Energy Engineering - Journal Articles

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    Tidal stream energy potential in the Shannon Estuary
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-12-18) Fouz, D. M.; Carballo, R.; López, I.; Iglesias, Gregorio; European Regional Development Fund; Xunta de Galicia
    The tidal and river in-stream energy resource in the Shannon Estuary (W Ireland) is investigated using of high-resolution numerical modelling and spatial analysis. Although freshwater discharges are large, their influence on the available resource is found to be all but negligible, the tide being the main driver of estuarine circulation. The Tidal Stream Exploitability (TSE) index is adapted to the analysis of estuaries with non-depth-limited areas (TSEndl), such as the Shannon Estuary, and then used to select the hotspots with potential for a tidal stream farm. For this purpose, a new depth penalty-limiting function is defined to avoid overestimating the available energy potential in areas with depths greater than those required for tidal energy converter operation. Seven hotspots are identified based on the revised index. The approach followed in this study illustrates the applicability of high-resolution numerical modelling and spatial analysis for identifying the most appropriate areas for tidal stream energy conversion. Finally, the potential of tidal stream energy to contribute to the much-needed decarbonisation of the energy mix in Ireland is emphasized.
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    A holistic methodology for hydrokinetic energy site selection
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2022-04-25) Fouz, D. M.; Carballo, R.; López, I.; Iglesias, Gregorio; European Regional Development Fund; Xunta de Galicia
    Hydrokinetic energy can contribute to diversify and decarbonise the energy mix in many coastal regions, in particular estuaries. These are typically areas of high environmental value and with intense socioeconomic activity. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive methodology for selecting the optimum locations for hydrokinetic energy exploitation, by considering all the relevant aspects which affect the decision-making process, and improve the current available procedures. The methodology is centred around a novel holistic index, the Integrated Hydrokinetic Energy (IHE) index, which considers: (i) the exploitable resource, (ii) the costs of installation, and (iii) the socioeconomic and environmental aspects. The approach is illustrated through a case study in the Shannon Estuary, on the west coast of Ireland. It is shown that the application of this methodology facilitates the planning and reduces the uncertainties in the development of a hydrokinetic farm project.
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    The structural modification and rehydration behaviours of milk protein isolate powders: The effect of granule growth in the high shear granulation process
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2016-05-30) Ji, Junfu; Cronin, Kevin; Fitzpatrick, John; Maguire, Pierce; Zhang, Hongzhou; Miao, Song; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland
    The effects of granule growth in high shear granulation on the structures and rehydration abilities of milk protein powders were investigated. In this study, milk protein isolate, as a model powder, was agglomerated in a high shear granulator. The formed granules with different sizes were used to compare the densities, granule shapes and subsequently the wettability, dispersibility and solubility. It is found that the small nuclei showed the most compacted structures. Then the primary agglomerates coalesced to create irregular secondary structures with lower density and higher porosity until the final agglomerates formed. The densely packed structures allowed the granules to be more easily wetted by water. The large granules showed quicker release of materials into water until reaching a critical size, where more mechanical energy is potentially required for further granule break down. All the agglomerated MPI granules solubilised much more slowly than the standard MPI powder.
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    Wave power extraction from a hybrid oscillating water column-oscillating buoy wave energy converter
    (Elsevier B.V., 2020-08-23) Cui, Lin; Zheng, Siming; Zhang, Yongliang; Miles, Jon; Iglesias, Gregorio; European Regional Development Fund; National Natural Science Foundation of China
    Oscillating water column (OWC) devices and oscillating buoys (OBs) are two of the main types of wave energy converters (WECs). In this paper a hybrid oscillating water column-oscillating buoy wave energy converter is proposed, which we have named OWCOB. The oscillating buoy is hinged at the outer wall of the oscillating water column. As waves propagate through the OWCOB, the water column within the OWC chamber moves up and down, producing air flow to propel a turbine. Meanwhile, the oscillation of the OB drives a separate hydraulic system. To solve the wave diffraction and radiation problems of the OWCOB and investigate its energy capture performance, an analytical model is developed based on linear potential flow theory and the eigenfunction matching method. Assuming that the PTOs of the OWC and OB are both linear, the wave power extraction of the OWCOB is evaluated in the frequency domain. Of the two configurations considered, the OWCOB with the OWC opening waveward and the OB hinged leeward is found to have a broader primary frequency band of wave power capture compared to the OWCOB with the OWC opening and the OB on the same side. Further, a thorough sensitivity analysis of power capture is carried out considering the main design parameters (size and submergence of the OWC opening, distance between the OWC and the OB, OB hinge elevation, OB radius), which can form the basis of an optimization study for a particular wave climate. Importantly, we find that the OWCOB performs generally better than stand-alone OWCs and OBs, not least in terms of frequency bandwidth.
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    Least cost energy system pathways towards 100% renewable energy in Ireland by 2050
    (Elsevier B.V., 2020-07-03) Yue, Xiufeng; Patankar, Neha; Decarolis, Joseph; Chiodi, Alessandro; Rogan, Fionn; Deane, J. P.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.; Science Foundation Ireland; National Science Foundation; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; NTR Foundation, Ireland; National Natural Science Foundation of China
    Studies focusing on 100% renewable energy systems have emerged in recent years; however, existing studies tend to focus only on the power sector using exploratory approaches. This paper therefore undertakes a whole-system approach and explores optimal pathways towards 100% renewable energy by 2050. The analysis is carried out for Ireland, which currently has the highest share of variable renewable electricity on a synchronous power system. Large numbers of scenarios are developed using the Irish TIMES model to address uncertainties. Results show that compared to decarbonization targets, focusing on renewable penetration without considering carbon capture options is significantly less cost effective in carbon mitigation. Alternative assumptions on bioenergy imports and maximum variability in power generation lead to very different energy mixes in bioenergy and electrification levels. All pathways suggest that indigenous bioenergy needs to be fully exploited and the current annual deployment rate of renewable electricity needs a boost. Pathways relying on international bioenergy imports are slightly cheaper and faces less economic and technical challenges. However, given the large future uncertainties, it is recommended that further policy considerations be given to pathways with high electrification levels as they are more robust towards uncertainties.