Food and Nutritional Sciences - Journal Articles

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    Comparison of the carotenoid profiles of commonly consumed smear-ripened cheeses
    (Elsevier B.V., 2020-09-29) Jonnala, Bhagya R. Yeluri; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Cotter, Paul D.; Zhong, Siqiong; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Teagasc; National Institutes of Health; Ohio State University; Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute
    The objective of this study was to identify the carotenoids imparting the orange colour to the rind, and pale yellow color to the core, of selected smear-ripened cheeses. The cheeses investigated were Charloe, Ashbrook, Taleggio, and Limburger, and were sourced from artisanal markets. Samples of the rind and core were extracted using non-polar solvents, followed by saponification to hydrolyze triglycerides to remove fatty acids, and to release carotenoid esters. Extracts were tested using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatograph-diode array detector-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS and -MS/MS), and identities of α- and β-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin confirmed with authentic standards. β-Carotene was the predominant species in both the rind and core, absorbing ~80% of the signal at 450 nm in all cheese extracts tested, as well as minor quantities of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene. Carotenoids unique to the rind included lycopene as well as the rare bacterial carotenoids previously identified in bacterial isolates of cheeses (i.e. decaprenoxanthin, sarcinaxanthin, and echinenone). This is the first detailed characterisation of carotenoids extracted directly from smear-ripened cheeses, and reveals that smear-ripened cheese can contribute both provitamin A carotenoids as well as C50 carotenoids to the human diet.
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    Nutritional priorities, practices and preferences of athletes and active individuals in the context of new product development in the sports nutrition sector
    (Frontiers Media, 2023-02-07) Carey, Conor C.; Doyle, Lorna; Lucey, Alice; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland
    Introduction: Sports nutrition is a rapidly growing sector with increasing demand for evidence-based nutritional products to support competitive and healthy lifestyles. The product development process for novel foods should rely heavily on end-user engagement to facilitate future success, however there is a dearth of published information available. An understanding of the practices and self-reported nutritional priorities of athletes and active individuals is required for the development of new food products, facilitating evidence-based product formulation. Methods: Participants were at least 18 years of age, actively participating in competitive sport or structured physical activity on at least two occasions per week. Participants were asked to undertake a comprehensive online survey assessing their nutritional practice, perceived nutritional priorities and preferences for product characteristics. Questions were developed on the basis of critical evaluation of the current scientific literature and the hosting of two scoping focus group sessions with prospective end-users. Results: 405 individuals (29 ± 9 years) completed this questionnaire. 295 participants reported active participation in competitive sport while the remaining 110 participants undertook structured physical activity exclusively. When asked to rank their top three most sought-after product claims in sports nutrition, “enhanced muscular recovery” was the most prioritised receiving 101 first choice preferences (25%) and 295 top 3 preferences. Fifty-eight percent of participants reported taking nutritional supplements. Caffeine containing functional foods (excluding caffeine supplements) were the most commonly used functional food group. A very low incidence of functional food usage was reported otherwise. When asked to rank the importance of various food product attributes, “nutritional profile” was ranked as the most important with rating of 3.37 ± 0.7 out of 4 followed by “taste” and “accessibility”. Whole food nutritional products received the most first preference selections and most top 3 selections when presented with a number of popular performance and recovery products on the market. Conclusions: The transition towards a food first approach in sports nutrition is vital for athletes and active individuals to achieve their goals; with the development of evidence-based functional foods, particularly with a focus on muscle recovery, endurance, and strength enhancement at the forefront for new food product design and innovation.
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    Aroma generation in sponge cakes: The influence of sucrose particle size and sucrose source
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2023-03-21) Garvey , Emer C.; O'Sullivan , Maurice G.; Kerry , Joseph P.; Kilcawley , Kieran N.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland
    The influence of sucrose source and particle size was investigated in relation to the volatile and aromatic properties of sponge cakes. Six sponge cake formulations were studied using two sucrose sources (sugarbeet and sugarcane), at two particle sizes (large and small) with controls. Volatiles profiles and odour active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and olfactometry. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified, incorporating twenty five odour active compounds/co-eluting compounds, with 5 odours perceived without any corresponding volatile. Particle size had the greatest impact on volatile abundance, with particle size especially influencing pyrazine abundance. Five odour active volatiles (methional, furfural, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, heptanal and (E)-2-octenal) contributed most to the aroma of these sponge cakes. Small particle size particularly from sugarbeet yielded higher levels of some Maillard and caramelisation reaction compounds, such as furfural (spicy/ bready), where larger particle size supressed volatile abundance in comparison to the control.
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    Extensive bacteriocin gene shuffling in the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex reveals gallocin D with activity against vancomycin resistant enterococci
    (Springer Nature, 2020-12) Hill, Colin; O'Connor, Paula M.; Altermann, Eric; Day, Li; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Teagasc; Food Processing for Health Longlife Project; Science Foundation Ireland
    Streptococcus gallolyticus LL009 produces gallocin D, a narrow spectrum two component bacteriocin with potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Gallocin D is distinct from gallocin A, a separate two component bacteriocin produced by S. gallolyticus. Although the gene clusters encoding gallocin A and gallocin D have a high degree of gene synteny, the structural genes are highly variable and appear to have undergone gene shuffling with other streptococcal species. Gallocin D was analysed in laboratory-based experiments. The mature peptides are 3,343 ± 1 Da and 3,019 ± 1 Da and could be readily synthesized and display activity against a vancomycin resistant Enterococcus strain EC300 with a MIC value of 1.56 µM. Importantly, these bacteriocins could contribute to the ability of S. gallolyticus to colonize the colon where they have been associated with colorectal cancer.
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    Rejuvenated brewer's spent grain: the impact of two BSG-derived ingredients on techno-functional and nutritional characteristics of fibre-enriched pasta
    (Elsevier, 2021-03) Sahin, Aylin W.; Hardiman, Kate; Atzler, Jonas J.; Vogelsang-O'Dwyer, Martin; Valdeperez, Daniel; Münch, Steffen; Cattaneo, Giacomo; O'Riordan, Patrick; Arendt, Elke K.
    Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG), rich in fibre and protein is mostly used for animal feed but has great potential to be used as an ingredient for cereal based products. Originated from BSG, the two ingredients EverVita Fibra (EVF) high in fibre; and EverVita Pro (EVP) high in protein, were used to produce fibre-enriched pasta and compared to semolina, wholemeal flour and a commercial fibre-rich pasta. Analysis of gluten network development and pasting properties revealed the formation of a stronger network by the incorporation of EVP resulting in a compact pasta structure which led to a higher pasta firmness and tensile strength and a decrease in predicted glycaemic index compared to the controls. EVF resulted in an inferior product compared to EVP but was comparable to the semolina control. Hence, EVF and EVP have the potential to increase nutritional value of pasta while maintaining or even improving pasta quality and encouraging the recycling of by-streams for food production.