Impact of exercise on innate immunity in multiple sclerosis progression and symptomatology
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Ryan, Aisling M.
Yap, Siew M.
Allen, Andrew P.
O'Halloran, Ken D.
Downer, Eric J.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic progressive immune-mediated neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. It accounts for functional deterioration and lasting disability among young adults. A body of literature demonstrates that physical activity counteracts fatigue and depression and may improve overall quality of life in MS patients. Furthermore, much data indicates that exercise ameliorates chronic neuroinflammation and its related pathologies by tipping cytokine profiles toward an anti-inflammatory signature. Recent data has focused on the direct impact of exercise training on the innate immune system by targeting toll-like receptors (TLRs), signaling pattern recognition receptors that govern the innate immune response, shedding light on the physiological role of TLRs in health and disease. Indeed, TLRs continue to emerge as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning MS. This review will highlight evidence that physical activity and exercise are potential immunomodulatory therapies, targeting innate signaling mechanism(s) to modulate MS symptom development and progression.
Multiple Sclerosis , Exercise , Neuroinflammation , Innate immunity , TLRs , Cytokines
Barry, A., Cronin, O., Ryan, A. M., Sweeney, B., Yap, S. M., O'Toole, O., Allen, A. P., Clarke, G., O'Halloran, K. D. and Downer, E. J. (2016) 'Impact of Exercise on Innate Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis Progression and Symptomatology', Frontiers in Physiology, 7,194 (13 pp). doi:10.3389/fphys.2016.00194
© 2016 Barry, Cronin, Ryan, Sweeney, Yap, O'Toole, Allen, Clarke, O'Halloran and Downer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.