15-minute time granularity and compared to models that had various objective functions. ItemBeyond car efficiency and electrification: Examining the role of demand reduction, public transit, and active travel measures to reduce GHG emissions in transport(2021) O'Riordan, Vera; Daly, Hannah; Mac Uidhir, Tomás; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.; Rogan, Fionn; Climate and Energy Modelling ServicesThis paper applies a data set of passenger kilometre transport demand by trip-purpose, mode type and tripdistance based on the outcomes of a National Travel Survey. The Irish Passenger Transport Emissions and Mobility (IPTEM) model enables a system-wide perspective on various measures which could be introduced to reduce passenger transport emissions. Combined with the LEAP Ireland 2050 energy systems simulation model, the carbon abatement potential of trip-purpose based policies, modal shift policies and technology improvements in public transport can be assessed. The results indicate that significant savings can be achieved from modal shift in Ireland, and that trip-purpose based targets and policies have a relevance in the effort to reduce Ireland’s energy related transport CO2 emissions. The active mode scenarios, which focus on increased walking and cycling achieve a 0.2 – 1 MTCO2 reduction in annual passenger transport emissions in 2030. The range of public transport scenarios, inspired by targets set out by the Irish Government’s Climate Action Plan achieve a between 0.001 – 0.3 MTCO2 reduction in annual passenger transport emissions in 2030. In addition, traffic camera data is used to model the impact of COVID-19 travel restrictions on transport CO2 emissions. The calculated reduction in transport CO2 emissions is 3.9 MTCO2 for 2020 and 2021. This study highlights the importance of factoring modal shift, trip distance and trip purpose into scenario analysis for transport emissions reduction, as it provides a framework for looking beyond only improving technologies in private vehicle transport. ItemAdvancing beyond static representations of movement in spatial analysis(Geographical Information Science Research UK, 2020) Holloway, PaulMethods used to generate movement and couple it with the environment are strongly integrated within GIScience. This study explores how systematically altering the conceptualisation of movement, environmental space, and temporal resolution affects the results of habitat selection analyses using both real-world case studies and simulated data. Only segment conceptualisations modelled the expected movement-environment relationship with increasing linear feature resistance. This suggests that spatial statistics employed to investigate movement-environment relationships should advance beyond conceptualising movement as the (relatively) static conceptualisation of vectors and moves and replace these with (more) dynamic aggregations of longer-lasting movement processes such as segments and areal representations.