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- ItemEffect of microbial transglutaminase on functional, rheological, and structural properties of lentil protein-casein binary gels(2023-05-04) Tang, Qi; Roos, Yrjö H.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; Horizon 2020In recent years, various strategies have been introduced to partially substitute animal proteins with plant proteins. This study applied microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to crosslink lentil protein isolate (LPI) and casein. The gel mixtures prepared using different LPI-casein ratios (4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, 0:4), and the structural, gelation characteristics of these hetero-mixtures were investigated. SDS-PAGE showed the bands of vicilins (∼50 kDa), and 11S acidic subunit (∼40 kDa) almost disappeared and partly 11S basic subunit (20 kDa) involved in the polymerization, whereas almost all the bonds of casein were involved in the MTGase-induced gelation process. With the increasing concentration of casein, LPI-casein binary gels presented enhanced mechanical textural properties (increased from 284.83 to 1128.33g of hardness), rheological properties (increased from 105.8 to 4405 Pa of storage modulus), water holding capacity (increased from 63.86 to 98.82%) and more homogeneous and compact microstructural properties (CLSM, SEM) as a result of homologous and heterologous crosslinking mediated by MTGase. Interestingly, gels prepared by partial casein replacement (by 25% LPI) had similar textural, water holding capacity, and microstructural properties to those prepared by casein-alone gels, demonstrating the possibility of successfully replacing casein with 25% LPI in MTGase induced system. This study presents a new interaction strategy mediated by MTGase for LPI and casein binary system to greatly enhance their gelation performance, as well as the potential of LPI in substitute dairy to formulate diversified food products.
- ItemCharacterization and functional properties of pH- and heated time-induced aggregates from red lentil protein(Elsevier, 2023-07-28) Du, Han; Lin, Yichen; Stanton, Catherine; Daniloski, Davor; Zannini, Emanuele; Ross, R. Paul; Miao, Song; Teagasc; Horizon 2020In this study, red lentil isolate protein (RLPI, 3 %, w/v) was treated at pH 2 and 7 at 85 °C for a period of 0–24 h. The TEM and SDS-PAGE results indicated that the molecular weight of RLPI was steadily reduced and hydrolyzed into peptides over the prolonged heating time, eventually forming fibrillar and particulate aggregates at pH 2 and 7, respectively. The FTIR results showed an increased level of the proteins’ random coil motifs due to the excessive heating. According to the results of emulsifying properties, the emulsifying capabilities of fibrillar proteins were higher than those of the particle proteins at the same protein concentration due to the proteins’ structure and their surface charge. Notably, the fibrillar aggregates formed a gel network structure and stronger interactions in fibrillar aggregates compared to the particulate aggregates at pH 2. This study provides references for the processing and utilization of plant proteins in beverages and dietary supplements.
- ItemComparative studies of structural and thermal gelation behaviours of soy, lentil and whey protein: A pH-dependency evaluation(Elsevier, 2023-08-30) Tang, Qi; Roos, Yrjö H.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; Horizon 2020A growing global concern about human health, environment, and sustainable food supplies has motivated researchers to find new alternatives to dairy proteins. To investigate the effects of pH and protein varieties on the thermal gelation behaviors, plant protein (soy and lentil) and dairy protein (whey) were subjected to a variety of pH treatments. SDS-PAGE showed that only partial subunits of soy and lentil protein were involved in disulphide bonded aggregate formation regardless of pH, and that of whey protein was inhibited at acidic conditions and facilitated at higher pH. Both soy and lentil protein did not form self-standing gels at pH 5.0, while whey protein did, and all proteins displayed different morphologies as pH moved away from 5.0, from white, opaque, and heterogeneous to relatively transparent and homogeneous. Soy protein exhibited its optimal gel performance at pH 9.0 (storage modulus of 946.05 Pa) with the highest content of α-helix, intramolecular β-sheet, and intermolecular/aggregated β-sheet, while whey protein demonstrated its peak gel performance at pH 7.0 (storage modulus of 26271.90 Pa). Lentil protein displayed the best gel performance at pH 3.0 and was comparable to that of whey protein (storage modulus of 5366.00 and 4965.00 Pa, respectively). These findings confirmed that lentil protein has the potential to substitute whey and soy protein in formulations of diversified food products in some specific pH systems. This work highlighted the importance of pH control to achieve desired gelation performance and offered valuable insights for selecting suitable protein alternatives in formulating plant-based food products.
- ItemBeyond the Bayley: Neurocognitive assessments of development during infancy and toddlerhood(Routledge, 2019-01-07) Brito, Natalie H.; Fifer, William P.; Amso, Dima; Barr, Rachel; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan; Flynn, Albert; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Oakes, Lisa M.; Richards, John E.; Samuelson, Larissa M.; Colombo, JohnThe use of global, standardized instruments is conventional among clinicians and researchers interested in assessing neurocognitive development. Exclusively relying on these tests for evaluating effects may underestimate or miss specific effects on early cognition. The goal of this review is to identify alternative measures for possible inclusion in future clinical trials and interventions evaluating early neurocognitive development. The domains included for consideration are attention, memory, executive function, language, and socioemotional development. Although domain-based tests are limited, as psychometric properties have not yet been well-established, this review includes tasks and paradigms that have been reliably used across various developmental psychology laboratories.
- ItemModelling the impact of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread or flour in Ireland on the risk of occurrence of NTD-affected pregnancies in women of childbearing age and on risk of masking vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults(Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019-10-23) Kehoe, Laura; Walton, Janette; Hopkins, Sinead M.; McNulty, Breige A.; Nugent, Anne P.; Flynn, Albert; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandPurpose: The rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Europe has remained similar since the 1990s despite folic acid supplement recommendations (400 µg/day) for women of childbearing age. Mandatory folic acid fortification of staple foods has proved effective for reducing the prevalence of NTDs in over 80 countries. This study estimated the impact of addition of folic acid to bread or flour in the Republic of Ireland on reducing the risk of occurrence of NTD-affected pregnancies and the possible risk of masking (undiagnosed) vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults. Methods: Analyses were based on the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008–2010). Folic acid fortification was modelled using DaDiet© software. Estimates were made of the increase in average daily folic acid intake in women (18–50 years) and the risk of exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 1000 µg for folic acid in adults over 50 years of age. Results: The fortification scenarios examined would reduce the risk of NTD-affected pregnancies by 8–32%, corresponding to an increase of 39–152 μg in the mean daily folic acid intake of WCBA. The risk of masking anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults would be negligible as the probability of exceeding the UL for folic acid, even by a small amount, is very low (≤ 0.2%). Conclusions: These levels of addition of folic acid to bread or flour would effectively reduce the risk of NTDs while allowing safe consumption of folic acid at current levels from other fortified foods and supplements.