The impact of the gut microbiota on drug metabolism and clinical outcome

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Enright, Elaine F.
Gahan, Cormac G.
Joyce, Susan A.
Griffin, Brendan T.
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Yale School of Medicine
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The significance of the gut microbiota as a determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and accordingly therapeutic response is of increasing importance with the advent of modern medicines characterised by low solubility and/or permeability, or modified-release. These physicochemical properties and release kinetics prolong drug residence times within the gastrointestinal tract, wherein biotransformation by commensal microbes can occur. As the evidence base in support of this supplementary metabolic “organ” expands, novel opportunities to engineer the microbiota for clinical benefit have emerged. This review provides an overview of microbe-mediated alteration of drug pharmacokinetics, with particular emphasis on studies demonstrating proof of concept in vivo. Additionally, recent advances in modulating the microbiota to improve clinical response to therapeutics are explored.
Microbiota , Microbiome , Drug metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Gastrointestinal
Enright, E. F., Gahan, C. G. M., Joyce, S. A. and Griffin, B. T. (2016) ‘The impact of the gut microbiota on drug metabolism and clinical outcome’, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89(3), pp. 375-382.