Vitamin D status and requirements during pregnancy and lactation

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dc.contributor.advisor Kiely, Mairead en Zhang, Yue 2014-02-03T11:52:02Z 2013 2013
dc.identifier.citation Zhang, Y. 2013. Vitamin D status and requirements during pregnancy and lactation. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. en
dc.description.abstract Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, lactation, and early infancy has been widely reported. Current understanding of vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete, and to date, experimental data to support vitamin D requirements for these life stages are scarce. There is a shortage of nationally representative data and appropriate reference ranges for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) during pregnancy, lactation and infancy, including in umbilical cord blood. This thesis described concentrations of total 25OHD and individual metabolites including 25OHD3, 25OHD2, and 3-epi-25OHD3 at 15 weeks’ gestation in a large seasonally balanced pregnancy cohort study (n 1768), carried out in Cork, Ireland (52oN). The prevalence of low 25OHD concentrations in pregnant women was higher than published reports in other Caucasian women, and was highest among non-users of vitamin D-containing supplements during winter. A longitudinal pregnancy study was included which suggested gestational stages had an impact on the total serum 25OHD concentration. This thesis incorporated a randomized controlled trial carried out among 100 women across 3 intervention groups using 20 μg/day of vitamin D3 with or without 500 mg calcium, or placebo, over 12-weeks of lactation to investigate the vitamin D requirement for lactating mothers and the vitamin D content of human milk. A daily intake of 25 μg/day was suggested to meet the requirement of lactating women to maintain a 25OHD levels above 50 nmol/L in 97.5% of the population at 52oN all year around. However, vitamin D content in human milk did not increase in response to supplementation. Serum 25OHD concentration has been used as a predictor of a number of health outcomes. This thesis reported large differences in serum 25OHD concentrations using different methods in 86 umbilical cord samples. The need for international standardization of serum 25OHD measurements was re-emphasized in this thesis. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, Ireland (Food Institutional Research Measure); Higher Education Authority (Program for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI Cycle 4) ) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University College Cork en
dc.rights © 2013, Yue Zhang. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.subject Vitamin D en
dc.subject 25-hydroxyvitamin D en
dc.subject c-3 epimer en
dc.subject Pregnancy en
dc.subject Breastfeeding en
dc.subject Cord en
dc.subject SCOPE en
dc.subject LCMS en
dc.subject.lcsh Vitamin D in human nutrition en
dc.subject.lcsh Pregnancy--Nutritional aspects en
dc.title Vitamin D status and requirements during pregnancy and lactation en
dc.type Doctoral thesis en
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en
dc.type.qualificationname PhD (Food Science and Technology) en
dc.internal.availability Full text not available en Indefinite en 10000-01-01
dc.description.version Accepted Version
dc.contributor.funder Health Research Board en
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ireland en
dc.contributor.funder Higher Education Authority en
dc.description.status Not peer reviewed en Food and Nutritional Sciences en
dc.check.reason This thesis is due for publication or the author is actively seeking to publish this material en
dc.check.opt-out Yes en
dc.thesis.opt-out true
dc.check.entireThesis Entire Thesis Restricted
dc.check.embargoformat Hard bound copy in Library only en
dc.internal.conferring Autumn Conferring 2013 en

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© 2013, Yue Zhang. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2013, Yue Zhang.
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