Development of a lab on a chip electrochemical immunosensor array for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental of water

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dc.contributor.advisor Moore, Eric en Felemban, Shifa Jameel 2020-09-04T08:11:38Z 2020-09-04T08:11:38Z 2020-01 2020-01
dc.identifier.citation Felemban, S. J. 2020. Development of a lab on a chip electrochemical immunosensor array for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental of water. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. en
dc.identifier.endpage 211 en
dc.description.abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a very large group of organic compounds made of carbon and hydrogen atoms. These compounds present an important impact as environmental pollutants. They are a primary concern for human health, as PAHs have been reported to increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is therefore of high importance to avail of a method to detect them in any matter that humans may get in contact with, such as food, soil and water. The European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) recommends a value of 0.01ng/ml as a limit for Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels in drinking water. Traditionally, detection of PAHs in the environment was done using commercial equipment such as HPLC-fluorescence detection and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). However, these techniques are often expensive, use large amounts of toxic solvents, are time-consuming, and non-portable [8,9]. In this research, immunosensors were used for BaP determination in water sample. Immunosensors are affinity biosensors based on the specific interaction between antigens and antibodies; this interaction could be monitored by several techniques including electrochemistry. Voltammetric detection with the immunosensor provides an approach, which could be performed in small portable instrument for in-field measurements. Electrochemistry technique has several advantages compared to other techniques; it is easy to apply and also have the advantages of miniaturisation, portability, real measurement time, lowcost production and fabrication without reducing their levels of detection or sensitivity. This thesis is to address the shortcomings of the current techniques. The study presented in this thesis described the development of the immunosensors with electrochemical detection for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in environmental monitoring of water. This work shows how the integration of electrochemical techniques with an immunoassay method can reach limits of detection as low as required for the analysis of water samples in situ and in real time. In particular, we targeted to detect the presence of (BaP) in water. Results obtained by optical and electrochemical detections were validated with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The usage of this method as a complement to the electrochemical studies, not only increased the quality of the research, but also helped in the construction and improvement of immunosensors. They were not reliable, but also represent accurate characteristics to be employed in miniaturised sensor and fluidic system. This thesis is organized in six chapters and a brief explanation for each of them is shown below: Chapter 1 is a general introduction about the essential concepts and conditions used in this thesis. Chapter 2 offers an understanding of the key principles of optical immunoassay involved in this thesis. An optical immunoassay using a 96-well microtiter plate as a solid surface was developed. Chapter 3 the application of the developed electrochemical immunosensors was discussed. Chapter 4, focuses on the design, fabrication and characterization of a Q-sens (Lab On a Chip) that was developed for use in electrochemical application. Chapter 5 demonstrates the validation study in order to confirm that the applied developed method for a PAH was suitable for its intended use. The validation could compare the reliability and sensitivity of the developed results. Chapter 6 represents the conclusion and future perspectives. Basis: The objective of the work presented is to develop an electrochemical sensing array to detect PAHs in the environment, as they represent a toxic threat for health in water and the current detection methods are time consuming and non-portable. Hypothesis: The research will focus on the integration of a sensor arrays with immunoassay and electrochemical detection methods. Water samples will be spiked with PAHs and tested using the immunosensor arrays. ELISA will be used to help validate the electrochemical analysis This project show the work done towards the optimisation of the immunoassay protocol for PAHs detection in water samples, and its transfer into a lab-on-a chip application that has a particular focus on environmental screening. Research strategy: The first year aim of the research was to optimize ELISA reagents and detection methods. The second year and first half of the third year of the research were for integrating the immunoassay method with lab on a chip platform. The second half of the third year was for the interfaces between lab on a chip platform and the bio recognition element modified with the addition of metal nanoparticle, magnetic beads. During the last year the research terminated with final testing and comparison system. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University College Cork en
dc.rights © 2020, Shifa Jameel Felemban. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.subject Chip electrochemical immunosensor en
dc.subject Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons en
dc.subject PAHs en
dc.subject Environmental of water en
dc.subject Development of a lab en
dc.subject Environmental pollutants en
dc.title Development of a lab on a chip electrochemical immunosensor array for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental of water en
dc.type Doctoral thesis en
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en
dc.type.qualificationname PhD - Doctor of Philosophy en
dc.internal.availability Full text not available en
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.contributor.funder Umm Al-Qura University en
dc.contributor.funder Ministry of Higher Education of Saudi Arabia en
dc.description.status Not peer reviewed en Chemistry en
dc.internal.conferring Autumn 2020 en
dc.internal.ricu Tyndall National Institute en
dc.contributor.advisorexternal Vazquez, Patricia en
dc.availability.bitstream embargoed 2021-07-14

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