ItemThe efficient market hypothesis applied to greyhound racing(University College Cork, 2022) Gaine, Bill; Butler, Robert; Butler, DavidDespite a growing amount of literature applying the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) in sports betting markets (Angelini, Angelis, Singleton, 2019, Brechot and Flepp, 2020). Many sports, like horse racing, could be subject to corruption through shirking (Goodwin and Corral, 1996). Greyhound racing provides a unique sporting environment when testing betting market efficiency, where shirking is almost impossible. This study applies EMH to anecdotal evidence from the greyhound racing industry. A longstanding anecdotal belief in greyhound racing is that a dog placed in Trap Four of the six possible traps is the coffin trap. This belief implies that being in Trap Four reduces the chance of success in any given contest. This study used multiple iterations of a Poisson regression to perform three distinctive groups of regressions. This first included Pre-Race variables; the second included the determinants of finishing position: within-race bends, and finally, the third factored in the determinants of finishing position: trap dummies. The “coffin trap” theory holds weight; Trap Four significantly predicted race outcomes across each regression. Trap Three was also significant across most regressions, showing that it could also be considered a coffin trap. Interestingly, when either Trap Three or Trap Four were removed, either trap came out with an advantage over the other traps, indicating that avoiding crowding was crucial in determining race outcome. Greyhound racing provides a unique area to further investigate the EMH in sports betting markets without corruption through shirking. This study could be furthered in the future by incorporating the jurisdictions of Ireland and Australia and diverse types of races from different distances, hurdles or handicap races. ItemInteractive linkages, non-interactive linkages, and innovative activity in the offshore renewable energy sector(University College Cork, 2021) Barrett, Shane; Crowley, Frank; Doran, Justin; O'Connor, Mari; European Regional Development Fund; Ireland Wales Cooperation Programme; The Selkie ProjectPrevious firm level studies have provided evidence of a positive relationship between external knowledge linkages (interactive and non-interactive) and innovative activity. However, empirical evidence for the offshore renewable energy sector remains scarce. Using novel firm level data from a purpose-built survey, this paper examines the effect external linkages has on innovative activity. We find that more interactive linkages are positively related to more innovative activity. However, this relationship is subject to diminishing returns. In contrast, a significant relationship is absent for increased levels of non-interactive linkages and innovative activity. When the type of linkages is disaggregated to individual indicators, collaborating with suppliers, consultants, and accessing scientific journals are conducive for R&D activity and process innovation. Collaborating with customers is associated with the decision to introduce new products and processes. This paper suggests policymakers support backward linkages to suppliers and consultants by providing tax incentives for external R&D collaborations. ItemAn examination of the deprivation amplification hypothesis: an application to GAA pitches in Ireland(University College Cork, 2022-05-06) O'Mullane, Colm; Butler, Robert; Butler, David; Eakins, JohnResearch Question – This study analyses the levels of accessibility to GAA pitches and aims to discern whether those who live in more deprived areas have worse levels of accessibility, in line with the deprivation amplification hypothesis proposed by Macintyre (2007). The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) has existed since 1884 and is the governing body for indigenous Irish sports such as hurling and Gaelic football. GAA pitches are quite well dispersed throughout the country, which makes them ideal to gauge the levels of accessibility. Results and Findings – The likelihood of a GAA pitch being located in an electoral division is not affected by deprivation. It is found that in the majority of cases those living in more deprived areas do not have worse levels of accessibility to a GAA pitch. Those living in more deprived areas have a shorter distance to travel to a GAA pitch in an urban electoral division, but a longer distance to travel to a GAA pitch in a rural electoral division. Implications and Recommendations – The results of this study offer insights into the levels of accessibility for sport facilities in Ireland. These results can inform the strategic decision making of sporting bodies such as the GAA, as well as the Irish government and policymakers in regard to the allocation of sports funding and grants, as well as the location of new sporting facilities. ItemAre players born earlier in the calendar year more likely to experience elite dropout?(University College Cork, 2021) Buckley, Timothy Cathal; Butler, David; Butler, Robert; Jordan, DeclanThe relative age effect (RAE) has been consistently documented among elite football players at youth level but has been shown to dissipate at senior level. This research explores whether players born earlier in the calendar year, initially selected to play at an elite level, are more likely to be identified as dropouts at a later date. Statistical analysis is used to test for the presence and extent of RAE from a sample of almost 9,000 elite underage national league football players in the Republic of Ireland. Results reveal a bias towards players born early in the calendar year, and in the first quarter in particular. The bias is most pronounced at the youngest age group included in the analysis, at U15 level. Further statistical analysis assesses the differences between the observed distribution of births of 163 players who were identified as dropouts and the expected distribution of births. Players born earlier in the calendar year are also found to be more likely to be identified as dropouts from underage national league football in the Republic of Ireland. In comparison, their relatively younger counterparts, although less likely to be selected to play at an elite level initially, are significantly less likely to be identified as dropouts. Recommendations made based on the results include adopting a more strategic and long-term approach to be adopted during the initial player selection processes, and further education of coaches regarding youth development as well as the presence and consequences of RAE. ItemAn investigation of the determinants of demand for UEFA qualifiers from 2012 to 2017(University College Cork, 2021) Pearson, Colm; Butler, David; Butler, RobertThis research investigates the determinants of demand for UEFA international football qualifiers from 2012 to 2017, inclusive. Previous research suggests competitive balance, economic factors, quality of viewing, and scheduling are important factors in increasing domestic football attendance. To date, limited attention has been paid to these factors and international football matches. This thesis uses a linear multivariable approach to explain the volatility of attendance by UEFA members for the 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifiers. Using secondary data 541 UEFA qualifying matches are analysed. Each of UEFA’s fifty-five members are included in the sample and the dataset incorporates all group and play off fixtures for each qualifying campaign. The results show that stadium quality, increases in income, team quality and significant matches substantially increase attendance. In addition, the findings reject the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. There is no evidence that supporters appreciate outcome uncertainty in the short run. Interestingly, eliminations are found to be a significant deterrent to attend international fixtures in the UEFA region.