Reduction of salt in yeasted wheat bread: impact on bread quality and solutions using sourdough fermented by functional lactic acid bacteria strains

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dc.contributor.advisor Arendt, Elke K. en Belz, Markus C. E. 2016-06-15T08:34:31Z 2016-06-15T08:34:31Z 2016 2016
dc.identifier.citation Belz, M. C. E. 2016. Reduction of salt in yeasted wheat bread: impact on bread quality and solutions using sourdough fermented by functional lactic acid bacteria strains. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. en
dc.identifier.endpage 191 en
dc.description.abstract The dietary intake of sodium chloride has increased considerably over the last few decades due to changes in the human diet. This higher intake has been linked to a number of diseases including hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Numerous international health agencies, as well as the food industry, have now recommended a salt intake level of 5-6 g daily, approximately half of the average current daily intake level. Cereal products, and in particular bread, are a major source of salt in the Western diet. Therefore, any reduction in the level of salt in bread could have a major impact on global health. However, salt is a critical ingredient in bread production, and its reduction can have a deleterious effect on the production process as well as on the final bread quality characteristics such as shelf-life, bread volume and sensory characteristics, all deviating from the bakers’ and consumers’ expectations. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focusing on options to compensate NaCl with the use of functional sourdoughs. Three strains were used for the application of low-salt bread; L. amylovorus DSM19280, W. cibaria MG1 and L. reuteri FF2hh2. The multifunctional strain L. reuteri FF2hh2 was tested the first time and its application could be demonstrated successfully. The functionalities were based on the production of exopolysaccharides as well as the production of antifungal compounds. While the exopolysaccharides, mainly high molecular dextrans, positively influenced mainly bread loaf volume, crumb structure and staling rate, the strains producing antifungal compounds prolonged the microbial shelf life significantly and compensated the lack of salt. The impact on the sensory characteristics of bread were evaluated by descriptive sensory evaluation. The increase in surface area as well as the presence of organic acids impacted significantly on the flavour profile of the sourdough bread samples. The flavour attribute “salt” could be enhanced by sourdough addition and increased the salty perception. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel evaluated for the first time the impact of yeast activity, based on different salt and yeast concentrations, on the volatile aroma profile of bread crumb samples. The analytical measurements using high resolution gas chromatography and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) resulted in significantly different results based on different yeast activities. Nevertheless, the extent of the result could not be recognised by the sensory panel analysing the odour profile of the bread crumb samples. Hence, the consumer cannot recognised low-salt bread by its odour. The use of sourdough is a natural option to overcome the broad range of technological issues caused by salt reduction and also a more popular alternative compared to existing chemical salt replacers. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ireland (National Development Plan) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University College Cork en
dc.rights © 2016, Markus C. E. Belz. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.subject Salt reduction in yeasted wheat bread en
dc.subject Sourdough technology en
dc.subject Lactic acid bacteria en
dc.subject Shelf life extension en
dc.subject Bread crumb aroma analyses en
dc.title Reduction of salt in yeasted wheat bread: impact on bread quality and solutions using sourdough fermented by functional lactic acid bacteria strains en
dc.type Doctoral thesis en
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en
dc.type.qualificationname PhD (Food Science and Technology) en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en No embargo required en
dc.description.version Accepted Version
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ireland en
dc.description.status Not peer reviewed en Food and Nutritional Sciences en
dc.check.type No Embargo Required
dc.check.reason No embargo required en
dc.check.opt-out No en
dc.thesis.opt-out false
dc.check.embargoformat Not applicable en
dc.internal.conferring Summer 2016 en

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© 2016, Markus C. E. Belz. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2016, Markus C. E. Belz.
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