ItemHow reliable is assessment of children’s sentence comprehension using a self-directed app? A comparison of supported versus independent use(Cambridge University Press, 2023-08-14) Frizelle, Pauline; Buckley, Ana; Biancone, Tricia; Ceroni, Anna; Dahly, Darren L.; Fletcher, Paul; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McKean, Cristina; Health Research BoardThis study reports on the feasibility of using the Test of Complex Syntax- Electronic (TECS-E), as a self-directed app, to measure sentence comprehension in children aged 4 to 5 ½ years old; how testing apps might be adapted for effective independent use; and agreement levels between face-to-face supported computerized and independent computerized testing with this cohort. A pilot phase was completed with 4 to 4;06-year-old children, to determine the appropriate functional app features required to facilitate independent test completion. Following the integration of identified features, children completed the app independently or with adult support (4–4;05 (n = 22) 4;06–4;11 months (n = 55) and 5 to 5;05 (n = 113)) and test re-test reliability was examined. Independent test completion posed problems for children under 5 years but for those over 5, TECS-E is a reliable method to assess children’s understanding of complex sentences, when used independently ItemThe co-construction of a reading assessment measure with adults with Down syndrome: a meaningful literacy approach(Frontiers Media, 2023-07-20) Frizelle, Pauline; O’Donovan, Sean; Jolley, Mary; Martin, Lisa; Hart, NicolaIntroduction: The need to develop appropriate measures of broad-based reading-related literacy skills for adults with Down syndrome has been highlighted in the literature. In this study we aimed to co-construct a valid and reliable assessment measure that can be used to document meaningful everyday reading, in adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. Methods: The study was carried out in two stages. Stage 1 used an inclusive participatory design in which individuals with Down syndrome were research collaborators (n = 46). Items to be included in the measure were identified and ecological, face and content validity were established through an iterative process. In stage 2 we examined the reliability of the tool and explored potential relationships between meaningful reading score and (1) age, (2) receptive vocabulary, and (3) reading ability as measured by standardized assessments. In addition, we profiled what a pilot cohort of adults with Down syndrome read (n = 33) and how they experience reading in their everyday lives. Results: Results showed that 46 items were generated for inclusion in the Meaningful Reading Measure (MRM). Our preliminary data showed that the tool has internal and external reliability and ecological and content validity. There were no associations between meaningful reading score and any of the other variables examined. There was considerable variability in items read (range 12–44) which reflected a broad range of reading practices. Adults with Down syndrome identified the importance of reading as a pleasurable activity and as something that aids learning. Conclusion: The MRM developed here can be used (1) as a reading intervention outcome measure to complement existing standardized tools, (2) to profile meaningful reading in adults with Down syndrome, (3) to guide reading module content, and (4) to capture change in adults’ perceptions of themselves as readers. Future work is needed to establish the tool’s sensitivity to change over time. ItemUsing theory to drive intervention efficacy: The role of dose form in interventions for children with DLD(MDPI, 2022-06-09) Frizelle, Pauline; McKean, Cristina'Dose form' is a construct that has evolved over the last number of years and is central to treating childhood language disorders. In this commentary, we present a framework of dose form that includes techniques, procedures, manner of instruction, and intervention context. We present key findings from a systematic review exploring the impact of intervention dose form on oral language outcomes (specifically morphosyntax and vocabulary learning) in children with DLD. We then discuss the hypothesized theoretical mechanisms of action underpinning these findings. ItemThe feasibility of measuring fidelity of implementation in parent-child interaction therapy: A clinician and parent fidelity study(Taylor & Francis, 2023-02-01) O'Toole, Ciara; Cronin, Sarah; Kearney, Mide; Flynn, Deirdre; Frizelle, Pauline; Down Syndrome IrelandPurpose: Measuring fidelity of implementation in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) involves assessing the training delivered by clinicians and how parents implement the techniques with their children. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of measuring fidelity of implementation for a PCIT intervention designed for young children with Down syndrome. Method: We applied a framework to measure dosage, adherence, quality, and participant responsiveness using a mixed methods approach with observational and interview data. Result: Our results showed that clinicians delivered 94% of the planned dosage; they adhered to the goals of program and reached the quality criterion in 4/6 rated sessions. Parents described their ability to engage with the program and perceived that it changed how they interacted and communicated with their children. Parents were unable to collect dosage data, but did adhere to 7/9 of the targeted techniques and met the quality criterion on 6/9 of these. It was also possible to measure the children’s responsiveness scores when interacting with parents during the intervention. Conclusion: This study revealed the opportunities and challenges that occur when measuring fidelity of implementation. There is a need to refine definitions of fidelity measures and to develop appropriate measurement tools so that a more consistent and useful framework can be used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to measure fidelity. ItemUnderstanding the why: The integration of trauma-informed care into speech and language therapy practice(IOS Press, 2023-06-12) O'Leary, Norma; Rupert, Anna Claire; Lotty, MariaThis article aims to highlight the need to integrate Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) into the practice of Speech and Language Therapy. TIC is a strength-based framework underpinned by an understanding and responsiveness to the widespread pervasiveness and impact of trauma. The literature on TIC within the field of Speech and Language Therapy is in its infancy but is progressing. In this context, there is an absence of clear guidelines for TIC in the field to support providers and administers to understand the relevance, underlying theory, and application to practice. In this paper we outline the theoretical underpinnings and application to practice. We argue that the profession requires an ongoing commitment to continuous research to corroborate communication-specific best practices of TIC to support clinicians in translating those findings into practice to best support clients.