Philosophy - Book Chapters

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    “Computer says no”: Artificial Intelligence, gender bias, and epistemic injustice
    (Routledge, 2023-10-17) Walmsley, Joel
    Ever since its beginnings, the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been plagued with the possibility of perpetuating a range of depressingly familiar kinds of injustice, roughly because the biases and prejudices of the programmers can be, literally, codified. But several recent controversies about biased machine translation and automated CV-evaluation highlight a novel set of concerns that are simultaneously both ethical and epistemological, and which stem from AI's most recent developments; we don't fully understand the machines we've built, they're faster, more powerful, and more complex than us, but we're growing to trust them preferentially nonetheless. This chapter examines some of the ways in which Miranda Fricker's concept(s) of “epistemic injustice” can highlight such problems, and concludes with suggestions about re-conceiving human-AI interaction—along the model of collaboration rather than competition—that might avoid them.
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    Wilhelm Schapp and the standard theory of exchanges
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2022-09-14) Salice, Alessandro; Hopkins, Burt C.; Drummond, John J.
    This paper mines, contextualizes, and assesses Wilhelm Schapp’s neglected account of contracts of sale. This account is evaluated against the background of what Emma Tieffenbach and Olivier Massin label as the “Standard Theory of Exchanges [STE]” and the “Action Theory of Exchanges [ATE]” in their recent paper “The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges” (Journal of Social Ontology, 2017). The first section of the present article introduces STE, its shortcomings, and ATE as a theory of exchanges, which is superior to STE. The second section systematically reconstructs Schapp’s own position. It does so by highlighting the credit Schapp’s position especially owes to Adolf Reinach’s phenomenology. Finally, the third section claims that Schapp’s theory remains largely untouched by the shortcomings that affect STE and that it can be considered as a precursor of ATE, since it shares important insights with that account.
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    Compensation duties
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2023-02-28) Mintz-Woo, Kian
    While mitigation and adaptation will help to protect us from climate change, there are harms that are beyond our ability to adapt. Some of these harms, which may have been instigated from historical emissions, plausibly give rise to duties of compensation. This chapter discusses several principles that have been discussed about how to divide climate duties â the polluter pays principle, the beneficiary pays principle, the ability to pay principle, and a new one, the polluter pays, then receives principle. The chapter introduces several challenges to these principles from the literature, before discussing which policies and institutions might be relevant to compensation, whether internationally (e.g., the Green Climate Fund) or intergenerationally (e.g., Broome and Foley's World Climate Bank). It also describes some recent successful climate cases that require both the Dutch government and a private firm to act in accordance with climate targets to avoid potential rights violations. Finally, it discusses one of the most important international concepts with respect to compensation: the Loss & Damage pillar of climate policy.
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    Belief distributions and the measure of social norms
    (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-07-31) Wang, Cuizhu; Viciana, Hugo; Gaitán, Antonio; Aguiar, Fernando
    This chapter has the goal of advocating for the Quadratic Scoring Rule as the indispensable tool in the operationalization of one of the most popular concepts of social norms in the literature. Section 1 reviews the concept of social norms developed by Bicchieri (2006, 2017) and argues that this theory offers an operational definition of social norms which focuses on beliefs (expectations) and preferences and allows for the possibility of their empirical investigation. Section 2 introduces the well-known Intentional Stance and Revealed Preference Theory as the best interpretive framework for the intentional concepts applied in Bicchieri’s conceptual analysis of social norms. On the basis of limitations arising from experimental work operating Bicchieri’s theory, section 3 introduces and defends the Quadratic Scoring Rule (QSR) for eliciting subjective belief distributions. Three different types of arguments are given to support the suitability of this method in the measuring of social norms.
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    Pride: Feeling good about myself because of you, because of us
    (Routledge, 2022-08-15) Sánchez, Alba Montes; Salice, Alessandro
    Pride is generally portrayed as an emotion of self-appraisal or as a self-conscious emotion. When feeling pride, one evaluates (and therefore is intentionally directed towards) oneself as commendable in light either of one's achievements (agential pride) or one's identity or character traits (non-agential pride). This account adequately captures a large number of emotional episodes, but it notably leaves aside the social dimensions of pride. This chapter offers a view of pride as social in two senses. First, in its more minimal understanding, pride is a social emotion insofar as it reveals that a dimension of ourselves is exposable to and depends on others. Second, in a more specific sense, some instances of pride can be 'hetero-induced'. Hetero-induced pride is pride that is elicited by significant others, and more specifically, by those others whom we perceive as members of the same group to which we also belong. The aim of this chapter is to map the terrain of current research about pride while putting particular attention on the way in which sociality impacts pride.