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    Machine learning detects intraventricular haemorrhage in extremely preterm infants
    (MDPI, 2023-05-23) Ashoori, Minoo; O’Toole, John M.; O’Halloran, Ken D.; Naulaers, Gunnar; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Miletin, Jan; Cheung, Po-Yin; EL-Khuffash, Afif; Van Laere, David; Straňák, Zbyněk; Dempsey, Eugene M.; McDonald, Fiona B.; Science Foundation Ireland; Seventh Framework Programme; University College Cork
    Objective: To test the potential utility of applying machine learning methods to regional cerebral (rcSO2) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) signals to detect brain injury in extremely preterm infants. Study design: A subset of infants enrolled in the Management of Hypotension in Preterm infants (HIP) trial were analysed (n = 46). All eligible infants were <28 weeks’ gestational age and had continuous rcSO2 measurements performed over the first 72 h and cranial ultrasounds performed during the first week after birth. SpO2 data were available for 32 infants. The rcSO2 and SpO2 signals were preprocessed, and prolonged relative desaturations (PRDs; data-driven desaturation in the 2-to-15-min range) were extracted. Numerous quantitative features were extracted from the biosignals before and after the exclusion of the PRDs within the signals. PRDs were also evaluated as a stand-alone feature. A machine learning model was used to detect brain injury (intraventricular haemorrhage-IVH grade II–IV) using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the PRD rcSO2 was 0.846 (95% CI: 0.720–0.948), outperforming the rcSO2 threshold approach (AUC 0.593 95% CI 0.399–0.775). Neither the clinical model nor any of the SpO2 models were significantly associated with brain injury. Conclusion: There was a significant association between the data-driven definition of PRDs in rcSO2 and brain injury. Automated analysis of PRDs of the cerebral NIRS signal in extremely preterm infants may aid in better prediction of IVH compared with a threshold-based approach. Further investigation of the definition of the extracted PRDs and an understanding of the physiology underlying these events are required.
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    Crying wolf: A qualitative review of misinformation and conspiracy theories in lupus erythematosus
    (SAGE Publishing, 2023-05-12) Porter, Emma; Murphy, Michelle; O’Connor, Cathal
    Background: Lupus comprises a complex group of inflammatory disorders including cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The issue of health misinformation is increasingly problematic, although the content of misinformation related to lupus available online has not been deeply explored. This study aimed to qualitatively assess the type of misinformation related to lupus available online. Methods: A literature search on PubMed was conducted, using search terms “cutaneous lupus” OR “discoid lupus” OR “lupus” AND “misinformation” OR “conspiracy” OR “disinformation.” Further searches were also performed on Google, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok. Results: Published literature describing lupus-related misinformation was minimal, with only three manuscripts identified. Conversely, a variety of points of misinformation were identified online and on social media. Key themes identified in online content included suggestion of incorrect causes such as infection or aspartame consumption, false risk assessments such as lupus never developing in males, false claims about conventional treatments, and promotion of alternative treatments or “cures” without evidence. Conclusion: Dermatologists, rheumatologists, and all clinicians treating patients with lupus play an essential role in dispelling the pervasive misinformation surrounding the disease and its treatments, encouraging patients to seek reliable sources of information, and advocating for evidence-based guidance.
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    Reference centiles for infant sleep parameters from 4 to 16 weeks of age: findings from an Irish cohort
    (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2023-03-21) O'Sullivan, Marc Paul; Livingstone, Vicki; Korotchikova, Irina; Dempsey, Eugene M.; Murray, Deirdre M.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Science Foundation Ireland; Johnson and Johnson
    Objectives: To establish unconditional reference centiles for sleep parameters in infants 4–16 weeks of age. Design and setting: Secondary data analysis of sleep parameters recorded at 4–16 weeks of age in a longitudinal randomised controlled trial (RCT) (BabySMART). Patients: Healthy term infants assigned to the non-intervention arm of the RCT. Main outcome measures: Infants’ sleep duration was recorded by parents/guardians daily, from week 2–16 of age using a sleep diary. Reference centiles for total, daytime, night-time and longest sleep episode duration were estimated using multilevel modelling. Results: One hundred and six infants, mean (SD) gestational age of 39.9 (1.2) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight of 3.6 (0.5) kg had sleep recorded contributing 1264 measurements for each sleep parameter. Between 4 and 16 weeks of age total sleep duration in a 24-hour period, night-time sleep duration in a 12-hour period and infant’s longest sleep episode duration increased, while daytime sleep duration in a 12-hour period decreased. Conclusions: Reference centiles up to 4 months of age in infants highlight the gradual decrease in daytime sleep and large increases in night-time sleep, which occur in tandem with increasing lengths of sleep episodes. These reference centiles provide useful sleep values for infant sleep trajectory occurring in early life and may be helpful for parents and clinicians.
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    Shared and fragmented understandings in interorganizational IT project teams: An interpretive case study
    (Elsevier, 2021-08-05) McCarthy, Stephen; O'Raghallaigh, Paidi; Fitzgerald, Ciara; Adam, Frédéric
    Shared understanding is essential in interorganizational projects to integrate the divergent knowledge of individual team members and support collaborative knowledge building. This can nevertheless be a challenging undertaking in interorganizational projects as team members must continuously negotiate differences in their organizational and professional backgrounds during project work. In this paper, we explore how interorganizational IT project teams deal with sources of ‘fragmentation’ in their understanding, explicating the theoretical and practical implications that these have for project management. Our study is needed to explore the increasingly complex and emergent nature of interorganizational project management today where neither goals nor the means of attainment are known with precision at a project's launch. We analyze interpretive case study findings from an 8-month IT project involving diverse organizations from industry, academia, and healthcare. Based on our findings, we develop a framework which highlights the relationship between three sources of fragmentation of understanding (interpersonal, technical, and contextual) across key project activities. We contribute towards project management literature by revealing how these sources of fragmentation might be overcome through framing project activities (the problem, method, and solution formulation) differently. While fragmentation may characterize any, or all, of these key activities, it is not without remedy.
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    Microbiome-immune interactions and relationship to asthma severity
    (Elsevier Inc., 2021-12-22) Trujillo, Juan; Lunjani, Nonhlanhla; Ryan, Dermot; O’Mahony, Liam
    Microbial-derived factors are integral components of the molecular circuitry that regulates immune and metabolic functions required for host fitness and survival. Recent advances in culture-based methods and sequencing technologies have revealed previously unappreciated complex communities of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that inhabit the respiratory tract and whose composition and activity are correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In this article, we will summarize our knowledge to date on the role of the microbiota in severe asthma, acknowledging that data specific to severe asthma are currently limited.