Applied Psychology - Journal Articles

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    Adverse childhood experiences in a cohort of adults experiencing homelessness
    (The Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI), 2022-04) Lambert, Sharon; Murphy, Raegan; Gill-Emerson, Graham; Horan , Aidan; Naughton, AnnaMarie
    The article explores the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on adults who are currently experiencing homelessness. It examines the prevalence of ACEs in a homeless population and their relationship with current health status. It is reported that the research was conducted in Ireland and focused on understanding the unique experiences of homeless individuals who have a history of trauma and adversity.
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    Puberty and the evolution of developmental science
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-03-14) Worthman, Carol M.; Dockray, Samantha; Marceau, Kristine
    In recent decades, theoretical and methodological advances have operated synergistically to advance understanding of puberty and prompt increasingly comprehensive models that engage with the temporal, psychosocial, and biological dimensions of this maturational milepost. This integrative overview discusses these theoretical and methodological advances and their implications for research and intervention to promote human development in the context of changing maturational schedules and massive ongoing social transformations.
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    Interdisciplinary work is essential for research on puberty: Complexity and dynamism in action
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-03-14) Susman, Elizabeth J.; Marceau, Kristine; Dockray, Samantha; Ram, Nilam
    Puberty is associated with changes in behavior and psychosocial well‐being, and is important in lifelong health. We present five different facets regarding interdisciplinary research that are important to puberty. A short history of philosophical issues instrumental in promoting early interdisciplinary research is first presented. We discuss then what is hard and what is easy about interdisciplinary research, the purpose of which is to alert scientists to challenges and opportunities for interdisciplinary research on puberty. Readers then are introduced to advances and obstacles in interdisciplinary research on development. Recommendations for tailoring graduate education toward interdisciplinarity are introduced. Finally, issues related to publication, education of scientists, and policy makers are described. The report concludes with a discussion of funding and policy issues.
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    Psychosocial correlates in treatment seeking gamblers: Differences in early age onset gamblers vs later age onset gamblers
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019) Sharman, Steve; Murphy, Raegan; Turner, John; Roberts, Amanda; Society for the Study of Addiction; National Institute for Health Research
    Background: Age of onset is an important factor in the development and trajectory of psychiatric disorders; however, little is known regarding the age of onset in relation to disordered gambling in treatment seeking samples in the UK. Utilising a large residential treatment seeking gambler cohort, the current study examined the relationship between age of gambling onset and a range of variables thought to be associated with disordered gambling. Method: Data were collected from 768 gamblers attending residential treatment for disordered gambling. Individuals were grouped per the age they started gambling as either a child (≤12), adolescent (13–15), or young adult/adult (≤16). Data were analysed using linear, backward stepwise, and multinomial logistic regressions to identify significant relationships between age of onset and variables of theoretical significance. Results: Results indicate the younger age of gambling onset was associated with increased gambling severity. Those who began gambling at an earlier age were more likely to have abused drugs or solvents, committed an unreported crime, been verbally aggressive and experienced violent outbursts. They are less likely to report a positive childhood family environment and are more likely to have had a parent with gambling and/or alcohol problems. Discussion: Gamblers who began gambling at an earlier age experience negative life events and exhibit some antisocial behaviors more than later onset gamblers, indicating that when addressing gambling behavior, it is important to consider the developmental trajectory of the disorder, rather than merely addressing current gambling behavior. However, the direction of the relationship between gambling and significant variables is in some instance unclear, indicating a need for further research to define causality. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
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    Eye gaze during semi-naturalistic face-to-face Interactions in autism
    (Springer, 2023-12-04) Ross, Alasdair Iain; Chan, Jason S.; Ryan, Christian
    Objectives: Reduced eye contact is common in autistic people and has frequently been investigated using two-dimensional stimuli with eye-tracking technology. Only a few studies have investigated the use of gaze in autistic individuals during real-world interactions. The current study explored how autistic adults engage in eye contact during real-life interpersonal interactions. Methods: Twenty participants (autistic n = 10, neurotypical n = 10) were recruited to participate in a semi-naturalistic, face-to-face, in-person conversation while wearing unobtrusive, lightweight, eye-tracking glasses. Participants also completed measures of emotion recognition, empathy and alexithymia. Results: The results of this study were consistent with the autobiographical accounts of autistic adults, who report reduced eye contact in social situations. The autistic group had a lower overall gaze duration and made fewer fixations towards the eyes and face than the control group. Both autistic and control groups adjusted their mean gaze duration on the eyes and face, depending on whether they were speaking or listening during the interaction. Conclusions: Importantly, some measures of eye fixation are significant predictors of both autistic symptoms and emotion recognition ability. The study highlights the subtlety of eye gaze differences in autistic people and the importance of accounting for the conversational phase in this area of research. It also highlights the potential relationship between eye gaze and emotion recognition ability