Indefinite. Restriction lift date: 10000-01-01
The role of mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in neurotoxic and inflammatory-induced changes in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons: relevance to Parkinson’s disease
Collins, Louise M.
University College Cork
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta(SNpc), which results in motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Evidence supports a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 in the demise of dopaminergic neurons, while mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which negatively regulates p38 activity, has not yet been investigated in this context. Inflammation may also be associated with the neuropathology of PD due to evidence of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) within the SNpc. Because of the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons in a discreet region of the brain, PD is considered a suitable candidate for cell replacement therapy but challenges remain to optimise dopaminergic cell survival and morphological development. The present thesis examined the role of MKP-1 in neurotoxic and inflammatory-induced changes in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We show that MKP-1 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons cultured from embryonic day (E) 14 rat ventral mesencephalon (VM). Inhibition of dopaminergic neurite growth induced by treatment of rat VM neurons with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is mediated by p38, and is concomitant with a significant and selective decrease in MKP-1 expression in these neurons. Dopaminergic neurons transfected to overexpress MKP-1 displayed a more complex morphology and contributed to neuroprotection against the effects of 6-OHDA. Therefore, MKP-1 expression can promote the growth and elaboration of dopaminergic neuronal processes and can help protect them from the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) have emerged as promising alternative candidates to fetal VM for cell replacement strategies in PD. Here we show that phosphorylated (and thus activated) p38 and MKP-1 are expressed at basal levels in untreated E14 rat VM NPCs (nestin, DCX, GFAP and DAT-positive cells) following proliferation as well as in their differentiated progeny (DCX, DAT, GFAP and βIII-tubulin) in vitro. Challenge with 6-OHDA or IL-1β changed the expression of endogenous phospho-p38 and MKP-1 in these cells in a time-dependent manner, and so the dynamic balance in expression may mediate the detrimental effects of neurotoxicity and inflammation in proliferating and differentiating NPCs. We demonstrate that there was an up-regulation in MKP-1 mRNA expression in adult rat midbrain tissue 4 days post lesion in two rat models of PD; the 6-OHDA medial forebrain bundle (MFB) model and the four-site 6-OHDA striatal lesion model. This was concomitant with a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression at 4 and 10 days post-lesion in the MFB model and 10 and 28 days post-lesion in the striatal lesion model. There was no change in mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, bax and the anti-apoptotic gene, bcl-2 in the midbrain and striatum. These data suggest that the early and transient upregulation of MKP-1 mRNA in the midbrain at 4 days post-6-OHDA administration may be indicative of an attempt by dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain to protect against the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA at later time points. Collectively, these findings show that MKP-1 is expressed by developing and adult dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, and can promote their morphological development. MKP-1 also exerts neuroprotective effects against dopaminergic neurotoxins in vitro, and its expression in dopaminergic neurons can be modulated by inflammatory and neurotoxic insults both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these data contribute to the information needed to develop therapeutic strategies for protecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the context of PD.
Neuroscience , Inflammation , MKP-1 , Dopaminergic neuron , Growth and development , p-38
Collins, L. M. 2013. The role of mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in neurotoxic and inflammatory-induced changes in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.