ItemRegional variations in automation job risk and labour market thickness to agricultural employment(Elsevier Ltd., 2022-03-04) Rijnks, Richard Henry; Crowley, Frank; Doran, Justin; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandAutomation has the potential to transform entire agricultural value chains and the nature of agricultural business. Recent studies have emphasised barriers to adoption, as well as issues related to labour market and cultural outcomes of automation. However, thus far, very little attention has been afforded to the regional variations in the potential for automation adoption or threats to agricultural employment. Specifically, research to date does not take into account the local availability of similar occupations including those in different sectors to which displaced workers may transition. Threats to employment and lower numbers of similar jobs locally are particularly salient in rural contexts, given the thin and specialized local labour markets. The aims of this paper are to show the regional distribution of risk to automation for the agricultural sector specifically, and to link these patterns to indicators for occupation specific labour market thickness in Ireland. Using detailed occupational skills data, we construct indices for local labour market thickness conditioned on occupational skills and knowledge requirements. We show that there is substantial regional heterogeneity in the potential threat of automation to the employment prospects of workers currently active in the agricultural sector. This regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of the regional context for designing effective labour market policy in the face of job automation. ItemEconomic and employment impacts of offshore wind for Ireland: A value chain analysis(Taylor & Francis Group, 2020-07-13) Kandrot, Sarah; Cummins, Val; Jordan, Declan; Murphy, Jimmy; Science Foundation IrelandThe imminent development of a number of offshore wind farms in the Republic of Ireland presents a sizable opportunity to stimulate the Irish economy through the growth of an indigenous and globally competitive offshore wind supply chain. This study uses a value chain analysis to evaluate the economic and employment potential of the offshore wind sector for Ireland. The analysis is based on the expenditure on products and services required to develop an offshore wind farm, the planned capacity of projects in the pipeline, and the ability of Irish companies to supply the sector. Results suggest that by 2030, 2.5–4.5GW of domestic offshore wind development could create between 11,424 and 20,563 supply chain jobs and generate between €763 m and €1.4bn in gross value added. This is the first study to estimate domestic GVA potential for the sector. ItemMore subsidies, more innovation? Evaluating whether a mix of subsidies from regional, national and EU sources crowds out firm-level innovation(Routledge, 2019-03-25) Mulligan, Kevin; Lenihan, Helena; Doran, Justin; Irish Research Council; Science Foundation IrelandPolicy-makers at regional, national and European Union (EU) levels of governance use a variety of subsidy programmes to stimulate firm-level innovation. Against this backdrop, this paper investigates three important issues that have not received sufficient attention in the literature: (1) whether evaluating the impact of subsidies from each individual source is biased by ignoring firms that receive a mix of subsidies from different sources at the same point in time; (2) whether receiving a mix of subsidies from regional, national and EU sources crowds out firm-level innovation; and (3) if effective, whether subsidy mix stimulates forms of innovation with higher private or social returns. The findings demonstrate that ignoring subsidy mix significantly biases evaluations of subsidies from individual sources. Moreover, subsidy mix can be a highly effective means of stimulating forms of firm-level innovation with the highest social returns, precisely where market and systemic failures are most acute. ItemAnalysing national innovation capacity and its importance for competitiveness and growth(Inderscience, 2018-04-25) Doran, Justin; McCarthy, Nóirín; O'Connor, MarieThis paper uses data from the OECD's Scientific and Technological database and the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) to analyse the national innovation capacity of nineteen OECD countries over the time period 2001 to 2007. A total of three sub-indexes are constructed which rank the strength of the common innovation infrastructure, cluster specific environment and quality of linkages which exist within each of the countries. These sub-indexes form the basis of an overall index measuring countries' national innovation capacity. The results indicate that each of the three components considered are important in explaining the innovation output of the countries studied. Further to this, national innovation capacity is found to have a positive effect on GDP per capita and on a country's GCR ranking. However, national innovation capacity in 2001 is found to be negatively associated with the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita. This counterintuitive result may arise due to determinants of growth other than innovation such as capital and labour accumulation. ItemExplaining international footballer selection through Poisson modelling(Emerald, 2018-04) Butler, David; Butler, Robert; Doran, Justin; O'Connor, SeanPurpose – Growing evidence suggests regional economic factors impact on individual outcomes, such as life expectancy and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that player-specific and regional differences have on the number of senior international appearances football players accumulate over the course of their careers, for six UEFA member countries, from 1993 to 2014. Design/methodology/approach – The research employs a Poisson regression model to analyse the impact of individual and regional factors on the number of senior international caps a footballer receives over the course of their career. Findings – The results indicate that both individual and regional variables can explain the number of caps a player receives over the course of their career. The authors find that an individual’s career length positively influences the number of international caps accrued. Players born in wealthier and more populous regions accumulate a greater number of international appearances. Distance from the capital has no effect, however, the number of youth academies in the player’s region of birth has a significant positive effect. Research limitations/implications – The analysis is limited to regional variations within economically developed states. It would be interesting to test whether the correlation between relative regional development and international success exists in less developed countries. The authors only address mens international football in this study and cannot comment on the generality of the findings across genders or sports. Practical implications – The results can provide insights for local football authorities and policy makers concerned with regional characteristics and those interested in the development of elite talent.