Microbially derived bioactive peptides to improve human health

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Kent, Robert M.
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University College Cork
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This thesis describes a study of various methods to produce bioactive peptides. Initially, the generation of anti-Cronobacter spp. peptides by fermentation of milk protein is described. Lactobacillus johnsonii DPC6026 was used to generate two previously described antimicrobial peptides. Phenotypic analysis indicated unsatisfactory casein hydrolysis. The genome of the strain was sequenced and annotated. Results showed a number of unique features present, most notably a large symmetrical inversion of approximately 750kb in comparison with the human isolate L. johnsonii NCC 533. The data suggest significant genetic diversity and intra-species genomic rearrangements within the L. johnsonii spp.. Cronobacter spp. have emerged as pathogens of concern to the powdered infant formula industry. Chapters 3 and 4 of this thesis describe novel methods to generate two antimicrobial peptides, Caseicin A and B. In Chapter 3 a bank of Bacillus strains was generated and investigated for caseicin production. Following casein hydrolysis by specific B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains the peptides of interest were generated. Chapter 4 describes a sterile enzymatic method to generate peptides from casein. Bioinformatic tools were used to predict enzymes capable of liberating caseicin peptides from casein. Hydrolysates were generated using suitable enzymes, examined and some were found to produce peptides with activity against Cronobacter spp.. This study establishes a potential industrial-grade method to generate antimicrobial peptides. Administration of GLP-1 leads to improved glycaemic control in diabetes patients. Generation of a recombinant lactic acid bacteria capable of producing a GLP-1 analogue is described in Chapter 5. In-vivo analysis confirmed insulinotropic activity. The results illustrate a method using bacteriocin producing cellular machinery to generate bioactive peptides. This thesis describes the generation of bioactive peptides by bacterial fermentation, tailored enzymatic hydrolysis and recombinant bacterial methods. The techniques described contribute to bioactive peptide research with regards novel methods of production and industrial scale-up.
Bioactive peptides , Antimicrobial , Cronobacter , GLP-1 , Diabetes
Kent, R .M. 2014. Microbially derived bioactive peptides to improve human health. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.