Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks

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dc.contributor.author Ravinet, Mark
dc.contributor.author Hynes, Rosaleen
dc.contributor.author Poole, Russell
dc.contributor.author Cross, Thomas F. en
dc.contributor.author McGinnity, Philip
dc.contributor.author Harrod, Chris
dc.contributor.author Prodhl, Paulo A.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-02-17T10:07:58Z
dc.date.available 2016-02-17T10:07:58Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.citation Ravinet M, Hynes R, Poole R, Cross TF, McGinnity P, Harrod C, et al. (2015) Where the Lake Meets the Sea: Strong Reproductive Isolation Is Associated with Adaptive Divergence between Lake Resident and Anadromous Three-Spined Sticklebacks. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0122825. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122825
dc.identifier.volume 10 en
dc.identifier.issued 4 en
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/2311
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0122825
dc.description.abstract Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean F-ST = 0.12), we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an important foundation for future work investigating the dynamics of gene flow and adaptive divergence in this newly discovered stickleback contact zone. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Beaufort Marine Research Award in Fish Population Genetics) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en
dc.rights © 2015 Ravinet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Lateral plate reduction en
dc.subject Last glacial maximum en
dc.subject Threespine stickleback en
dc.subject Gasterosteus aculeatus en
dc.subject Population structure en
dc.subject Ecological speciation en
dc.subject Hybrid zones en
dc.subject Genetic divergence en
dc.subject Stream stickleback en
dc.subject Ectodysplasin alleles en
dc.title Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Thomas Cross, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: t.cross@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.wokid WOS:000353014700025
dc.contributor.funder Department for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle PLOS ONE en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress t.cross@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid e0122825


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© 2015 Ravinet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2015 Ravinet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
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