Protein quality and the protein to carbohydrate ratio within a high fat diet influences energy balance and the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice

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dc.contributor.author McAllan, Liam
dc.contributor.author Skuse, Peter
dc.contributor.author Cotter, Paul D.
dc.contributor.author O'Connor, Paula M.
dc.contributor.author Cryan, John F.
dc.contributor.author Ross, R. Paul
dc.contributor.author Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
dc.contributor.author Roche, Helen M.
dc.contributor.author Nilaweera, Kanishka N.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-02-17T11:44:41Z
dc.date.available 2016-02-17T11:44:41Z
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.identifier.citation McAllan L, Skuse P, Cotter PD, Connor PO, Cryan JF, Ross RP, et al. (2014) Protein Quality and the Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio within a High Fat Diet Influences Energy Balance and the Gut Microbiota In C57BL/6J Mice. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88904. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088904
dc.identifier.volume 9 en
dc.identifier.issued 2 en
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/2342
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0088904
dc.description.abstract Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNFα and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of β3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/ 40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality. en
dc.description.sponsorship Teagasc (Vision Programme on Obesity; PhD Walsh Fellowship); Science Foundation Ireland (SFI Grant No. 11/PI/1119) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en
dc.rights © 2015 McAllan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Alpha-lactalbumin increases en
dc.subject Milk-derived lactoferrin en
dc.subject Neutral amino acids en
dc.subject Body-weight gain en
dc.subject Whey protein en
dc.subject Induced obesity en
dc.subject Antibacterial activity en
dc.subject Vulnerable subjects en
dc.subject Next generation en
dc.subject Nervous system en
dc.title Protein quality and the protein to carbohydrate ratio within a high fat diet influences energy balance and the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother John Cryan, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: j.cryan@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.wokid WOS:000331254600115
dc.contributor.funder Teagasc
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle PLOS ONE en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress j.cryan@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid e88904


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© 2015 McAllan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2015 McAllan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
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