- ItemThe Militarisation of Behaviours: Introduction(Springer, 2022-10-31) Kaucz, BłażejThis chapter is devoted to an introduction to the process of the militarisation of behaviours. It is a mass process of social control employed by the state (and less often by non-state entities) where civilians are subjected to a treatment like that designed for soldiers. When this process is utilised, it leads sections of a society to be subdued to the will of the state officials. It can be a robust power-gaining mechanism used at the expense of the citizens. To build a framework to discuss this process, Ireland and Poland, the two states which are a part of the enquiry are introduced and initially compared. That is done to create a context for an analysis of the historical development of the twentieth-century criminal law in Poland and Ireland in the following two chapters. These two states, at first sight, might not have too much in common especially since both chose somewhat different paths to achieve the militarisation of behaviours. However, both Poland and Ireland promote individualism, self-determinism, and individual agency and it is easier to introduce the militarisation of behaviours in countries supporting these values.
- ItemA left realist perspective to rural crime: The case of agricultural theft in Ireland(Bristol University Press and Policy Press, 2022-07-29) Windle, JamesLeft realism originated as an applied theory to support communities to tackle crime in British working-class urban areas. While there are challenges to transferring theory from one context (British urban) to another (Irish rural), using Ireland as a case study this chapter argues for the value of a left realist approach to agricultural theft. The objective of this chapter is to take a small step towards rectifying the hidden nature of agricultural theft, and fear of theft by ironing out some conceptual, theoretical and methodological issues. The chapter begins with a review of Irish and international farm victimisation surveys. The core concepts of left realism are then summarised and its lessons are applied to agricultural theft. The final section draws lessons for Ireland from the international literature and proposes a left realist research agenda.
- ItemHorizon scanning of global drug markets(Routledge, 2021-11-09) Windle, JamesAs there are already a number of insightful overviews of the global illicit drug trade (i.e. Purvis and Gundur, 2019; Reuter, 2014) this chapter will not re-tread a well-worn path, but rather explore recent developments and scan for future issues. EMCDDA and Europol (2019) suggest that horizon scanning can improve preparedness for future challenges, ensure institutional resilience to future threats and avoid rigid responses. This chapter will first review traditional drug market dynamics. With this context established it will explore: import substitution of cannabis, the exploitation of vulnerable peoples in European drug markets, online drug sales and new psychoactive substance (NPS) markets. The chapter concludes by discussing whether drug markets will become more exploitative and violent.
- ItemIntroduction: ‘Nothing about us without us’, a history and application for criminology(Policy Press, 2021-09-03) Ahmed, Yasmine; Windle, James; Lynch, Orla; Ahmed, Yasmin; Windle, James; Lynch, Orla‘Nothing about us without us’ surmises a burgeoning movement in criminology that is about giving voice to diverse perspectives and a way of doing research. Primarily it refers to the importance of an approach to criminology that is inclusive of those voices that have historically been hushed, marginalised, silenced or ignored. It also refers to the need for researchers to work with state and grassroots practitioners, especially those who provide a conduit to peoples most impacted by social injustice and crime. This edited volume will explore the importance of diversity and inclusivity in criminological discourses and, consider how researchers might bridge the gap between theory and lived experience, and how the authenticity of the voices of those who have been silenced can be incorporated into a meaningful criminology. This introductory chapter will explore the conceptual history of ‘nothing about us without us’ before summarising some of the key themes explored in this volume.
- ItemEconomics, social neuroscience, and mindshaping(Routledge, 2020-09-24) Ross, Don; Stirling, Wynn; Harbecke, Jens; Herrmann-Pillath, CarstenWe consider the potential contribution of economics to an interdisciplinary research partnership between sociology and neuroscience (‘social neuroscience’ or ’social neuroeconomics’). We correct a misunderstanding in previous literature over the understanding of humans as ‘social animals’, which has in turn led to misidentification of the potential relevance of game theory and the economics of networks to the social neuroscience project. Specifically, it has been suggested that these can be used to model mindreading. We argue that mindreading is at best a derivative and special basis for social coordination, whereas the general and pervasive phenomenon on which it depends is mindshaping. We then outline the foundations of Conditional Game Theory as a mathematical model of mindshaping, which extends game theory without displacing its classic solution concepts, and which exploits economists’ experience in modeling networks.