- ItemSubstance use and self-harm emergency department presentations during COVID19: evidence from a National Clinical Programme for Self-Harm(Cambridge University Press, 2022-08-02) Maguire, E.; Kavalidou, Katerina; Bannan, N.; Doherty, A. M.; Jeffers, A.Introduction: Given the evidence that drinking patterns and self-harm hospital presentations have changed during COVID-19, this study aimed to examine any change in self-harm and suicide-related ideation presentations, together with any possible contribution made by alcohol or substance misuse, to Irish Emergency Departments in 2020, compared with 2018 and 2019. Methods: A population-based cohort with self-harm and suicide-related ideation presenting to Irish hospitals derived from the National Clinical Programme for Self-Harm was analysed. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on sociodemographic variables and types of presentation for the period January to August 2020 and compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019. Binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the independent effect of demographic characteristics and pre/during COVID-19 periods on the use of substances as contributory factors in the self-harm and suicide-related ideation presentations. Results: 12,075 presentations due to self-harm and suicide-related ideation were recorded for the periods January–August 2018–2020 across nine emergency departments. The COVID-19 year was significantly associated with substances contributing to self-harm and suicide-related ideation ED presentations (OR = 1.183; 95% CI, 1.075–1.301, p < 0.001). No changes in the demographic characteristics were found for those with self-harm or suicide-related ideation across the years. Suicide-related ideation seemed to be increased after May 2020 compared with previous years. In terms of self-harm episodes with comorbid drug and alcohol overdose and poisoning, these were significantly increased in January–August 2020, compared with previous timepoints (χ2 = 42.424, df = 6, p < 0.001). Conclusion: An increase in suicide-related ideation and substance-related self-harm presentations may indicate longer term effects of the pandemic and its relevant restrictions. Future studies might explore whether those presenting with ideation will develop a risk of suicide in post-pandemic periods.
- ItemConsumer attitudes and behaviors toward more sustainable diets: a scoping review(Oxford University Press, 2023-04-04) Kenny, Tara; Woodside, Jayne V.; Perry, Ivan J.; Harrington, Janas M.; SafefoodThere is an urgent need to move toward more sustainable diets. Although this will require radical and systemic changes across food systems, altering consumer ideologies and practices is essential to garner support for such actions. In this scoping review, the evidence on consumers’ attitudes and behaviors toward more sustainable diets is synthesized and a range of factors, considerations, and proposed strategies are presented that can contribute to building the societal-level support for urgent and systems-level changes. The findings suggest that consumers, insofar as they are interested in sustainability and have the capacity to engage with the concept, primarily approach the concept of sustainable diet from a human health perspective. However, the interconnectedness of human health and well-being with environmental health is poorly understood and under-researched in the context of consumer behaviors and attitudes toward sustainable diets. This highlights the need for (1) sustained efforts from public health professionals to encourage a realignment of the term sustainable diet with its multidimensional meaning by championing an ecological public health approach in all efforts aimed at promoting more sustainable consumption, from awareness raising to policy development; (2) a broader research lens focused on the multidimensional concept of sustainability in the literature exploring consumer attitudes and behaviors; and (3) the development of multidisciplinary, clear, and evidence-based sustainable-eating messages, including holistic sustainable dietary guidance, to address knowledge gaps, minimize conflicting narratives, and build consumer agency. The findings contribute to understanding how support can be generated for the necessary structural and system-level changes required to support behavior change.
- ItemPresentations of self-harm and suicide-related ideation among the Irish Traveller indigenous population to hospital emergency departments: evidence from the National Clinical Programme for self-harm.(Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2023-02-17T00:00:00Z) Kavalidou, Katerina; Daly, Caroline; McTernan, Niall; Corcoran, PaulPurpose: Previous research has examined the suicide risk of the Irish Traveller population, but less is known about self-harm and suicidal ideation among this ethnic minority group, which are established risk factors for suicide. The aim of the current study was to compare the presentation-based self-harm and suicide-related ideation of Traveller to non-Traveller patients and describe any ethnic disparities in the aftercare of their presentation. Methods: Data were obtained from the service improvement database of an Irish dedicated national programme for the assessment of those presenting to emergency departments (EDs) due to self-harm and suicide-related ideation. Presentation data from 24 EDs were analysed and Poisson regression was used to assess the age–sex-adjusted relative risk of hospital-presenting self-harm and suicide-related ideation. Results: 24,473 presentations were recorded with 3% of the presentations made by Irish Travellers. Female Traveller patients had 3·04 (95% CI 2·51–3·68) higher risk for suicide-related ideation and 3·85 (95% CI 3·37–4·41) for self-harm, compared to white Irish female patients. Male Traveller patients had 4·46 (95% CI 3·86–5·16) higher risk for suicide-related ideation and 5·43 (95% CI 4·75–6·21) higher rates for self-harm. The highest rate ratios for self-harm were observed among older Traveller patients [male: 9·23 (95% CI 5·93–14·39); female: 6·79 (95% CI 4·37–10·57)]. A higher proportion of Traveller patients requested no next of kin involvement, compared to other ethnicities. Conclusions: Given that Irish Travellers are at higher risk of self-harm and suicide-related ideation presentations compared to other ethnic groups, EDs should be viewed as an important suicide intervention point.
- ItemProfile of people attending emergency departments with thoughts of self-harm and suicide: A descriptive study of a nurse-led programme in Ireland(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2023-03-29T00:00:00Z) Kavalidou, Katerina; Zortea, Tiago C.; Griffin, Eve; Troya, M. Isabela; Irish Research CouncilIncreasing research has been conducted on individuals presenting with self-harm at emergency departments (EDs). However, less is known about individuals presenting to EDs with only self-harm ideation. We aimed to describe the characteristics of those attending Irish hospitals with self-harm ideation and investigate any differences in comparison to those presenting with suicide ideation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on Irish ED presentations due to suicidal and self-harm ideation. Data were obtained from the service improvement data set of a dedicated nurse-led National Clinical programme for the assessment of those presenting to Irish emergency departments due to Self-harm and Suicide-related Ideation (NCPSHI). A total of 10 602 anonymized presentation data were analysed from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare those with suicidal and self-harm ideation on sociodemographic and care interventions. Being female and aged <29 were more prevalent among the self-harm ideation presentations. Compared to the self-harm ideation group, a higher proportion of those with suicidal thoughts received an emergency care plan (63% vs 58%, p = 0.002) and General Practitioner letter sent within 24 h of presentation (75% vs 69%, p = 0.045). Little variation was found between hospitals for self-harm ideation in both years. Our study suggests that females and younger populations are more prevalent in hospital presentations due self-harm ideation, while presentations related to suicidal ideation are more often made by males and involving substance use. Attention should be given to the relationship between clinicians' attitudes towards care provision and the content of suicide-related ideation ED disclosure.
- ItemIran's national suicide prevention program(Hogrefe, 2022-05-27) Rezaeian, Mohsen; Platt, Stephen; Arensman, EllaBackground and Aims: Iran is one of the few countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) to have developed a national suicide prevention program (NSPP). This report introduces Iran's NSPP to policy planners and researchers working in suicide prevention, and is intended to encourage other low- and middle-income countries to develop, implement, and evaluate their own NSPPs. Method: This was a case study of a NSPP in one country, integrating quantitative and qualitative data. Bibliographic searches were conducted using both international and national databases, supplemented by other documents. The study benefited from the experiential evidence provided by the senior author. Results: While the national incidence of suicide is low, there are higher rates among young adults, particularly women, in western regions. In 2010, Iran's NSPP was integrated into primary health care. A rigorous evaluation of Iran's suicide prevention program concluded that Iran has the potential to take a leadership role in suicide prevention within the EMR, although several challenges were identified. Limitation: The findings of this case study cannot be generalized to other contexts. Conclusion: Given Iran's unstable situation, the NSPP needs to be monitored, evaluated, and adjusted according to evidence and ongoing changing national and local needs.