CCAE: Cork School of Architecture - Journal Articles

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    Bolted shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures: Shear behavior
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2023-11-09) Liu, Xiaoyang; Bi, Zijian; Hu, Jingyu; Hao, Hongsheng; Lin, Zhansheng; Li, Hongwei; Xie, Yuanbin; Zhao, Kai; Jing, Yucai; Yang, Guotao; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province; Hebei Provincial Department of Science and Technology
    The use of bolted shear connectors is of great importance to the sustainable development of steel–concrete composite structures. In this paper, an experimental program consisting of four push-out specimens is performed to investigate the effects of bolt length and fabrication method of concrete slabs on the shear behavior of single-nut embedded bolted shear connectors in terms of failure mode and load-slip response. The concrete slabs are fabricated either as cast-in-situ monolithic slabs or precast slabs with reserved pockets which will be filled with grout in the final construction stage. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabrication method based on grouting, which is commonly utilized for strengthening and retrofitting works, does not affect the behavior of the bolted shear connection. Based on the experimental observations, a finite element (FE) model of the bolted shear connection is developed, after the obtained numerical results are verified against the test results obtained in this paper and those presented in other existing literature, a parametric study is carried out to further investigate the effects of the concrete strength, bolt strength, bolt diameter, bolt pretension load, and the length-to-diameter ratio of bolt on the performance of the bolted shear connection. Moreover, based on the obtained results, a design formula is proposed to obtain the ultimate shear resistance of the bolted shear connection, and the efficacy of the proposed design formula is proved through the comparison with the test results shown in the existing literature.
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    Dedicated large-scale floating offshore wind to hydrogen: Assessing design variables in proposed typologies
    (Elsevier B.V., 2022-03-01) Ibrahim, Omar S.; Singlitico, Alessandro; Proskovics, Roberts; McDonagh, Shane; Desmond, Cian; Murphy, Jerry D.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland
    To achieve the Net-Zero Emissions goal by 2050, a major upscale in green hydrogen needs to be achieved; this will also facilitate use of renewable electricity as a source of decarbonised fuel in hard-to-abate sectors such as industry and transport. Nearly 80% of the world's offshore wind resource is in waters deeper than 60 m, where bottom-fixed wind turbines are not feasible. This creates a significant opportunity to couple the high capacity factor floating offshore wind and green hydrogen. In this paper we consider dedicated large-scale floating offshore wind farms for hydrogen production with three coupling typologies; (i) centralised onshore electrolysis, (ii) decentralised offshore electrolysis, and (iii) centralised offshore electrolysis. The typology design is based on variables including for: electrolyser technology; floating wind platform; and energy transmission vector (electrical power or offshore hydrogen pipelines). Offshore hydrogen pipelines are assessed as economical for large and distant farms. The decentralised offshore typology, employing a semi-submersible platform could accommodate a proton exchange membrane electrolyser on deck; this would negate the need for an additional separate structure or hydrogen export compression and enhance dynamic operational ability. It is flexible; if one electrolyser (or turbine) fails, hydrogen production can easily continue on the other turbines. It also facilities flexibility in further expansion as it is very much a modular system. Alternatively, less complexity is associated with the centralised offshore typology, which may employ the electrolysis facility on a separate offshore platform and be associated with a farm of spar-buoy platforms in significant water depth locations.
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    Good intentions in universal design: A global challenge for higher education
    (IOS Press, 2018) Harrison, Jim; Busby, Kevin; O'Shaughnessy, Tessa
    It is not often that a high-level edict requires higher education centres to promote universal design through their programmes; however the recent United Nations Beijing Declaration and Action Plan (UNESCAP 2017) expressly states that, “academic institutions should provide training programmes on universal design for policymakers, building inspectors and contractors, as well as integrating universal design and accessibility into curricula related to architecture, urban planning, transport, civil engineering and other relevant academic branches”. This is particularly timely in the Asia-Pacific region, where economies continue to show massive expansion of their built environments. This imperative to future-proof any development therefore is vital, especially considering the growing percentile of older people with their needs for safe and accessible living. Achieving these ends clearly implies a need both to educate professionals and to enact appropriate codes and standards, which in turn require the training of personnel to carry them out. Anticipating this need, Goal 3 of the United Nations Incheon Strategy (UNESCAP 2012) optimistically calls for “civil society involvement in conducting accessibility audits, creating guidelines and advocacy work to promote universal design” and “to enhance mechanisms for tracking its progress”. While such good intentions are admirable, they will require radical steps to be achieved. The paper describes examples, including those from the writers' own experiences, outlining a range of practical methods which academics and teachers involved in inculcating universal design principles in both European and Asian centres, through their teaching, training and technology transfer, can positively support continued cooperation towards a more inclusive World for everyone.
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    Universal design in architectural education – community liaison on ‘Live Projects’
    (IOS Press, 2018) Busby, Kevin; Harrison, Jim; Craddock, Gerald; Doran, Cormac; McNutt, Larry; Rice, Dónal
    The infusion of Universal Design principles into existing courses in architecture should become evident in any project work undertaken. ‘Live project’ is a term used to describe projects that engage the academic world with real-world groups/organizations. CCAE sees such projects as valuable exercises in a student's education, particularly, the practical experience of interaction with ‘user-experts.’ In 2016 Cork County Council approached CCAE with a proposal to promote age-friendly housing as part of their age-friendly initiative. CCAE developed this into a ‘live project’ for Year 2 architecture students, continuing the integration of UD into the curriculum. This helps students to identify the negative disabling aspects of ageing and show UD principles can be seen as commonplace. For their part, the County Council were able to expand their own thinking, availing of the less constrained ideas that students brought to their schemes. An approach to achieving the adoption of UD is to consider the Vitruvian definition of architecture as having ‘commodity, firmness and delight’. From this, the aesthetic integration of features to benefit users of limited ability can be achieved without stigmatising anyone as being old or disabled. Now in its second year the project is being run in West Cork. The chosen site in Bantry town centre, has interesting challenges for the students to incorporate UD principles. This paper will present imaginative but viable projects as examples of student' responses to the challenges of designing housing solutions and will report on their ability to integrate age-friendly features at different scales.
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    No fixed form: the Infra-Éireann – Making Ireland Modern pavilion and the sites of modernity
    (Ubiquity Press) Boyd, Gary Archibald; McLaughlin, John
    This paper explores the relationship between architectural design and research in the context of a particular example, the development of the Irish pavilion for the 14th architectural biennale in Venice 2014 (Infra-Éireann) and its reiteration and expansion in Ireland for the State’s centennial celebrations 1916–2016 (Making Ireland Modern). Originally responding to Rem Koolhaas’s call to investigate the international absorption of modernity, the pavilion sought to engage with the properties of the architectures of infrastructure in twentieth and twenty-first-century Ireland. Central to this proposition was that infrastructure is simultaneously a technological and cultural construct, one that for Ireland occupied a critical position in the building of a new, independent post-colonial nation state. Presupposing infrastructure as consisting of both visible and invisible networks, the idea of a matrix became a central theoretical and visual tool in the curatorial and design process for both the pavilion and its contents. To begin with this was a two-dimensional grid used to identify and order what became described as a series of ten infrastructural episodes. These were determined chronologically across the decades between 1916 and 2016 and their spatial manifestations articulated in terms of scale: micro, meso and macro. What emerged in the design and research process was a dialectic relationship between the pavilion and its content as logistical and conceptual concerns merged to realise an adaptive framed modular structure, imagined as an embodied manifesto and, analogous to infrastructure, as having no fixed form.