Electrochemical detection of free-chlorine in Water samples facilitated by in-situ pH control using interdigitated microelectrodes

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dc.contributor.author Seymour, Ian P.
dc.contributor.author O'Sullivan, Benjamin
dc.contributor.author Lovera, Pierre
dc.contributor.author Rohan, James F.
dc.contributor.author O'Riordan, Alan
dc.date.accessioned 2020-09-17T10:08:38Z
dc.date.available 2020-09-17T10:08:38Z
dc.date.issued 2020-08-31
dc.identifier.citation Seymour, I., O’Sullivan, B., Lovera, P., Rohan, J. F. and O’Riordan, A. (2020) 'Electrochemical detection of free-chlorine in Water samples facilitated by in-situ pH control using interdigitated microelectrodes', Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 325, 128774, (9 pp). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2020.128774 en
dc.identifier.volume 325 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1 en
dc.identifier.endpage 9 en
dc.identifier.issn 0925-4005
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/10541
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.snb.2020.128774 en
dc.description.abstract Residual free-chlorine concentration in water supplies is a key metric studied to ensure disinfection. High residual chlorine concentrations lead to unpleasant odours and tastes, while low concentrations may lead to inadequate disinfection. The concentration is most commonly monitored using colorimetric techniques which require additional reagents. Electrochemical analysis offers the possibility for in-line analysis without the need for additional reagents. Electrochemical-based detection of chlorine is influenced by the solution pH, which defines the particular chlorine ionic species present in solution. As such, controlling the pH is essential to enable electrochemical based detection of residual chlorine in water. To this end, we explore the application of solid state interdigitated electrodes to tailor the in-situ pH of a solution while simultaneously detecting free-chlorine. Finite element simulations and subsequent electrochemical characterization, using gold interdigitated microelectrode arrays, were employed to explore the feasibility of an in-situ pH control approach. In practice, the approach converted residual chlorine from an initial mixture of two species (hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion), to one species (hypochlorous acid). Chlorine detection was shown in water samples using this exploratory method, resulting in a two-fold increase in signal response, compared to measurements without pH control. Finally, tap water samples were measured using the in-situ pH control method and the results showed excellent correlation (within experimental error) with a commercial instrument, demonstrating the efficacy of the developed technique. This work establishes the possibility of deploying an electrochemical based reagent-free, in-line chlorine sensor required for water distribution networks. en
dc.description.sponsorship Science Foundation Ireland and the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (on behalf of the Government of Ireland under the Grant 16/RC/3835 (VistaMilk), and supported from research conducted with the financial support of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number 13/RC/2077 (Connect) and is co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Elsevier en
dc.relation.uri http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400520311217
dc.rights © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence. en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ en
dc.subject Chlorine sensing en
dc.subject Water quality monitoring en
dc.subject In situ pH control en
dc.subject Amperometric sensor en
dc.subject Interdigitated array en
dc.subject Hypochlorous acid en
dc.title Electrochemical detection of free-chlorine in Water samples facilitated by in-situ pH control using interdigitated microelectrodes en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Alan O'Riordan, Tyndall Micronano Electronics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: alan.oriordan@tyndall.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.check.info Access to this article is restricted until 24 months after publication by request of the publisher. en
dc.check.date 2022-08-31
dc.date.updated 2020-09-17T09:54:54Z
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.internal.rssid 536907374
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland en
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland en
dc.contributor.funder European Regional Development Fund en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Sensors And Actuators B: Chemical en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress alan.oriordan@tyndall.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress benjamin.osullivan@tyndall.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress ian.seymour@tyndall.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress pierre.lovera@tyndall.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress james.rohan@tyndall.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid 128774 en
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/SFI/SFI Research Centres/13/RC/2077/IE/CONNECT: The Centre for Future Networks & Communications/ en


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© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence.
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