Psychiatry - Journal Articles

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    Gene expression imputation across multiple brain regions provides insights into schizophrenia risk
    (Springer Nature Ltd., 2019-03-25) Huckins, Laura M.; Dobbyn, Amanda; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Hoffman, Gabriel; Wang, Weiqing; Pardiñas, Antonio F.; Rajagopal, Veera M.; Als, Thomas D.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Girdhar, Kiran; Boocock, James; Roussos, Panos; Fromer, Menachem; Kramer, Robin; Domenici, Enrico; Gamazon, Eric R.; Purcell, Shaun; Demontis, Ditte; Børglum, Anders D.; Walters, James T. R.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick; Owen, Michael J.; Devlin, Bernie; Sieberts, Solveig K.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kyung Im, Hae; Sklar, Pamela; Stahl, Eli A.; Dinan, Timothy; Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A.; F. Hoffmann-La Roche; National Institutes of Health; National Institute on Aging; Illinois Department of Public Health; Translational Genomics Research Institute; Lundbeck Foundation; Stanley Medical Research Institute; European Research Council; Strategiske Forskningsråd; Novo Nordisk Fonden; Aarhus Universitet; Københavns Universitet
    Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.
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    Prebiotic administration modulates gut microbiota and faecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations but does not prevent chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced apnoea and hypertension in adult rats
    (Elsevier, 2020) O'Connor, Karen M.; Lucking, Eric F.; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Peterson, Veronica L.; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D.; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F.; O'Halloran, Ken D.; Science Foundation Ireland
    Background: Evidence is accruing to suggest that microbiota-gut-brain signalling plays a regulatory role in cardiorespiratory physiology. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), modelling human sleep apnoea, affects gut microbiota composition and elicits cardiorespiratory morbidity. We investigated if treatment with prebiotics ameliorates cardiorespiratory dysfunction in CIH-exposed rats. Methods: Adult male rats were exposed to CIH (96 cycles/day, 6.0% O2 at nadir) for 14 consecutive days with and without prebiotic supplementation (fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides) beginning two weeks prior to gas exposures. Findings: CIH increased apnoea index and caused hypertension. CIH exposure had modest effects on the gut microbiota, decreasing the relative abundance of Lactobacilli species, but had no effect on microbial functional characteristics. Faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, plasma and brainstem pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and brainstem neurochemistry were unaffected by exposure to CIH. Prebiotic administration modulated gut microbiota composition and diversity, altering gut-metabolic (GMMs) and gut-brain (GBMs) modules and increased faecal acetic and propionic acid concentrations, but did not prevent adverse CIH-induced cardiorespiratory phenotypes. Interpretation: CIH-induced cardiorespiratory dysfunction is not dependant upon changes in microbial functional characteristics and decreased faecal SCFA concentrations. Prebiotic-related modulation of microbial function and resultant increases in faecal SCFAs were not sufficient to prevent CIH-induced apnoea and hypertension in our model. Our results do not exclude the potential for microbiota-gut-brain axis involvement in OSA-related cardiorespiratory morbidity, but they demonstrate that in a relatively mild model of CIH, sufficient to evoke classic cardiorespiratory dysfunction, such changes are not obligatory for the development of morbidity, but may become relevant in the elaboration and maintenance of cardiorespiratory morbidity with progressive disease. Funding: Department of Physiology and APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. APC Microbiome Ireland is funded byScience Foundation Ireland, through the Government’s National Development Plan.
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    A biological framework for emotional dysregulation in alcohol misuse: from gut to brain
    (Springer Nature Ltd., 2020-12-07) Carbia, Carina; Lannoy, Séverine; Maurage, Pierre; López-Caneda, Eduardo; O'Riordan, Kenneth J.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Horizon 2020; Belgian American Educational Foundation; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with impairments in social and emotional cognition that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of addiction. Repeated alcohol intoxications trigger inflammatory processes and sensitise the immune system. In addition, emerging data point to perturbations in the gut microbiome as a key regulator of the inflammatory cascade in AUD. Inflammation and social cognition are potent modulators of one another. At the same time, accumulating evidence implicates the gut microbiome in shaping emotional and social cognition, suggesting the possibility of a common underlying loop of crucial importance for addiction. Here we propose an integrative microbiome neuro-immuno-affective framework of how emotional dysregulation and alcohol-related microbiome dysbiosis could accelerate the cycle of addiction. We outline the overlapping effects of chronic alcohol use, inflammation and microbiome alterations on the fronto-limbic circuitry as a convergence hub for emotional dysregulation. We discuss the interdependent relationship of social cognition, immunity and the microbiome in relation to alcohol misuse- from binge drinking to addiction. In addition, we emphasise adolescence as a sensitive period for the confluence of alcohol harmful effects and emotional dysregulation in the developing gut-brain axis.
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    The microbiome-gut-brain axis regulates social cognition and craving in young binge drinkers
    (Elsevier B.V., 2023-03-10) Carbia, Carina; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Iannone, Luigi Francesco; García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; Boscaini, Serena; Berding, Kirsten; Strain, Conall R.; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Noonan, John F.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland
    Background: Binge drinking is the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This pattern of consumption is highly prevalent during the crucial developmental period of adolescence. Recently, the severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been linked with microbiome alterations suggesting a role for the gut microbiome in its development. Furthermore, a strong link has emerged too between microbiome composition and socio-emotional functioning across different disorders including AUD. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential link (and its predictive value) between alcohol-related altered microbial profile, social cognition, impulsivity and craving. Methods: Young people (N = 71) aged 18–25 reported their alcohol use and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. Craving was measured at baseline and three months later. Diet was controlled for. Blood, saliva and hair samples were taken for inflammatory, kynurenine and cortisol analysis. Stool samples were provided for shotgun metagenomic sequencing and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured. Findings: Binge drinking was associated with distinct microbiome alterations and emotional recognition difficulties. Associations were found for several microbiome species with emotional processing and impulsivity. Craving showed a strong link with alterations in microbiome composition and neuroactive potential over time. Interpretation: In conclusion, this research demonstrates alterations in the gut microbiome of young binge drinkers (BDs) and identifies early biomarkers of craving. Associations between emotional processing and microbiome composition further support the growing literature on the gut microbiome as a regulator of social cognition. These findings are of relevance for new gut-derived interventions directed at improving early alcohol-related alterations during the vulnerability period of adolescence.
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    Priming for life: Early life nutrition and the microbiota-gut-brain axis
    (MDPI, 2021-01-28T00:00:00Z) Ratsika, Anna; Codagnone, Martin C.; O'Mahony, Siobhain; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland
    Microbes colonize the human body during the first moments of life and coexist with the host throughout the lifespan. Intestinal microbiota and their metabolites aid in the programming of important bodily systems such as the immune and the central nervous system during critical temporal windows of development, with possible structural and functional implications throughout the lifespan. These critical developmental windows perinatally (during the first 1000 days) are susceptible timepoints for insults that can endure long lasting effects on the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Environmental and parental factors like host genetics, mental health, nutrition, delivery and feeding mode, exposure to antibiotics, immune activation and microbiota composition antenatally, are all factors that are able to modulate the microbiota composition of mother and infant and may thus regulate important bodily functions. Among all these factors, early life nutrition plays a pivotal role in perinatal programming and in the modulation of offspring microbiota from birth throughout lifespan. This review aims to present current data on the impact of early life nutrition and microbiota priming of important bodily systems and all the factors influencing the microbial coexistence with the host during early life development.