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    How to… get started with theory in education
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018-07-15) Johnston, Jenny; Bennett, Deirdre; Kajamaa, Anu
    This paper, on using theory in health professions education research, is the second in a series that aims to support novice researchers within clinical education, particularly those undertaking their first qualitative study. Diving into the world of education theory can be challenging and uncomfortable for clinician-educators. Nonetheless, theory is an essential ingredient in high-quality research, shaping everything from research questions to study design, analysis and, ultimately, the interpretation of findings. We hope that this paper, introducing different levels of theory and examples of how to use theory, will shed light on how theory can be used in research, and that it will help you in getting to grips with using theory in your own work.
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    Recommendations for blood sampling in emergency departments from the European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM), European Society for Emergency Nursing (EuSEN), and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase. Executive summary
    (De Gruyter, 2024-04-08) Garcia-Castrillo, Luis; Cadamuro, Janne; Dodt, Christoph; Lauwaert, Door; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Van Der Linden, Christien; Bergs, Jochen; Costelloe, Sean; Grossmann, Florian; Koca, Ayca; Palomäki, Ari; Ruiz, Jose Luis; Stonys, Ricardas; Thorsteinsdottir, Thordís Katrín; von Meyer, Alexander; Vermeersch, Pieter; Abellas Alvarez, Maria Concepción; Eker, Pinar; Golea, Adela; Kurland, Lisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Zhilenkova, Yulia; Sehmi, Kawaldip; BD
    Aim: Blood Sampling Guidelines have been developed to target European emergency medicine-related professionals involved in the blood sampling process (e.g. physicians, nurses, phlebotomists working in the ED), as well as laboratory physicians and other related professionals. The guidelines population focus on adult patients. The development of these blood sampling guidelines for the ED setting is based on the collaboration of three European scientific societies that have a role to play in the preanalytical phase process: EuSEN, EFLM, and EUSEM. The elaboration of the questions was done using the PICO procedure, literature search and appraisal was based on the GRADE methodology. The final recommendations were reviewed by an international multidisciplinary external review group. Results: The document includes the elaborated recommendations for the selected sixteen questions. Three in pre-sampling, eight regarding sampling, three post-sampling, and two focus on quality assurance. In general, the quality of the evidence is very low, and the strength of the recommendation in all the questions has been rated as weak. The working group in four questions elaborate the recommendations, based mainly on group experience, rating as good practice. Conclusions: The multidisciplinary working group was considered one of the major contributors to this guideline. The lack of quality information highlights the need for research in this area of the patient care process. The peculiarities of the emergency medical areas need specific considerations to minimise the possibility of errors in the preanalytical phase.
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    Examining motivation of first-year undergraduate anatomy students through the lens of Universal Design for Learning (UDL): A single institution study
    (Springer, 2023-07-05) Dempsey, Audrey M. K.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Lone, Mutahira; Hunt, Eithne; Irish Research eLibrary
    Motivation is critical for meaningful learning among healthcare students studying anatomy. Learners are highly variable, and it is important to ensure learners are equally supported in the diverse aspects of an anatomy curriculum. The implementation of the educational framework, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), in anatomy curricula could potentially enhance student motivation. The multiple means of engagement principle of UDL refers to the enhancement of motivation among students. This study aimed to identify healthcare students’ motivation levels at the start and end of their anatomy module and whether there was any change in motivation. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was distributed to gather the self-reported motivation levels of first-year undergraduate medical, dental and occupational therapy (OT) and speech and language therapy (SLT) students studying anatomy at the start of their respective anatomy modules and again at the end of the module. The overall response rate was 74% and 69%, at the start and end of the study, respectively. Responses were analysed by the respective programme of study. Motivation to study anatomy among medical, dental, OT and SLT students ranged from medium to high on the MSLQ at the start of their respective anatomy modules. By the end of the anatomy modules, dental students reported high levels of motivation to study anatomy, whereas motivation among medical, OT and SLT students ranged from medium to high. A change in students’ self-reported motivation levels while studying anatomy was identified. The study emphasises the benefits of UDL and its flexible nature to enhance motivation.
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    Awareness of Universal Design for Learning among anatomy educators in higher level institutions in the Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom
    (Wiley, 2022-09-07) Dempsey, Audrey M. K.; Hunt, Eithne; Lone, Mutahira; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Irish Research eLibrary
    There is an increasing need to facilitate enhanced student engagement in anatomy education. Higher education students differ in academic preferences and abilities and so, not all teaching strategies suit all students. Therefore, it is suggested that curricula design and delivery adapt to sustain learner engagement. Enhanced learner engagement is a fundamental feature of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The aim of this study is to determine if anatomy educators in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and United Kingdom (UK) are aware of UDL and to assess if, and to what extent, it has been implemented in the design and delivery of anatomy curricula for healthcare students. An anonymous online questionnaire was administered to anatomy educators in higher level institutions in the ROI and UK. Inductive content analysis was used to identify the impact of UDL on student learning, engagement, and motivation, as perceived by the participants. The response rate was 23% (n = 61). Nineteen participants stated they knew of UDL. Of these, 15 had utilized UDL in their teaching of anatomy. Analysis indicated that the perception of UDL was mixed. However, the majority of responses relating to UDL were positive. The majority of the respondents were unaware of UDL but identified the frameworks' checkpoints within their curriculum, suggesting they have unknowingly incorporated elements of UDL in their curriculum design and delivery. There is a lack of information on the benefits of explicit utilization of UDL for engagement and motivation to learn anatomy in healthcare programs in the ROI and UK.
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    Implementation of a Frailty Care Bundle (FCB) targeting mobilisation, nutrition and cognitive engagement to reduce hospital associated decline in older orthopaedic trauma patients: pretest-posttest intervention study
    (Hylonome Publications, 2024-03) Naughton, Corina; de Foubert, Marguerite; Cummins, Helen; McCullagh, Ruth; Wills, Teresa; Skelton, Dawn A.; Dahly, Darren; O’Mahony, Denis; Ahern, Emer; Tedesco, Salvatore; Sullivan, Bridie O.; Health Research Board; Health Service Executive
    Objective: To implement and evaluate a Frailty Care Bundle (FCB) targeting mobilisation, nutrition, and cognition in older trauma patients to reduce hospital associated decline. Methods: We used a two group, pretest-posttest design. The FCB intervention was delivered on two orthopaedic wards and two rehabilitation wards, guided by behaviour change theory (COM-B) to implement changes in ward routines (patient mobility goals, nurse assisted mobilisation, mealtimes, communication). Primary outcomes were patient participants' return to pre-trauma functional capability (modified Barthel Index - mBI) at 6-8 weeks post-hospital discharge and average hospital daily step-count. Statistical analysis compared pre versus post FCB group differences using ordinal regression and log-linear models. Results: We recruited 120 patients (pre n=60 and post n=60), and 74 (pre n=43, post n=36) were retained at follow-up. Median age was 78 years and 83% were female. There was a non-significant trend for higher mBI scores (improved function) in the post compared to pre FCB group (OR 2.29, 95% CI 0.98-5.36), associated with an average 11% increase in step-count. Conclusion: It was feasible, during the Covid-19 pandemic, for multidisciplinary teams to implement elements of the FCB. Clinical facilitation supported teams to prioritise fundamental care above competing demands, but sustainability requires ongoing attention. ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN15145850 (https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15145850)