Food and Nutritional Sciences - Journal Articles

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    Diet quality, sleep and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study
    (Springer, 2022-09-02) Dunk, Danielle; Mulryan, Philip; Affonso, Sean; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.; O'Keeffe, Majella; Sullivan, Aideen M.; Cork Parkinson’s Association
    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and non-motor symptoms that impact quality of daily life, including diet and sleep. However, relatively little is known about dietary intake and quality in people with PD (PwP). Lifestyle factors, and how they relate to diet, are also insufficiently understood. The aims of this study were to investigate dietary intake and quality, sleep and quality of life in PwP, and to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: Forty-five community-dwelling participants with PD (n = 45) were recruited to this cross-sectional study through the Cork Parkinson’s Association, Ireland. Dietary intake was assessed using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator. Dietary intakes were compared to Irish RDAs for adults > 65 years. Sleep duration and quality were subjectively measured using the PD Sleep Scale and Pittsburgh sleep quality index and objectively measured by actigraphy in a subset of participants (n = 27). QOL was measured using the validated PDQ-39 questionnaire. Results: Energy intake in PwP was significantly higher than that of the general population (2013 vs 1755 kcal/d, p = 0.01), despite their lower mean BMI (25.9 vs 27.7 kg/m2, p = 0.02). Intakes of carbohydrate, protein and fruits and vegetables were significantly higher in PwP compared to recommended and population intakes (all p < 0.01), but fibre intake was significantly lower than recommended (17.3 vs 25 g/d, p ≤ 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of participants had poor dietary quality, and poor sleep quality was associated with poor QOL. Conclusions: Carbohydrates, protein, fruit and vegetable intakes were greater in PwP than population norms, but overall diet quality was low. Interventions to improve dietary and lifestyle factors may improve health and QOL in PwP.
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    Valorisation process using lactic acid bacteria fermentation induces significant changes in the physical and functional properties of brewers spent yeast
    (MDPI, 2024-02-29) Jaeger, Alice; Nyhan, Laura; Sahin, Aylin W.; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Horizon 2020
    Brewer’s spent yeast (BSY) is a plentiful by-product of the brewing process. Currently regarded as a waste product, this low-value material is used in animal feed formulations or disposed of. However, BSY is known to be nutritionally dense, particularly regarding high-quality proteins, fibre, vitamins, and minerals. Previous work has examined the effect of a process including fermentation with Lactobacillus amylovorus FST 2.11 on BSY and indicates a reduction in bitterness intensity and an increase in sour and fruity flavours. The current study expands on this previous work, examining the changes in composition and functionality resulting from this upcycling process. The major changes include protein degradation and a decrease in pH, leading to increased protein solubility by 41%, increased foam stability by up to 69% at pH 7, and improved emulsion stabilising characteristics as well as differences in rheological behaviour during heating. Compositional changes are also detailed, with evidence of glucan and trehalose degradation. These changes in the physical and functional properties of BSY provide useful information, particularly with regard to the incorporation of BSY into food products for human consumption.
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    Modelling the changes in viscosity during thermal treatment of milk protein concentrate using kinetic data
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019) Ho, Quang Tri; Murphy, Kevin M.; Drapala, Kamil P.; Fenelon, Mark A.; O'Mahony, James A.; Tobin, John T.; McCarthy, Noel A.; Enterprise Ireland
    This work aimed to model the effect of heat treatment on viscosity of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using kinetic data. MPC obtained after ultrafiltration was subjected to different time-temperature heat treatment combinations. Heat treatment at high temperature and short time (i.e., 100 or 120 °C×30 s) led to a significant increase in viscosity in MPC systems. Second-order reaction kinetic models proved a better fit than zero- or first-order models when fitted for viscosity response to heat treatment. A distinct deviation in the slope of the Arrhenius plot at 77.9 °C correlated to a significant increase in the rate of viscosity development at temperatures above this, confirming the transition of protein denaturation from the unfolding to the aggregation stage. This study demonstrated that heat-induced viscosity of MPC as a result of protein denaturation/aggregation can be successfully modelled in response to thermal treatment, providing useful new information in predicting the effect of thermal treatment on viscosity of MPC. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
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    A comparison of pilot-scale supersonic direct steam injection to conventional steam infusion and tubular heating systems for the heat treatment of protein-enriched skim milk-based beverages
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019) Kelleher, Clodagh M.; Tobin, John T.; O'Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; O'Callaghan, Donal J.; McCarthy, Noel A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc
    Direct supersonic steam injection, direct steam infusion, and indirect tubular heating were each applied to protein-enriched skim milk-based beverages with 4, 6 and 8% (w/w) total protein, and the effect of final heat temperature on the physical properties of these beverages was investigated. Supersonic steam injection resulted in significantly lower levels of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (34.5%), compared to both infusion (76.3%) and tubular (97.1%) heating technologies. Viscosity, particle size and accelerated physical stability of formulations did not differ significantly between the heating technologies, while noticeable colour differences due to heat treatment (mainly attributed to increasing b* value) were observed, particularly for tubular heating. Overall, the extent of protein denaturation in high-protein dairy products was significantly influenced by the particular heating technology applied. The application of supersonic steam injection technology, with rapid heating and high shear characteristics, may enable differenciated product characteristics for ready-to-drink ambient-delivery high-protein dairy beverages. Industrial relevance: The design and application of novel direct supersonic steam injection technology was comprehensively studied and found to provide significant benefits over direct steam infusion and indirect tubular heating technologies for skim milk-based protein beverages. This type of injection heating system resulted in heat-treated formulations with lower levels of denatured whey proteins, compared to tubular and infusion heating, offering an alternative opportunity to the industry in terms of producing shelf-stable dairy protein beverages. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
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    Influence of herd diet on the metabolome of Maasdam cheeses
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019) Panthi, Ram R.; Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Kelly, Alan L.; Hennessy, Deirdre; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Mannion, David T.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Dairy Levy Trust FundDairy Research Ireland
    The untargeted metabolic profiles of ripened Maasdam cheese samples prepared from milk derived from three herd groups, fed: (1) indoors on total mixed ration (TMR), or outdoors on (2) grass only pasture (GRA) or (3) grass and white clover pasture (CLO) were studied using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HRMAS NMR) and headspace (HS) gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 compounds were identified using 1H NMR and 32 volatile compounds including 7 acids, 5 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 ketones, 4 sulfur compounds, 2 aldehydes, 3 hydrocarbons, 2 terpenes and a lactone were identified using GC–MS in Maasdam cheeses ripened for 97-d. On comparing the 1H NMR metabolic profiles, TMR-derived cheese had higher levels of citrate compared to GRA-derived cheese. The toluene content of cheese was significantly higher in GRA or CLO compared to TMR cheeses and dimethyl sulfide was identified only in CLO-derived cheese samples as detected using HS GC–MS. These compounds are proposed as indicator compounds for Maasdam cheese derived from pasture-fed milk. Clear differences between outdoor or indoor feeding systems in terms of cheese metabolites were detected in the lipid phase, as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA) from 1H HRMAS NMR spectra, although differences based on PCA of all 1H NMR spectra and HS-GC–MS were less clear. Overall, this study presented the metabolite profile and identified specific compounds which may be useful for discriminating between ripened Maasdam cheese and related cheese varieties manufactured from indoor or outdoor herd-feeding systems. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd