APC Microbiome Ireland - Journal Articles

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    Response to "Is there room for attentional impairments in binge drinking? A commentary on Carbia et al. (2018)."
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2019-03-20) Carbia, Carina; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando; Horizon 2020; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia; European Regional Development Fund
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    Gut microbial metabolite-mediated regulation of the intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease
    (MDPI, 2021-11-26T00:00:00Z) Iyer, Namrata; Corr, Sinéad C.; Science Foundation Ireland; Horizon 2020
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. The disease has a multifactorial aetiology, involving genetic, microbial as well as environmental factors. The disease pathogenesis operates at the host-microbe interface in the gut. The intestinal epithelium plays a central role in IBD disease pathogenesis. Apart from being a physical barrier, the epithelium acts as a node that integrates environmental, dietary, and microbial cues to calibrate host immune response and maintain homeostasis in the gut. IBD patients display microbial dysbiosis in the gut, combined with an increased barrier permeability that contributes to disease pathogenesis. Metabolites produced by microbes in the gut are dynamic indicators of diet, host, and microbial interplay in the gut. Microbial metabolites are actively absorbed or diffused across the intestinal lining to affect the host response in the intestine as well as at systemic sites via the engagement of cognate receptors. In this review, we summarize insights from metabolomics studies, uncovering the dynamic changes in gut metabolite profiles in IBD and their importance as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of disease. We focus on gut microbial metabolites as key regulators of the intestinal barrier and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD.
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    Emotional processes in binge drinking: A systematic review and perspective
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-01-23) Lannoy, Séverine; Duka, Theodora; Carbia, Carina; Billieux, Joël; Fontesse, Sullivan; Dormal, Valérie; Gierski, Fabien; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Sullivan, Edith V.; Maurage, Pierre; Belgian American Educational Foundation; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Horizon 2020; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia; Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS
    Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol consumption pattern commonly engaged by youth. Here, we present the first systematic review of emotional processes in relation to binge drinking. Capitalizing on a theoretical model describing three emotional processing steps (emotional appraisal/identification, emotional response, emotional regulation) and following PRISMA guidelines, we considered all identified human studies exploring emotional abilities among binge drinkers. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and PsychINFO, and a standardized methodological quality assessment was performed for each study. The main findings offered by the 43 studies included are: 1) regarding emotional appraisal/identification, binge drinking is related to heightened negative emotional states, including greater severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and have difficulties in recognizing emotional cues expressed by others; 2) regarding emotional response, binge drinkers exhibit diminished emotional response compared with non-binge drinkers; 3) regarding emotional regulation, no experimental data currently support impaired emotion regulation in binge drinking. Variability in the identification and measurement of binge drinking habits across studies limits conclusions. Nevertheless, current findings establish the relevance of emotional processes in binge drinking and set the stage for new research perspectives to identify the nature and extent of emotional impairments in the onset and maintenance of excessive alcohol use.
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    Making sense of quorum sensing at the intestinal mucosal interface
    (MDPI, 2022-05-24T00:00:00Z) Uhlig, Friederike; Hyland, Niall P.; Science Foundation Ireland; Horizon 2020
    The gut microbiome can produce metabolic products that exert diverse activities, including effects on the host. Short chain fatty acids and amino acid derivatives have been the focus of many studies, but given the high microbial density in the gastrointestinal tract, other bacterial products such as those released as part of quorum sensing are likely to play an important role for health and disease. In this review, we provide of an overview on quorum sensing (QS) in the gastrointestinal tract and summarise what is known regarding the role of QS molecules such as auto-inducing peptides (AIP) and acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) from commensal, probiotic, and pathogenic bacteria in intestinal health and disease. QS regulates the expression of numerous genes including biofilm formation, bacteriocin and toxin secretion, and metabolism. QS has also been shown to play an important role in the bacteria-host interaction. We conclude that the mechanisms of action of QS at the intestinal neuro-immune interface need to be further investigated.
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    Gut microbiome effects on neuronal excitability and activity: Implications for epilepsy
    (Elsevier Inc., 2022-01-24) Darch, Henry; McCafferty, Cian P.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland
    It is now well established that the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal system, known as the gut microbiome, is capable of influencing the brain and its dependent functions. Links have been demonstrated between the microbiome and a variety of normal and pathological neural functions, including epilepsy. Many of these microbiome-brain links involve the direct or indirect modulation of the excitability and activity of individual neurons by the gut microbiome. Such links may be particularly significant when it comes to microbiome modulation of epilepsy, often considered a disorder of neuronal excitability. In this review we consider the current evidence of a relationship between the gut microbiome and the excitability or activity of neurons in the context of epilepsy. The review focuses particularly on evidence of direct, causal microbiome effects on neuronal excitability or activity, but also considers demonstrations of microbiome to host interactions that are likely to have an indirect influence. While we identify a few common themes, it is apparent that deriving general mechanistic principles of microbiome influence on these parameters in epilepsy will require considerable further study to tease out the many interacting factors, systems, and conditions.