The effect of gestational and lactational age on the human milk metabolome

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dc.contributor.author Sundekilde, Ulrik K.
dc.contributor.author Downey, Eimear
dc.contributor.author O'Mahony, James A.
dc.contributor.author O'Shea, Carol Anne
dc.contributor.author Ryan, C. Anthony
dc.contributor.author Kelly, Alan L.
dc.contributor.author Bertram, Hanne C.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-20T13:25:06Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-20T13:25:06Z
dc.date.issued 2016-05-19
dc.identifier.citation Sundekilde, U.K.; Downey, E.; O’Mahony, J.A.; O’Shea, C.-A.; Ryan, C.A.; Kelly, A.L.; Bertram, H.C. (2016) The effect of gestational and lactational age on the human milk metabolome’, Nutrients, 8(5): 304. doi:10.3390/nu8050304 en
dc.identifier.volume 8 en
dc.identifier.issued 5 en
dc.identifier.startpage 304-1 en
dc.identifier.endpage 304-15 en
dc.identifier.issn 2072-6643
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3101
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/nu8050304
dc.description.abstract Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5-7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher MDPI en
dc.rights © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Human milk en
dc.subject Infant en
dc.subject Metabolites en
dc.subject Metabolomics en
dc.subject NMR en
dc.subject Nuclear magnetic resonance en
dc.subject Nutrition en
dc.subject Pre-term en
dc.title The effect of gestational and lactational age on the human milk metabolome en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Seamus A. O'Mahony, School of Food & Nutritional Sciences University College Cork College Road Cork T: +353 21 4903625. F: +353 21 4276398. E: sa.omahony@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Nutrients en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress sa.omahony@ucc.ie en


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© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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