Applied Psychology - Journal Articles

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    One-to-one LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® positive psychology coaching for emerging adults: a single-participant case study
    (Emerald, 2023-05-30) Moore, Maurissa; O'Sullivan, David
    Purpose: This study explores one-to-one LEGO® Serious Play® in positive psychology coaching (1-1 LSP in PPC) as an intervention to help emerging adults (EAs) in higher education develop a growth mindset. Design/methodology/approach: This is a qualitative single-participant case study of an EA undergraduate student's experience with 1-1 LSP in PPC to help him navigate uncertainty about making a decision that he felt would influence his future career. Findings: 1-1 LSP in PPC enabled the participant to create a metaphoric representation of how a growth mindset operated for him, promoting self-awareness and reflectivity. The LEGO® model that the participant built during his final session acted as a reminder of the resources and processes he developed during coaching, which helped him navigate future challenges. Research limitations/implications: This study contributes to the emerging literature on the impact of using LSP as a tool in one-to-one coaching in higher education. The participant's experience demonstrates that 1-1 LSP in PPC may be an effective way to support positive EA development. More research is needed to explore its potential. Practical implications: This study provides a possible roadmap to incorporate 1-1 LSP in PPC into coaching in higher education as a reflective tool to build a growth mindset in EA students. Originality/value: Because most undergraduates are EAs navigating the transition from adolescence into adulthood, universities would benefit from adopting developmentally informed coaching practices. 1-1 LSP in PPC may be an effective intervention that provides the structured and psychologically safe environment EAs need to develop lasting personal resources.
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    The psychosocial burden of food allergy among adults: A US population-based study
    (Elsevier Inc., 2021-03-04) Warren, Christopher; Dyer, Ashley; Lombard, Lisa; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Gupta, Ruchi; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    Background: Food allergy (FA) affects >25 million US adults, resulting in substantial health care utilization. Data suggest that patients with FA suffer impairments in FA-related quality of life (FAQoL); however, little is known regarding psychosocial impacts of FA among US adults. Objective: To characterize FAQoL among a large, nationally representative adult sample, and its determinants, including sociodemographic characteristics, severity, comorbid conditions, allergic symptoms, number and type of allergens, and health care utilization. Methods: A survey was administered between October 2015 and September 2016 to a nationally representative sample of US households. Survey constructs included the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), which was developed to quantify adverse impacts of living with FA on patient quality of life. FAIM responses were analyzed from adults reporting current FA (N = 6207). Linear regression models examined associations with sociodemographic and FA characteristics. Results: The overall estimated mean FAIM score was 2.87 (95% confidence interval: 2.83-2.90). FAIM scores (range = 1-7) in adjusted models were invariant by race/ethnicity, private/public insurance status, and census division. Significant differences (P < .05) by lower household income, lower age, and greater education emerged, resulting in higher FAIM scores indicating FAQoL impairment. Among major food allergens, wheat, soy, and milk allergies were each associated with the greatest increases in adjusted FAIM scores. Reporting a current epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) prescription, severe allergic reaction history, history of EAI use, FA-related emergency department visits, or more FAs were also associated with significantly higher FAIM scores. Conclusion: The population-level psychosocial burden of adults with FA is substantial, broadly distributed, and differs by demographic and allergic disease characteristics.
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    How do participants feel about the ethics of rich false memory studies?
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-01-23) Murphy, Gillian; Maher, Julie; Ballantyne, Lisa; Barrett, Elizabeth; Cowman, Conor S.; Dawson, Caroline A.; Huston, Charlotte; Ryan, Katie M.; Greene, Ciara M.
    Deception is often a necessity in rich false memory studies, but is this deception acceptable to participants? In the current study, we followed up with 175 participants who had taken part in a replication of the Lost in the Mall childhood false memory study (Loftus & Pickrell, 1995), as either a research subject or a familial informant. We found that both participants and informants were generally very positive about their experience, did not regret taking part and found the deceptive methods acceptable. Importantly, the vast majority reported that they would still have taken part had they known the true objectives from the beginning. Participants also reported learning something interesting about memory and enjoying the nostalgia and family discussions that were prompted by the study. We would encourage other researchers to assess the ethical implications of false memory research paradigms and to incorporate the valuable feedback from participants and informants.
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    Lost in the mall again: a preregistered replication and extension of Loftus & Pickrell (1995)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-04-05) Murphy, Gillian; Dawson, Caroline A.; Huston, Charlotte; Ballantyne, Lisa; Barrett, Elizabeth; Cowman, Conor S.; Fitzsimons, Christopher; Maher, Julie; Ryan, Katie M.; Greene, Ciara M.
    The seminal Lost in the Mall study has been enormously influential in psychology and is still cited in legal cases. The current study directly replicated this paper, addressing methodological weaknesses including increasing the sample size fivefold and preregistering detailed analysis plans. Participants (N = 123) completed a survey and two interviews where they discussed real and fabricated childhood events, based on information provided by an older relative. We replicated the findings of the original study, coding 35% of participants as reporting a false memory for getting lost in a mall in childhood (compared to 25% in the original study). In an extension, we found that participants self-reported high rates of memories and beliefs for the fabricated event. Mock jurors were also highly likely to believe the fabricated event had occurred and that the participant was truly remembering the event, supporting the conclusions of the original study.
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    Debriefing works: Successful retraction of misinformation following a fake news study
    (PLOS, 2023-01-20) Greene, Ciara M.; Murphy, Gillian; David Keisuke; Health Research Board
    In recent years there has been an explosion of research on misinformation, often involving experiments where participants are presented with fake news stories and subsequently debriefed. In order to avoid potential harm to participants or society, it is imperative that we establish whether debriefing procedures remove any lasting influence of misinformation. In the current study, we followed up with 1547 participants one week after they had been exposed to fake news stories about COVID-19 and then provided with a detailed debriefing. False memories and beliefs for previously-seen fake stories declined from the original study, suggesting that the debrief was effective. Moreover, the debriefing resulted in reduced false memories and beliefs for novel fake stories, suggesting a broader impact on participants’ willingness to accept misinformation. Small effects of misinformation on planned health behaviours observed in the original study were also eliminated at follow-up. Our findings suggest that when a careful and thorough debriefing procedure is followed, researchers can safely and ethically conduct misinformation research on sensitive topics.