Pharmacy - Book Chapters

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    The role of pharmacists in optimising drug therapy
    (Springer Nature Ltd., 2023-06-22) Spinewine, Anne; Byrne, Stephen; Dalleur, Olivia
    In this chapter, we aim to present and discuss the activities performed by pharmacists at individual patient level for optimising drug therapy and the role of pharmacists in training other healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards medicines optimisation in older people. Then, we describe the different models of care and their levels of implementation in the ambulatory, acute and long-term care settings. The case of pharmacist prescribing is also addressed. There has been a strong evolution over the last decades in the role played by pharmacists in optimising drug therapy for older people, either as individual HCPs or as part of multidisciplinary teams. This role now goes far beyond medication supply and checking drug interactions, for example. In parallel, educational programs to train pharmacists in patient-centred care and geriatric pharmacotherapy have been developed, and pharmacists are now better equipped to take on their expanding roles as part of multidisciplinary teams.
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    Continuous powder feeding: Equipment design and material considerations
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2022-04-07) Kerins, Brian M.; Crean, Abina M.; Science Foundation Ireland
    The continuous feeding of raw materials is a fundamental initial step in the continuous production of solid dosage forms. The continuous feeding process is considered critical as deviations or disturbances in individual feeders may produce compositional variability in the following mixing steps. This variability may then impact downstream unit operations and result in a detrimental change to the quality attributes of the final product. To design a robust feeding process and optimise the feeding performance, it is essential to understand feeder design and the underlying relationships between the material properties, feeder tooling configuration and feeding process parameters. In this chapter a brief overview of continuous feeding equipment and feeder operation modes is provided. The chapter describes the equipment and process considerations for the design of a continuous feeding process, with a primary focus on loss-in-weight (LIW), twin-screw feeders, primarily employed during the continuous production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The chapter finishes with a description of modelling approaches employed to investigate feeder performance and the integration of the feeding process to the subsequent steps of the overall continuous manufacturing process.